Burgess, Paul; Herder, Michael den; Moreno, Gerardo; Pantera, Anastasia; Kanzler, Michael; Hermansen, John; Palma, J.H.N.; Plieninger, Tobias; Kay, Sonia; Mosquera-Losada, Rosa; Liagre, Fabien
Agroforestry in Europe: Practice, Research and Policy
1. The practice of agroforestry in Europe
2.Some research from the AGFORWARD project
3.Some important policy issues
Andrade, Tafnes da S.; Cunha, John E. de B.L.; Galvão, Carlos de O.; Rufino, Iana A.A.
Several spectral indices have been used to estimate droughts, however, these indicators only give evidence of a dry spell leaving out its impacts on significant economic activities performed in a given region. In this context, livestock breeding in one of the most important activities to analyze in the Brazilian semiarid region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the drought indices, obtained through remote sensory devices, and annual milk production (2004 – 2014), identifying the most affected cities by the drought and were considered the most vulnerable and in need of special attention during dry periods....
Pereira, Allan A.; Pereira, José Miguel Cardoso; Libonati, Renata; Oom, Duarte; Setzer, Alberto W.; Morelli, Fabiano; Machado-Silva, Fausto; Carvalho, Luís Marcelo Tavares de
We used the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) active fire data (375 m
spatial resolution) to automatically extract multispectral samples and train a One-Class Support Vector
Machine for burned area mapping, and applied the resulting classification algorithm to 300-m spatial
resolution imagery from the Project for On-Board Autonomy-Vegetation (PROBA-V). The active fire
data were screened to prevent extraction of unrepresentative burned area samples and combined with
surface reflectance bi-weekly composites to produce burned area maps. The procedure was applied
over the Brazilian Cerrado savanna, validated with reference maps obtained from Landsat images and
compared with the Collection 6 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Burned Area
Dolan, Katelyn A.; Hurtt, George C.; Flanagan, Steve A.; Fisk, Justin P.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Huang, Chengquan; Le Page, Yannick; Dubayah, Ralph; Masek, Jeffrey G.
Disturbances, both natural and anthropogenic, are critical determinants of forest structure, function,
and distribution. The vulnerability of forests to potential changes in disturbance rates remains largely
unknown. Here, we developed a framework for quantifying and mapping the vulnerability of forests
to changes in disturbance rates. By comparing recent estimates of observed forest disturbance rates
over a sample of contiguous US forests to modeled rates of disturbance resulting in forest loss, a novel
index of vulnerability, Disturbance Distance, was produced. Sample results indicate that 20% of
current US forestland could be lost if disturbance rates were to double, with southwestern forests
showing highest vulnerability. Under a future climate...
Rivaes, Rui; Boavida, Isabel; Santos, José M.; Pinheiro, António N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa
Environmental flows remain biased toward the
traditional biological group of fish species. Consequently,
these flows ignore the inter-annual flow variability that rules
species with longer lifecycles and therefore disregard the
long-term perspective of the riverine ecosystem. We analyzed
the importance of considering riparian requirements
for the long-term efficiency of environmental flows. For
that analysis, we modeled the riparian vegetation development
for a decade facing different environmental flows
in two case studies. Next, we assessed the corresponding
fish habitat availability of three common fish species in
each of the resulting riparian landscape scenarios. Modeling
results demonstrated that the environmental flows disregarding
riparian vegetation requirements promoted riparian
degradation, particularly vegetation encroachment. Such circumstance
altered the hydraulic characteristics...
Teichert, Nils; Lepage, Mario; Sagouis, Alban; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Schinegger, Rafaela; Segurado, Pedro; Argillier, Christine
The impact of species loss on ecosystems functioning depends on the amount of trait similarity
between species, i.e. functional redundancy, but it is also influenced by the order in which species are
lost. Here we investigated redundancy and sensitivity patterns across fish assemblages in lakes, rivers
and estuaries. Several scenarios of species extinction were simulated to determine whether the loss of
vulnerable species (with high propensity of extinction when facing threats) causes a greater functional
alteration than random extinction. Our results indicate that the functional redundancy tended to
increase with species richness in lakes and rivers, but not in estuaries. We demonstrated that i) in the
Usié, Ana; Simões, Fernanda; Barbosa, Pedro; Meireles, Brígida; Chaves, Inês; Gonçalves, Sónia; Folgado, André; Almeida, Maria Helena; Matos, José; Ramos, António M.
Cork oaks show a high capacity of bud sprouting as a response to injury, which is important
for species survival when dealing with external factors, such as drought or fires. The characterization
of the cork oak transcriptome involved in the different stages of bud sprouting is essential to
understanding the mechanisms involved in these processes. In this study, the transcriptional profile
of different stages of bud sprouting, namely (1) dormant bud and (2) bud swollen, vs. (3) red bud and
(4) open bud, was analyzed in trees growing under natural conditions. The transcriptome analysis
indicated the involvement of genes related with energy production (linking the TCA...
Le Page, Yannick; Morton, Douglas; Hartin, Corinne; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Pereira, José Miguel Cardoso; Hurtt, George; Asrar, Ghassem
Tropical forests have been a permanent feature of the Amazon basin for at least 55 million years,
yet climate change and land use threaten the forest’s future over the next century. Understory forest fires, which
are common under the current climate in frontier forests, may accelerate Amazon forest losses from climatedriven
dieback and deforestation. Far from land use frontiers, scarce fire ignitions and high moisture levels
preclude significant burning, yet projected climate and land use changes may increase fire activity in these
remote regions. Here, we used a fire model specifically parameterized for Amazon understory fires to examine the
interactions between anthropogenic activities and climate under...
Silva, Filipe Costa e
Branco, Manuela; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Sousa, Edmundo
Caldeira, M.Conceição; Lecomte, X.; David, T.S.; Werner, C.; David, J.S.; Rye, R.
Caldeira, M.Conceição; Ibanez, I.; Nogueira, C.; Bugalho, M.N.; Lecomte, X.; Moreira, A.; Pereira, J.S.