Recursos de colección

Universidad Nacional de La Plata (87.302 recursos)

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Documentos de Trabajo del CEDLAS

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 37

  1. A community based program promotes sanitation

    Alzúa, María Laura; Djebbari, Habiba; Pickering, Amy J.
    Basic sanitation facilities are still lacking in large parts of the developing world, engendering serious environmental health risks. Interventions commonly deliver in-kind or cash subsidies to promote private toilet ownership. In this paper, we assess an intervention that provides information and behavioral incentives to encourage villagers in rural Mali to build and use basic latrines. Using an experimental research design and carefully measured indicators of use, we find a sizeable impact from this intervention: latrine ownership and use almost doubled in intervention villages, and open defecation was reduced by half. Our results partially attribute these effects to increased knowledge about...

  2. Efectos educativos de la fecundidad adolescente: evidencia causal a partir de la legalización del aborto en Uruguay

    Alzúa, María Laura; Velázquez Battistessa, Cecilia
    Uruguay registra una fuerte brecha entre las tasas de asistencia escolar de las madres adolescentes y sus pares sin hijos. Este trabajo investiga si esta brecha responde a una relación causal, identificando el impacto de tener un hijo en la adolescencia sobre la asistencia al sistema educativo y la acumulación de capital humano de las jóvenes. Para subsanar el problema de endogeneidad de las decisiones educativas y de fecundidad, se hace uso de la reforma que legalizó el aborto en Uruguay en diciembre de 2012. La reforma convirtió a Uruguay en uno de los primeros países en América Latina –con excepción...

  3. Series comparables de indigencia y pobreza: una propuesta metodológica

    Tornarolli, Leopoldo
    La construcción de series comparables de indigencia y pobreza es un desafío complejo que involucra resolver varios problemas metodológicos, y en algunos de ellos la mejor solución posible es necesariamente imperfecta, dado que la información disponible es insuficiente para aplicar una solución perfecta. No obstante, y considerando la importancia que tiene desde el punto de vista socioeconómico y de la política pública conocer la evolución en el tiempo de la indigencia y la pobreza, este trabajo se propone enfrentar dicho desafío en forma rigurosa, sin dejar de comprender y explicitar las limitaciones impuestas por la información disponible.

  4. Fading out effect or long lasting nudge? The impact of a Conditional Cash Transfer Program beyond starting the school year in Argentina

    Edo, María; Marchionni, Mariana
    We estimate the impact on education outcomes of the Universal Child Allowance (AUH), a massive conditional cash transfer program targeted at young children of unemployed and informal workers launched in Argentina in late 2009. Evidence from previous works suggests that the AUH has had a significant positive impact on attendance rates at the beginning of the school year, but concentrated on boys in upper-secondary school. In this paper we study the effects on other education outcomes: intra-year dropout rates and primary school completion rates. We find that the AUH may be held responsible for significant improvements in both outcomes while...

  5. Desigualdad en países en desarrollo: ¿ajustando las expectativas?

    Gasparini, Leonardo; Bracco, Jessica; Galeano, Luciana; Pistorio, Mariela
    Este trabajo documenta el nivel y la evolución de la desigualdad monetaria en los países del mundo en desarrollo sobre la base de datos de Povcalnet hasta el año 2015. Durante la primera mitad de la actual década la desigualdad se redujo en promedio en las economías en desarrollo, aunque a una tasa sustancialmente menor a la experimentada durante los años dos mil. El nivel promedio actual del coeficiente de Gini se sitúa por encima del valor de principios de los ochenta, lo que evidencia las dificultades en avanzar hacia sociedades con niveles de desigualdad económica significativamente menores.

  6. ICT Adoption in Micro and Small Firms: Can Internet Access Improve Labour Productivity?

    Viollaz, Mariana
    The rapid spread of information and communication technologies may increase firms’ productivity with important consequences for job creation and for economic growth. This article contributes to this discussion by analysing the impact of internet adoption on labour productivity and the mechanisms shaping this relationship in Peruvian micro and small manufacturing firms over the period 2011-2013. The article estimates a reduced form where labour productivity is a function of internet adoption and other explanatory factors. Internet adoption is instrumented using a measure of the availability of financial opportunities for micro and small firms in Peru. Findings indicate that internet adoption: (i) increases...

  7. Linking Armington and CET Elasticities of Substitution and Transformation to Price Elasticities of Import Demand and Export Supply: A Note for CGE Practitioners

    Lofgren, Hans; Cicowiez, Martín
    Armington and constant-elasticity-of-transformation (CET) functions are routinely used in computable general equilibrium (CGE) Models to model foreign trade. The CET function is applied to producer decisions about whether to export and or sell at home. Decisions by domestic demanders whether to purchase imports or domestic output are covered by the Armington function. The Armington function is a constant-elasticity-of-substitution (CES) function. This note is concerned with the links between (a) price elasticities of import demand and constant elasticities of substitution between demand for imports and domestic output; and (b) price elasticities of export supply and constant elasticities of transformation between supply...

  8. Pay Cycles: Individual and Aggregate Effects of Paycheck Frequency

    Berniell, Inés
    This paper shows that the frequency at which workers are paid affects the within-month patterns of both household expenditure and aggregate economic activity. To identify causal effects, I exploit two novel sources of exogenous variation in pay frequency in the US. First, using an as-good-as-random variation in the pay frequency of retired couples, I show that those who are paid more frequently have smoother expenditure paths. Second, I take advantage of crossstate variation in labor laws to compare patterns of economic activity in states in which the frequency with which wages are paid differs. I document that low pay frequencies...

  9. The Labor Market Effects of an Educational Expansion. A Theoretical Model with Applications to Brazil

    Jaume, David
    Most countries are rapidly increasing the educational attainment of their workforce. This paper develops a novel framework to study, theoretically and empirically, the effects of an educational expansion on the occupational structure of employment and distinct aspects of the wage distribution—wage levels, wage gaps, and poverty and inequality indicators—with an application to Brazil. I proceed in three steps. First, I provide some stylized facts of the Brazilian economy between 1995 and 2014: A large educational expansion took place; the occupational structure of employment remained surprisingly fixed; workers of all educational groups—primary or less, secondary, and university—were increasingly employed in occupations...

  10. Poor Little Children: The Socio economic Gap in Parental Responses to School Disadvantage

    Berniell, Inés; Estrada, Ricardo
    In this paper, we study how parents react to a widely-used school policy that puts some children at a learning disadvantage. Specifically, we first document that, in line with findings in other countries, younger children in Spain perform signif- icantly worse at school than their older peers and - key to causal interpretation - that for children born in winter this effect is not due to birth seasonality. Fur- thermore, the age of school entry effect is significantly greater among children from disadvantaged families. To understand why, we analyze detailed data on parental investment and find that college-educated parents increase...

  11. The Impact of a Permanent Income Shock on the Situation of Women in the Household: The Case of a Pension Reform in Argentina

    Berniell, Inés; Mata, Dolores de la; Pinto Machado, Matilde
    Income transfers from social programs are often not gender neutral and should, according to the vast literature on intra-household decision making and allocation, affect the distribution of bargaining power within the household. This result, however, was by and large established under the assumption of marriage stability. If this assumption does not hold, then the positive response of bargaining power to income found in the empirical research may be the artefact of sample selection. One may postulate, however, that when restricted to certain groups in the population, such as seniors, the assumption may hold since their probability of divorce is close...

  12. The Long-run Effects of Teacher Strikes: Evidence from Argentina

    Jaume, David; Willén, Alexander
    This is the first paper to estimate the effect of teacher strikes on student long-run educational attainment and labor market outcomes. We exploit cross-cohort variation in the prevalence of teacher strikes within and across provinces in Argentina in a difference-in-difference framework to examine how exposure to teacher strikes during primary school affects long-run outcomes. We find robust evidence that teacher strikes worsen the labor market outcomes of these individuals when they are between the ages of 30 and 40: being exposed to the average incidence of teacher strikes during primary school (88 days) reduces annual labor market earnings by 2.99...

  13. International Inequality in Subjective Well-Being: An exploration with the Gallup World Poll

    Gluzmann, Pablo Alfredo; Gasparini, Leonardo
    In this paper we compute inequality measures over the distribution of a subjective well-being variable constructed from a life satisfaction question included in the Gallup World Poll in almost all countries in the world. We argue that inequality in subjective well-being may be a better proxy for the degree of unfairness in a society than income inequality. We find evidence that inequality in subjective well-being has an inverse-U relationship with per capita GDP, but it is monotonically decreasing with respect to mean subjective well-being. We argue that this difference might be associated to inequality aversion in the space of utility.

  14. Educational Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility in Latin America: A New Database

    Neidhöfer, Guido; Serrano, Joaquín; Gasparini, Leonardo
    The causes and consequences of the intergenerational persistence of inequality are a topic of great interest among various fields in economics. However, until now, issues of data availability have restricted a broader and cross-national perspective on the topic. Based on rich sets of harmonized household survey data, we contribute to filling this gap computing time series for several indexes of relative and absolute intergenerational education mobility for 18 Latin American countries over 50 years, and making them publicly available. We find that intergenerational mobility has been rising in Latin America, on average. This pattern seems to be driven by the...

  15. Software Impact Employment Composition and the Skill Content of Occupations? Evidence from Chilean Firms

    Almeida, Rita K.; Fernandes, Ana M.; Viollaz, Mariana
    A major concern with the rapid spread of technology is that it replaces some jobs, displacing workers. However, technology may raise firm productivity, generating more jobs. The paper contributes to this debate by exploiting a novel panel data set for Chilean firms in all sectors between 2007 and 2013. While previous studies examine the impacts of automation on the use of routine tasks by middle-educated workers. This study focuses on a measure of complex software that is typically used by more educated workers in cognitive and nonroutine tasks for client, production, and business management. The instrumental variables estimates show that...

  16. El fenómeno de los NiNis en América Latina

    Tornarolli, Leopoldo
    En los últimos años, en particular durante la primera década de este siglo, la mayoría de los países de América Latina mostraron notables mejorías en aspectos económicos y sociales. Entre otros resultados positivos, se verificó que el producto por habitante se incrementó en forma significativa, los mercados laborales de la región lograron absorber a la mayor parte de la fuerza laboral, se redujo el desempleo y los países contaron con recursos fiscales crecientes, los que fueron suficientes para desarrollar y/o ampliar las redes de protección social, incluyendo en las mismas a individuos y familias vulnerables que hasta entonces se encontraban...

  17. Trade Reforms and Industry Wage Premium: Evidence from Argentina

    Falcone, Guillermo; Galeano, Luciana
    This paper studies the impact of Argentina trade liberalization during the nineties on the industry wage premium structure. We find that accounting for unobserved timeinvariant industry characteristics is crucial. When we do not control for industry fixed effects, we find that workers in protected sectors receive lower wages. However, introducing industry fixed effects reverses the results; tariff protection creates sector specific rents that are in part translated to workers in terms of greater wages. Since Argentina’s tariff structure during this period protected relatively more sectors employing higher proportions of skilled workers, nineties trade policy may have had an adverse effect...

  18. Financing the Sustainable Management of Rwanda’s Protected Areas

    Banerjee, Onil; Cicowiez, Martín; Ochuodho, Thomas; Masozera, Michel; Wolde, Bernabas; Lal, Pankaj; Dudek, Sebastian; Alavalapati. Janaki
    Rwanda’s Nyungwe National Park is a biodiversity hotspot with the most endemic species in the ecoregion as well as the highest number of threatened species internationally. In addition to great biological diversity, Nyungwe National Park supplies significant ecosystem services to the Rwandan population including water provisioning and tourism services. Tourism in the Park has strong potential for improving the sustainable management of the Park for continued provision of natural habitat and critical ecosystem services. This paper explores quantitatively the economic impacts of adjustment in Park visitation fees and tourism demand as a source of revenues to improve Park tourism opportunities...

  19. How Is the Internet Changing Labor Market Arrangements? Evidence from Telecommunications Reforms in Europe

    Vazquez, Emmanuel José; Winkler, Hernán Jorge
    This paper exploits variations in the timing of telecommunications reforms across Europe to analyze the relationship between the rise of alternative work arrangements and the emergence of the Internet. The paper evaluates whether sectors that are technologically more dependent on information and communications technologies experienced disproportionately larger changes in their employment outcomes after telecommunications reforms were introduced. The main results point to a disproportionate increase in total employment, parttime work, and home-based work among information and communications technologies–intensive sectors after the implementation of telecommunications reforms. The analysis does not find a link between the incidence of temporary employment, selfemployment, second...

  20. Perceptions of Distributive Justice in Latin America During a Period of Falling Inequality

    Reyes, Germán J.; Gasparini, Leonardo
    In this paper we explore perceptions of distributive justice in Latin America during the 2000s and its relationship with income inequality. In line with the fall in income inequality in the region, we document a widespread, although modest, decrease in the share of the population that believes income distribution is unfair. The fall in the perception of unfairness holds across very heterogeneous groups of the population. Moreover, perceptions evolved in the same direction as income inequality for 17 out of the 18 countries for which microdata is available. Our analysis reveals unfairness perceptions are more correlated with relative measures of income...

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