Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 5.944

  1. Applicability of the “Frame of Reference” approach for environmental monitoring of offshore renewable energy projects

    Garel, Erwan; Rey, Cibran Camba; Ferreira, Óscar; van Koningsveld, Mark
    This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large-scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development....

  2. RISC-KIT: Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolKIT

    Van Dongeren, Ap; Ciavola, Paolo; Viavattene, Christophe; de Kleermaeker, Simone; Martinez, Grit; Ferreira, Óscar; Costa, Cristina; McCall, Robert
    Recent and historic high-impact events have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas. These risks will increase due to climate change and economic development. This requires a re-evaluation of coastal disaster risk reduction DRR strategies and prevention, mitigation and preparedness PMP measures. To this end, the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction formulated the Hyogo Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. By their nature, neither is specific about the methods to be used to assess coastal risks, particularly those risks resulting from dune and structure overtopping, the non-stationarity of surge and flash flood...

  3. RISC-KIT: Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolKIT

    Van Dongeren, Ap; Ciavola, Paolo; Viavattene, Christophe; de Kleermaeker, Simone; Martinez, Grit; Ferreira, Óscar; Costa, Cristina; McCall, Robert
    Recent and historic high-impact events have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas. These risks will increase due to climate change and economic development. This requires a re-evaluation of coastal disaster risk reduction DRR strategies and prevention, mitigation and preparedness PMP measures. To this end, the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction formulated the Hyogo Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. By their nature, neither is specific about the methods to be used to assess coastal risks, particularly those risks resulting from dune and structure overtopping, the non-stationarity of surge and flash flood...

  4. Variability in storm climate along the Gulf of Cadiz: the role of large scale atmospheric forcing and implications to coastal hazards

    Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Benavente, Javier; Laiz, Irene; Del Río, Laura
    In the context of increased coastal hazards due to variability in storminess patterns, the danger of coastal damages and/or morphological changes is related to the sum of sea level conditions, storm surge, maximum wave height and run up values. In order to better understand the physical processes that cause the variability of the above parameters a 44 years reanalysis record (HIPOCAS) was used. The HIPOCAS time-series was validated with real wave and sea-level data using linear and vector correlation methods. In the present work changes in the magnitude, duration, frequency and approach direction of the Atlantic storms over the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula) were identified by computing various storm characteristics such...

  5. Variability in storm climate along the Gulf of Cadiz: the role of large scale atmospheric forcing and implications to coastal hazards

    Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Benavente, Javier; Laiz, Irene; Del Río, Laura
    In the context of increased coastal hazards due to variability in storminess patterns, the danger of coastal damages and/or morphological changes is related to the sum of sea level conditions, storm surge, maximum wave height and run up values. In order to better understand the physical processes that cause the variability of the above parameters a 44 years reanalysis record (HIPOCAS) was used. The HIPOCAS time-series was validated with real wave and sea-level data using linear and vector correlation methods. In the present work changes in the magnitude, duration, frequency and approach direction of the Atlantic storms over the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula) were identified by computing various storm characteristics such...

  6. Contribution of storms to shoreline changes in mesotidal dissipative beaches: case study in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain)

    Puig, María; Del Río, Laura; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Benavente, Javier
    In this study an analysis of storminess and rates of shoreline change is performed and discussed jointly in four geomorphological units of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain) for the period of 1956–2010. For this purpose, storm events are identified based on the following characteristics: wave height above 2.5 m, a minimum duration of 12 h and events with calm periods of less than 24 h were considered as a single event. Subsequently, energy parameters are determined in order to characterize storm-induced impacts. Conversely, geographic information system (GIS) tools are used to measure shoreline changes in aerial photographs and orthophotographs of each site, selecting the high water line as shoreline proxy. Each...

  7. Contribution of storms to shoreline changes in mesotidal dissipative beaches: case study in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain)

    Puig, María; Del Río, Laura; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Benavente, Javier
    In this study an analysis of storminess and rates of shoreline change is performed and discussed jointly in four geomorphological units of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain) for the period of 1956–2010. For this purpose, storm events are identified based on the following characteristics: wave height above 2.5 m, a minimum duration of 12 h and events with calm periods of less than 24 h were considered as a single event. Subsequently, energy parameters are determined in order to characterize storm-induced impacts. Conversely, geographic information system (GIS) tools are used to measure shoreline changes in aerial photographs and orthophotographs of each site, selecting the high water line as shoreline proxy. Each...

  8. Process-based indicators to assess storm induced coastal hazards

    Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Costas, Susana
    Storms are responsible for several hazards (e.g. overwash, erosion, inundation) in coastal areas, leading to the destruction of property and loss of life in populated areas. Various indicators are used to express potential storm impact and describe the associated hazards. The most commonly used indicators include either forcing parameters (e.g. wave height, sea level) or coastal morphologies (e.g. dune height or berm width). Whereas they do not represent the processes associated with storm induced hazards in coastal areas. Alternatively, a hazard could be better characterised if process-based indicators are used instead. Process-based indicators express the result of the forcing mechanisms...

  9. Process-based indicators to assess storm induced coastal hazards

    Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Costas, Susana
    Storms are responsible for several hazards (e.g. overwash, erosion, inundation) in coastal areas, leading to the destruction of property and loss of life in populated areas. Various indicators are used to express potential storm impact and describe the associated hazards. The most commonly used indicators include either forcing parameters (e.g. wave height, sea level) or coastal morphologies (e.g. dune height or berm width). Whereas they do not represent the processes associated with storm induced hazards in coastal areas. Alternatively, a hazard could be better characterised if process-based indicators are used instead. Process-based indicators express the result of the forcing mechanisms...

  10. A framework to include the (inter)dependencies of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in coastal risk assessment

    Cumiskey, Lydia; Priest, Sally; Valchev, Nikolay; Viavattene, Christophe; Costas, Susana; Clarke, Joseph
    Effective coastal risk management often involves the selection and appraisal of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures. Such measures, however, are rarely implemented in isolation and their (inter)dependencies need to be considered to assess the overall contribution to risk reduction. This paper presents a framework that utilises a pathway-based approach to consider such (inter)dependencies. The framework identifies measures that have the potential to directly influence risk reduction (primary measures) at the individual/household level and how these relate to the implementation of other measures (non-primary). These two types of measures are linked using intermediate pathway factors, which aggregate to the effective uptake...

  11. A framework to include the (inter)dependencies of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in coastal risk assessment

    Cumiskey, Lydia; Priest, Sally; Valchev, Nikolay; Viavattene, Christophe; Costas, Susana; Clarke, Joseph
    Effective coastal risk management often involves the selection and appraisal of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures. Such measures, however, are rarely implemented in isolation and their (inter)dependencies need to be considered to assess the overall contribution to risk reduction. This paper presents a framework that utilises a pathway-based approach to consider such (inter)dependencies. The framework identifies measures that have the potential to directly influence risk reduction (primary measures) at the individual/household level and how these relate to the implementation of other measures (non-primary). These two types of measures are linked using intermediate pathway factors, which aggregate to the effective uptake...

  12. Why do we decide to live with risk at the coast?

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Martinez, G.
    Coastal communities have been repeatedly threatened by the ephemeral character of the coast. Morphological changes derived from climate events and sea level oscillations forced the relocation of coastal communities over the past, but never prevented the occupation of this fragile source of wealth. Moreover, the socio-economic impact of high energy events is dramatically increasing due to the growing occupation of the coast, raising the need for rethinking the way disaster risk reduction measures are implemented to ensure effectiveness and acceptance. To illustrate this conflict (occupation versus risk), we explore risk perception in a population located in a fragile segment of the...

  13. Windiness spells in SW Europe since the last glacial maximum

    Costas, Susana; Naughton, Filipa; Goble, Ronald; Renssen, Hans
    Dunefields have a great potential to unravel past regimes of atmospheric circulation as they record direct traces of this component of the climate system. Along the Portuguese coast, transgressive dunefields represent relict features originated by intense and frequent westerly winds that largely contrast with present conditions, clearly dominated by weaker northwesterly winds. Optical dating and subsurface stratigraphy document three age clusters indicating main episodes of dune mobilization during: the last termination (20-11.6 ka), Middle Holocene (5.6 ka), and Late Holocene (1.2-0.98 and 0.4-0.15 ka).We find reconstructed windfields to be analogous during all episodes and dominated by strong westerlies. Yet, larger...

  14. Coastal barrier stratigraphy for Holocene high-resolution sea-level reconstruction

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Leorri, Eduardo
    The uncertainties surrounding present and future sea-level rise have revived the debate around sea-level changes through the deglaciation and mid-to late Holocene, from which arises a need for high-quality reconstructions of regional sea level. Here, we explore the stratigraphy of a sandy barrier to identify the best sea-level indicators and provide a new sea-level reconstruction for the central Portuguese coast over the past 6.5 ka. The selected indicators represent morphological features extracted from coastal barrier stratigraphy, beach berm and dune-beach contact. These features were mapped from high-resolution ground penetrating radar images of the subsurface and transformed into sea-level indicators through...

  15. How did the AD 1755 tsunami impact on sand barriers across the southern coast of Portugal?

    Costa, Pedro J. M.; Costas, Susana; González-Villanueva, R.; Oliveira, M. A.; Roelvink, D.; Andrade, C.; Freitas, M.C.; Cunha, P. P.; Martins, A.; Buylaert, J.-P.; Murray, A.
    Tsunamis are highly energetic events that may destructively impact the coast. Resolving the degree of coastal resilience to tsunamis is extremely difficult and sometimes impossible. In part, our understanding is constrained by the limited number of contemporaneous examples and by the high dynamism of coastal systems. In fact, long-term changes of coastal systems can mask the evidence of past tsunamis, leaving us a short or incomplete sedimentary archive. Here, we present a multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentological, geomorphological and geophysical analyses and numerical modelling of the AD 1755 tsunami flood on a coastal segment located within the southern coast of Portugal....

  16. How did the AD 1755 tsunami impact on sand barriers across the southern coast of Portugal?

    Costa, Pedro J. M.; Costas, Susana; González-Villanueva, R.; Oliveira, M. A.; Roelvink, D.; Andrade, C.; Freitas, M.C.; Cunha, P. P.; Martins, A.; Buylaert, J.-P.; Murray, A.
    Tsunamis are highly energetic events that may destructively impact the coast. Resolving the degree of coastal resilience to tsunamis is extremely difficult and sometimes impossible. In part, our understanding is constrained by the limited number of contemporaneous examples and by the high dynamism of coastal systems. In fact, long-term changes of coastal systems can mask the evidence of past tsunamis, leaving us a short or incomplete sedimentary archive. Here, we present a multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentological, geomorphological and geophysical analyses and numerical modelling of the AD 1755 tsunami flood on a coastal segment located within the southern coast of Portugal....

  17. Prediction of storm impacts on beach and dune systems

    Ciavola, Paolo; Ferreira, Óscar; Dongeren, Ap Van; Vries, Jaap Van Thiel de; Armaroli, Clara; Harley, Mitchell
    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge of storm impacts on low-lying coastlines, including beaches and dunes. It first outlines the complexity of identifying a storm event in an objective manner. The impact of storms on dune ridges is then discussed, making a comparison between research recently carried out in both the USA and Europe. The main impacts of storm events are also reviewed, taking into account the development of overwash processes and breaching of the dune system as well as flooding of the hinterland. The chapter also provides a detailed overview of qualitative and quantitative models of...

  18. Prediction of storm impacts on beach and dune systems

    Ciavola, Paolo; Ferreira, Óscar; Dongeren, Ap Van; Vries, Jaap Van Thiel de; Armaroli, Clara; Harley, Mitchell
    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge of storm impacts on low-lying coastlines, including beaches and dunes. It first outlines the complexity of identifying a storm event in an objective manner. The impact of storms on dune ridges is then discussed, making a comparison between research recently carried out in both the USA and Europe. The main impacts of storm events are also reviewed, taking into account the development of overwash processes and breaching of the dune system as well as flooding of the hinterland. The chapter also provides a detailed overview of qualitative and quantitative models of...

  19. Experiences and results from interdisciplinary collaboration: utilizing qualitative information to formulate disaster risk reduction measures for coastal regions

    Martinez, Grit; Armaroli, Clara; Costas, Susana; Harley, Mitchell D.; Paolisso, Michael
    This paper illustrates both the potential and challenges of interdisciplinary collaboration amongst researchers from the social sciences/humanities and the natural sciences/engineering in formulating disaster risk reduction measures for coastal regions. The authors aim to share their experiences of working across different scientific and engineering disciplines in the EU project RISC-KIT to co-produce disaster risk reduction measures suitable for specific regional and local contexts, in this case two coastal study areas in Europe (Porto Garibaldi, Italy and Rio Formosa, Portugal). An overview of the historic-cultural origins of scientific disciplines is first presented, explaining the historical fragmentation of scientific knowledge into natural and...

  20. Experiences and results from interdisciplinary collaboration: utilizing qualitative information to formulate disaster risk reduction measures for coastal regions

    Martinez, Grit; Armaroli, Clara; Costas, Susana; Harley, Mitchell D.; Paolisso, Michael
    This paper illustrates both the potential and challenges of interdisciplinary collaboration amongst researchers from the social sciences/humanities and the natural sciences/engineering in formulating disaster risk reduction measures for coastal regions. The authors aim to share their experiences of working across different scientific and engineering disciplines in the EU project RISC-KIT to co-produce disaster risk reduction measures suitable for specific regional and local contexts, in this case two coastal study areas in Europe (Porto Garibaldi, Italy and Rio Formosa, Portugal). An overview of the historic-cultural origins of scientific disciplines is first presented, explaining the historical fragmentation of scientific knowledge into natural and...

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