Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 2.184

  1. Applicability of the “Frame of Reference” approach for environmental monitoring of offshore renewable energy projects

    Garel, Erwan; Rey, Cibran Camba; Ferreira, Óscar; van Koningsveld, Mark
    This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large-scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development....

  2. Climatic and geologic controls on the piezometry of the Querença-Silves karst aquifer, Algarve (Portugal)

    Neves, Maria C.; Costa, Luis; Monteiro, José Paulo
    Karst aquifers in semi-arid regions, like Queren double dagger a-Silves (Portugal), are particularly vulnerable to climate variability. For the first time in this region, the temporal structure of a groundwater-level time series (1985-2010) was explored using the continuous wavelet transform. The investigation focused on a set of four piezometers, two at each side of the S. Marcos-Quarteira fault, to demonstrate how each of the two sectors of the aquifer respond to climate-induced patterns. Singular spectral analysis applied to an extended set of piezometers enabled identification of several quasi-periodic modes of variability, with periods of 6.5, 4.3, 3.2 and 2.6 years,...

  3. RISC-KIT: Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolKIT

    Van Dongeren, Ap; Ciavola, Paolo; Viavattene, Christophe; de Kleermaeker, Simone; Martinez, Grit; Ferreira, Óscar; Costa, Cristina; McCall, Robert
    Recent and historic high-impact events have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas. These risks will increase due to climate change and economic development. This requires a re-evaluation of coastal disaster risk reduction DRR strategies and prevention, mitigation and preparedness PMP measures. To this end, the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction formulated the Hyogo Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. By their nature, neither is specific about the methods to be used to assess coastal risks, particularly those risks resulting from dune and structure overtopping, the non-stationarity of surge and flash flood...

  4. RISC-KIT: Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolKIT

    Van Dongeren, Ap; Ciavola, Paolo; Viavattene, Christophe; de Kleermaeker, Simone; Martinez, Grit; Ferreira, Óscar; Costa, Cristina; McCall, Robert
    Recent and historic high-impact events have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas. These risks will increase due to climate change and economic development. This requires a re-evaluation of coastal disaster risk reduction DRR strategies and prevention, mitigation and preparedness PMP measures. To this end, the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction formulated the Hyogo Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. By their nature, neither is specific about the methods to be used to assess coastal risks, particularly those risks resulting from dune and structure overtopping, the non-stationarity of surge and flash flood...

  5. Process-based indicators to assess storm induced coastal hazards

    Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Costas, Susana
    Storms are responsible for several hazards (e.g. overwash, erosion, inundation) in coastal areas, leading to the destruction of property and loss of life in populated areas. Various indicators are used to express potential storm impact and describe the associated hazards. The most commonly used indicators include either forcing parameters (e.g. wave height, sea level) or coastal morphologies (e.g. dune height or berm width). Whereas they do not represent the processes associated with storm induced hazards in coastal areas. Alternatively, a hazard could be better characterised if process-based indicators are used instead. Process-based indicators express the result of the forcing mechanisms...

  6. Process-based indicators to assess storm induced coastal hazards

    Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Costas, Susana
    Storms are responsible for several hazards (e.g. overwash, erosion, inundation) in coastal areas, leading to the destruction of property and loss of life in populated areas. Various indicators are used to express potential storm impact and describe the associated hazards. The most commonly used indicators include either forcing parameters (e.g. wave height, sea level) or coastal morphologies (e.g. dune height or berm width). Whereas they do not represent the processes associated with storm induced hazards in coastal areas. Alternatively, a hazard could be better characterised if process-based indicators are used instead. Process-based indicators express the result of the forcing mechanisms...

  7. Why do we decide to live with risk at the coast?

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Martinez, G.
    Coastal communities have been repeatedly threatened by the ephemeral character of the coast. Morphological changes derived from climate events and sea level oscillations forced the relocation of coastal communities over the past, but never prevented the occupation of this fragile source of wealth. Moreover, the socio-economic impact of high energy events is dramatically increasing due to the growing occupation of the coast, raising the need for rethinking the way disaster risk reduction measures are implemented to ensure effectiveness and acceptance. To illustrate this conflict (occupation versus risk), we explore risk perception in a population located in a fragile segment of the...

  8. Coastal barrier stratigraphy for Holocene high-resolution sea-level reconstruction

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Leorri, Eduardo
    The uncertainties surrounding present and future sea-level rise have revived the debate around sea-level changes through the deglaciation and mid-to late Holocene, from which arises a need for high-quality reconstructions of regional sea level. Here, we explore the stratigraphy of a sandy barrier to identify the best sea-level indicators and provide a new sea-level reconstruction for the central Portuguese coast over the past 6.5 ka. The selected indicators represent morphological features extracted from coastal barrier stratigraphy, beach berm and dune-beach contact. These features were mapped from high-resolution ground penetrating radar images of the subsurface and transformed into sea-level indicators through...

  9. Prediction of storm impacts on beach and dune systems

    Ciavola, Paolo; Ferreira, Óscar; Dongeren, Ap Van; Vries, Jaap Van Thiel de; Armaroli, Clara; Harley, Mitchell
    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge of storm impacts on low-lying coastlines, including beaches and dunes. It first outlines the complexity of identifying a storm event in an objective manner. The impact of storms on dune ridges is then discussed, making a comparison between research recently carried out in both the USA and Europe. The main impacts of storm events are also reviewed, taking into account the development of overwash processes and breaching of the dune system as well as flooding of the hinterland. The chapter also provides a detailed overview of qualitative and quantitative models of...

  10. Prediction of storm impacts on beach and dune systems

    Ciavola, Paolo; Ferreira, Óscar; Dongeren, Ap Van; Vries, Jaap Van Thiel de; Armaroli, Clara; Harley, Mitchell
    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge of storm impacts on low-lying coastlines, including beaches and dunes. It first outlines the complexity of identifying a storm event in an objective manner. The impact of storms on dune ridges is then discussed, making a comparison between research recently carried out in both the USA and Europe. The main impacts of storm events are also reviewed, taking into account the development of overwash processes and breaching of the dune system as well as flooding of the hinterland. The chapter also provides a detailed overview of qualitative and quantitative models of...

  11. Use of a Bayesian Network for coastal hazards, impact and disaster risk reduction assessment at a coastal barrier (Ria Formosa, Portugal)

    Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar
    Coastal communities are threatened by the impact of severe storms that may cause significant loss or damage of property and life. The main processes causing such impacts at sandy coastlines and nearby coastal communities are storm erosion, overwash and inundation. Coastal response under present conditions and under predicted climate change has been frequently assessed on the basis of numerical models, which in turn can be also used to evaluate the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures to mitigate the response of the coast to the imposed conditions. However, detailed morphodynamic models are computationally expensive and not commonly used by...

  12. Storm-induced risk assessment: evaluation of two tools at the regional and hotspot scale

    Ferreira, Óscar; Viavattene, C.; Jiménez, J. A.; Bolle, A.; das Neves, L.; Plomaritis, T. A.; McCall, R.; van Dongeren, A. R.
    Coastal zones are under increasing risk as coastal hazards increase due to climate change and the consequences of these also increase due to on-going economic development. To effectively deal with this increased risk requires the development of validated tools to identify coastal areas of higher risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures. This paper analyses the performance in the application of two tools which have been developed in the RISC-KIT project: the regional Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) and a hotspot early warning system coupled with a decision support system (EWS/DSS). The paper discusses the...

  13. Regional assessment of storm related overwash and breaching hazards on coastal barriers

    Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Ferreira, Óscar; Costas, Susana
    Coastal communities are threatened by the impact of severe storms that may cause significant loss of life and damage to properties. Among the main processes behind such impacts on coastal barriers are the occurrence of overwash and breaching during storm events. In order to estimate potential losses associated with a particular event, the above processes must be properly parameterized. Here, we propose a novel methodology to estimate overwash and breaching hazards suitable for a regional scale analysis (Ø 100 km). For the overwash hazard assessment, the method is based on the application of the approach developed by Donnelly (2008) that...

  14. Historical analysis of storm events: case studies in France, England, Portugal and Italy

    Garnier, E.; Ciavola, P.; Spencer, T.; Ferreira, Óscar; Armaroli, C.; McIvor, A.
    An historical analysis of the occurrence of storms and their damage intensity is presented. The work analysed historical large-scale events from The Middle Ages to the 1960s at case study sites along the coasts of North Norfolk (UK); Charente-Maritime and Vendée (France); Cinque Terre-Liguria coast (Italy); Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy) and Ria Formosa (Portugal). The work presented here used a database of events built by the RISC-KIT project, including the characteristics of the storms as well as recorded human impacts. Historical records can provide an important test bed to complement the statistical analysis of the return period of events based on...

  15. Historical analysis of storm events: case studies in France, England, Portugal and Italy

    Garnier, E.; Ciavola, P.; Spencer, T.; Ferreira, Óscar; Armaroli, C.; McIvor, A.
    An historical analysis of the occurrence of storms and their damage intensity is presented. The work analysed historical large-scale events from The Middle Ages to the 1960s at case study sites along the coasts of North Norfolk (UK); Charente-Maritime and Vendée (France); Cinque Terre-Liguria coast (Italy); Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy) and Ria Formosa (Portugal). The work presented here used a database of events built by the RISC-KIT project, including the characteristics of the storms as well as recorded human impacts. Historical records can provide an important test bed to complement the statistical analysis of the return period of events based on...

  16. Selecting coastal hotspots to storm impacts at the regional scale: a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework

    Viavattene, C.; Jiménez, J. A.; Ferreira, Óscar; Priest, S.; Owen, D.; McCall, R.
    Managing coastal risk at the regional scale requires a prioritization of resources along the shoreline. A transparent and rigorous risk assessment should inform managers and stakeholders in their choices. This requires advances in modelling assessment (e.g., consideration of source and pathway conditions to define the probability of occurrence, nonlinear dynamics of the physical processes, better recognition of systemic impacts and non-economic losses) and open-source tools facilitating stakeholders' engagement in the process. This paper discusses how the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) has been developed as part of the Resilience Increasing Strategies for Coasts Toolkit (RISC-KIT). The framework provides two levels of...

  17. Selecting coastal hotspots to storm impacts at the regional scale: a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework

    Viavattene, C.; Jiménez, J. A.; Ferreira, Óscar; Priest, S.; Owen, D.; McCall, R.
    Managing coastal risk at the regional scale requires a prioritization of resources along the shoreline. A transparent and rigorous risk assessment should inform managers and stakeholders in their choices. This requires advances in modelling assessment (e.g., consideration of source and pathway conditions to define the probability of occurrence, nonlinear dynamics of the physical processes, better recognition of systemic impacts and non-economic losses) and open-source tools facilitating stakeholders' engagement in the process. This paper discusses how the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) has been developed as part of the Resilience Increasing Strategies for Coasts Toolkit (RISC-KIT). The framework provides two levels of...

  18. The morphosedimentary behaviour of a headland–beach system: quantifying sediment transport using fluorescent tracers

    Oliveira, Sónia; Moura, Delminda; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, C.
    Embayed beaches occurring along rocky coasts with headlands controlling hydrosedimentary processes are considered to be constrained sedimentary systems with little longshore sediment transfer between them. Such beaches are likely to narrow under rising sea level and a deficit of fluvial sediment, and because beaches act to dissipate wave energy, cliff erosion is expected to increase. Knowledge of hydrosedimentary processes in fetch-limited environments such as embayed beaches is therefore a fundamental management tool in erosionprone coastal areas such as the Algarve region (southern Portugal). The main objective of this work is to quantify longshore sediment transport (LST) using a sedimentary tracer and compare the results with the...

  19. The morphosedimentary behaviour of a headland–beach system: quantifying sediment transport using fluorescent tracers

    Oliveira, Sónia; Moura, Delminda; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, C.
    Embayed beaches occurring along rocky coasts with headlands controlling hydrosedimentary processes are considered to be constrained sedimentary systems with little longshore sediment transfer between them. Such beaches are likely to narrow under rising sea level and a deficit of fluvial sediment, and because beaches act to dissipate wave energy, cliff erosion is expected to increase. Knowledge of hydrosedimentary processes in fetch-limited environments such as embayed beaches is therefore a fundamental management tool in erosionprone coastal areas such as the Algarve region (southern Portugal). The main objective of this work is to quantify longshore sediment transport (LST) using a sedimentary tracer and compare the results with the...

  20. Chemical stressors in the Guadiana River

    Bebianno, Maria João; Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Veiga-Pires, C.
    The Guadiana River,the fourth major river of the Iberian Peninsula,represents an important aquatic system from a socio,geo and ecological point of view for Portugal and Spain. Important economic activities such as agriculture,tourism and aquaculture are present along with several economic facilities such as harbour (commercial and fishing),marina and small shipyards for construction and repair of small vessels.All these activities generate wastes some of them toxic to the aquatic environment.

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