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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.279 recursos)
2013-14 Mershon Center Speakers
2013-14 Mershon Center Speakers
Ravi Komarraju will deliver a small guest lecture at the Mershon Center focusing on the recent election in India and its possible effects on Indian domestic and foreign policy.
The war with al-Qaida is not over. Despite the best efforts of three U.S. presidents, the engagement of the world's most competent and effective militaries, and counter-terrorism campaigns supported and carried out by the international community, al-Qaida has grown in strength and reach over the past 20 years. How an organization without territory and without the institutions and protections of a nation-state has managed to thrive under constant pressure from almost every country on the globe demands explanation. It is also vital for our security that we understand al-Qaida’s likely future courses of action. While there are many ways to...
When government leaders have made major investments to a foreign or security policy, how do they respond to signals that the policy is failing? Exploration of four cases involving Lyndon Johnson (Vietnam), MacKenzie King (Canadian-U.S. free trade), Ariel Sharon (Israeli settlements), and George W. Bush (Iraq war) offer possible insights into critical factors hypothesized to influence their response.
An important body of new work in comparative politics suggests a causal relationship between inequality, distributive conflict and changes both to and from democratic rule. However, we show that inequality does not appear to be associated with regime change. Moreover, the incidence of both democratic transitions and reversions to authoritarian rule that show signs of distributive conflict is small, accounting for less than half of all transitions during the "third wave" of democratization from 1980 to 2010. In this chapter of a book with Robert Kaufman, Haggard considers the role of social organization in distributive conflict transitions, contrasting them with...
This presentation will explain the rise of personalized, large-scale publics in which diverse populations address the common problems of our times such as economic fairness and climate change. These episodes of mass engagement often entail diminished or modified roles for conventional organizations such as parties, NGOs, or movement groups that orchestrated most of political life in the 20th century. In some cases, formal brick and mortar organizations are almost absent, as in digitally mediated crowds such as Occupy Wall Street, in which dispersed local camps were coordinated through numerous technology platforms that enabled the flow of inclusive discourses such as...
Paul shows that excessive war-making efforts have drained Pakistan's limited economic resources without making the country safer or more stable. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of Pakistan's insecurity predicament drawing from the literatures in history, sociology, religious studies, and international relations. It is the first book to apply the "war-making and state-making" literature to explain Pakistan's weak state syndrome. It also compares Pakistan with other national security states, Turkey, Egypt, Indonesia, Taiwan and Korea and their different trajectories.
Why is it that some social movements engaged in contention experience radicalization of member factions, whereas others do not? The fact that in the vast majority of cases opposition movements experience a shift to political violence on the part of one or more organization must not lead us to overlook "exceptions to the rule." Indeed, there are times when violent-prone ideologies and aggressive propensities do not translate into violent mode of contention. To explain those exceptions, I argue that relational mechanisms mediate the influence of motives for aggression and ideologies that justify violence on actual engagement in violence, through their...
Laich, Dennis; Mansoor, Peter; Mueller, John
"The United States has maintained an All-Volunteer Force (AVF) for its armed services for nearly 41 years. However, changes in demographics, military costs, and the national security environment raise the issue of whether the AVF can adapt to and overcome its current challenges. The goal of this event is to create dialogue on the subject of AVF, a topic critical to our nation’s future. This panel will highlight key aspects of the current discussion about the United States’ All-Volunteer Force in the context of fairness, efficacy, and sustainability by addressing differing points of view regarding this topic. This event will feature...
Global Crisis examines how a fatal synergy between climate change and human inflexibility eradicated one-third of the planet's human population and unleashed an unparalleled spate of wars, invasions, and revolutions. Personal accounts and scientific data alike show how extreme weather disrupted growing seasons and destroyed harvests, bringing hunger, malnutrition, forced migration, and disease, and then, as material conditions worsened, economic chaos, political anarchy, and social collapse. The Global Crisis of the 17th century killed tens of millions of people. A natural catastrophe of similar proportions today – whether or not humans are to blame – will kill billions, produce dislocation and...
Carpenter will speak on human security networks and the role of agenda-setting. Her research centers on the role of network structure in norm development, and contributes to the growing engagement by International Relations scholars with network theory as a theory, rather than as a metaphor for alternate forms of governance. She is particularly interested in how changes in information technology are both enhancing and also constituting networked forms of governance in the human security area.
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This presentation focuses upon the contribution of African colonies to the Free French war effort of General Charles de Gaulle. Jennings contends that in its early years, between 1940 and 1942, the heart of Free France was not located in London, as standard accounts would have us believe, but rather in what was then known as French Equatorial Africa and French Cameroon. Britain did not provide the movement with the majority of its soldiers, raw materials, national territory, nor even its legitimacy and sovereignty. Territorially, Free France spanned from the Libyan border down to the Congo River, and to the...
In contrast to prevalent theories of "terrorism," Maney will present a contention-oriented approach to understanding political violence against civilians. To illustrate and to support this approach, the speaker will present findings from quantitative analyses of a multi-source database of civilian deaths taking place in Northern Ireland between 1966 and 2006. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the study’s implications for scholars and conflict transformation practitioners.
Cooperation in public goods problems shapes the functioning and long-term fate of political and economic systems. We investigate the determinants of cooperative behavior and individuals' strategy types in mass populations. We fielded large-scale representative surveys in four industrially advanced countries (France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and included a public goods game that provides us with behavioral measures of cooperation. We find that socio-demographic factors, such as age, income, or education, largely fail to predict individual contributions but that expectations about the contributions of others are strong predictors of one's own contribution. We provide experimental evidence that...
Nguyen, Lien Hang
Although the Tet Offensive represented a major turning point in the Vietnam War, much of North Vietnam’s decision making surrounding the offensive remains unclear. Based on recently declassified materials from Vietnam, this paper reveals how North Vietnamese domestic politics and foreign relations influenced Hanoi’s strategy deliberation for the 1968 offensive.
The contemporary CIA more closely resembles Hollywood's fictional portrayal than the institution envisioned by the Truman administration and Congress in 1947. During the initial Cold War years, a confluence of bureaucratic politics, individual initiatives, and strategic preferences rapidly and radically transformed the CIA's identity from an agency established to collect and analyze intelligence to one preoccupied with covert and paramilitary operations. This legacy of distorted purpose continues to plague the CIA today. With the onset of the Global War on Terror it has evolved into what journalists describe as a "Killing Machine." This talk by Richard H. Immerman traces this...
After September 11, 2001, the Federal Bureau of Investigation greatly increased its efforts at, and changed its approach to, counter-terrorism. This talk explores the abrupt rise and continuing persistence of official fears of terrorism. Important in this is the effect of the "threat matrix" that coordinates and drives the quest to follow up 5000 almost entirely fruitless "threats" each day, a process some in the FBI call "ghost-chasing." In the process, an estimate is made about how many terrorist acts would have had to have been committed in the United States but for the intelligence and policing efforts of the...
Like the U.S.-Japan relationship, China’s Gordian knot with its only Northeast Asian ally, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, remains fundamentally stable even as it sits on the cusp of irreversible change. This presentation will investigate Beijing and Pyongyang’s mutual feelings of suppressed anger and ongoing dependency, beginning with a gloss on new documents from the PRC Foreign Ministry Archive focusing on overseas Chinese in North Korea and the peculiar regard of the Kim family (and the Korean Workers' Party) toward the Chinese Communist Party, allowing for a baseline of continuity in how we regard the relationship.
In this talk, Nabli provides a broad perspective and a comprehensive view about the origins and causes of the New Arab Awakening. He suggests that in order to understand the Arab Spring or New Arab Awakening, we need to place it in the long historical context of the political and economic developments at least since the 1950's or the post-independence era. A review of the various stages of the political, social and economic experience will be presented with its successes and failures. Nabli also suggests using the analogy with financial crises and distinguish between vulnerabilities and immediate triggers in order...
Chestnut Greitens, Sheena
How do autocrats construct their coercive apparatus, and why do these institutions engage in different levels of violence and repression? Despite a wave of recent interest in authoritarian politics, the origins, design, and behavior of coercive institutions that embody the state's monopoly on violence remain relatively unexamined. This project examines the origins and operation of the coercive apparatus in three Cold War anticommunist authoritarian regimes -- Taiwan, the Philippines, and South Korea. She argues that autocrats face an organizational trade-off between designing their internal security apparatus to deal with a popular threat, or coup-proofing it to defend against elite rivals.