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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (11.029 recursos)

No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

UIE-E - Unidade de Investigação em Eco-Etologia

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 59

  1. Sexo, mentiras e handicaps: Reflexões sobre os mecanismos de selecção sexual

    Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    No presente artigo o autor revê os diferentes modelos de selecção sexual, nomeadamente a teoria dos descendentes atractivos, a teoria dos bons genes e a teoria do enviezamento sensorial. E analisado o caso particular da possível acção dos mecanismos de selecção sexual nos sistemas de reprodução em arenas, nas quais os machos se agregam para cortejar, uma vez que estes sistemas potenciam a competição entre os machos e as situações de escolha de parceiros sexuais por parte das fêmeas. Neste contexto é dada especial atenção a dois fenómenos: (a) a possível existência de mecanismos de escolha passivos por parte das fêmeas que gerem padrões consitentes de preferências, como é o caso conhecido...

  2. Threatened fishes of the world: Cottus hispaniolensis bacescu-mester, 1964 (cottidae)

    Santos, Carla Sousa; Robalo, Joana Isabel; Pereira, Ana Martins; Doadrio, Ignacio
    Cottus hispaniolensis is a critically endangered cottid fish which is endemic from the Pyrenanean Garonne river basin.

  3. The importance of novelty: Male–female interactions among blue-black grassquits in captivity

    Dias, Raphael I.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Podos, Jeffrey; Macedo, Regina H.
    Mate choice is a primary mechanism driving the evolution of sexually selected traits such as elabo-rate displays and ornaments. In a majority of taxa studied to date, females are seen to actively sampleand evaluate multiple males, presumably to optimize mating opportunities. During this process femalesmay encounter males both familiar and novel, a distinction that might influence how mate choice pro-ceeds. Using a socially monogamous passerine, the blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina), we studiedhow females respond to novel versus familiar (“paired”) males, and how encounters with novel malesinfluence subsequent interactions with their paired males. Additionally, we measured the hormonalresponse of males after...

  4. Evaluating green infrastructure in urban environments using a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach

    Pinho, Pedro; Correia, Otília; Lecoq, Miguel; Munzi, Silvana; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Gonçalves, Paula; Rebelo, Rui; Antunes, Cristina; Silva, Patrícia; Freitas, Catarina; Lopes, Nuno; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina
    Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficient. However, this approach assumes that all types of green cover have the same importance for species. Our aim was to show that not all forested green areas are equal in importance for species, but that based on a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach it is possible...

  5. When males are more inclined to stay at home :Insights into the partial migration of a pelagic seabird provided by geolocators and isotopes

    Perez, Cristóbal; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Dias, Maria P.; Alonso, Hany Rafael de Drummond Ludovice Garcia; Catry, Paulo
    Partial migration has never been studied in pelagic seabirds, but investigating old unresolved questions in new contexts can provide useful fresh insights. We used geolocators and stable isotopes to investigate this phenomenon in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea). Although most birds migrated to the southern hemisphere, 8.1% of studied birds (N = 172) remained close to the breeding colony (Selvagem Grande, Madeira, Portugal), foraging within the Canary current. Almost all resident birds were males, while age or body size did not predict migratory status. Despite displaying a high repeatability (R = 0.72) in the choice of wintering area, residency was not a fixed strategy and...

  6. Tidal variation in a rocky inter-tidal fish population : The case of white seabream Diplodus sargus juveniles

    Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Sousa, Liliana Carvalho; Coelho, Pedro Duarte; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    The rocky inter-tidal habitat is a harsh and fluctuating environment, subject tofrequent disturbances. Field observations of juvenile white seabream Diplodussargus in inter-tidal rocky habitats were conducted to analyse the spatial distri-bution and feeding activity of this species in relation to the tidal cycle. Thedepth at which fish were observed did not change in most tidal phases whilefeeding activity changed with tidal level, showing the occurrence of tidal migra-tions and that feeding may be limited by habitat availability in shallow watersand thus be dependent on tidal changes. The present results show the exploita-tion of available feeding areas in the rocky inter-tidal...

  7. Age-related variation in foraging behaviour in the wandering albatross at south georgia : No evidence for senescence

    Froy, Hannah; Lewis, Sue; Catry, Paulo; Bishop, Charles M.; Forster, Isaac P.; Fukuda, Akira; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Phalan, Ben; Xavier, José C.; Nussey, Daniel H.; Phillips, Richard A.
    Age-related variation in demographic rates is now widely documented in wild vertebrate systems, and has significant consequences for population and evolutionary dynamics. However, the mechanisms underpinning such variation, particularly in later life, are less well understood. Foraging efficiency is a key determinant of fitness, with implications for individual life history trade-offs. A variety of faculties known to decline in old age, such as muscular function and visual acuity, are likely to influence foraging performance. We examine age-related variation in the foraging behaviour of a long-lived, wide-ranging oceanic seabird, the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. Using miniaturised tracking technologies, we compared foraging trip characteristics of birds breeding at Bird Island,...

  8. Development and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus

    Santos, Carla Sousa; Fonseca, Paulo Jorge; Amorim, Maria Clara Pessoa
    The Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus is an eastern Atlantic polygynous species showing male paternal care. In this paper we describe 5 novel microsatellite loci obtained by 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched library. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied between 2 and 4, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.082 to 0.600. No significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was found and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium. These markers will be of great value for paternity studies and population genetics of this species.

  9. Neurogenomic mechanisms of social plasticity

    Cardoso, Sara D.; Teles, Magda; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    Group-living animals must adjust the expression of their social behaviour to changes in their social environment and to transitions between life-history stages, and this social plasticity can be seen as an adaptive trait that can be under positive selection when changes in the environment outpace the rate of genetic evolutionary change. Here, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding the neuromolecular mechanisms of social plasticity. According to this framework, social plasticity is achieved by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of a neural network underlying social behaviour in response to perceived social information. Therefore, at the molecular level, it depends on the social regulation of gene expression, so that different genomic...

  10. Arginine vasotocin reduces levels of cooperative behaviour in a cleaner fish

    Cardoso, Sónia C.; Paitio, José R.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Bshary, Redouan; Soares, Marta C.
    Cooperation between unrelated individuals usually involves investments that often mean a decrease in immediate payoffs, but ensure future benefits. Here we investigated the potential role of the neuropeptides Arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and Isotocin (IT) as proximate agents affecting individuals' cooperative levels in the Indo-pacific bluestreak cleanerwrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Their ‘client’ reef fish partners only benefit from interacting if cleaners eat ectoparasites and refrain from gleaning preferred clientmucus. Thus, cleaners must control their impulse to eat according to their preference, and eat less preferred items to maintain ongoing interactions and avoid clients' leaving or punishing. We found that solely the experimental transient higher dosage of AVT led to...

  11. Androgen modulation of social decision-making mechanisms in the brain : An integrative and embodied perspective

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    Apart from their role in reproduction androgens also respond to social challenges and this response has been seen as a way to regulate the expression of behavior according to the perceived social environment (Challenge hypothesis, Wingfield et al., 1990). This hypothesis implies that social decision-making mechanisms localized in the central nervous system (CNS) are open to the influence of peripheral hormones that ultimately are under the control of the CNS through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, two puzzling questions emerge at two different levels of biological analysis: (1) Why does the brain, which perceives the social environment and regulates androgen production...

  12. Biomares, a LIFE project to restore and manage the biodiversity of Prof. Luiz Saldanha Marine Park

    Cunha, Alexandra H.; Erzini, Karim; Serrão, Ester A.; Gonçalves, Emanuel João; Borges, Rita Alexandra; Henriques, Miguel; Henriques, Victor; Guerra, Miriam; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbá, Núria; Fonseca, Mark
    The Marine Park Prof. Luiz Saldanha, in the coast of Arrábida, is the first marine park in continental Portugal. This area is a Nature 2000 site and is considered to be a hotspot for European marine biodiversity. In 2005, the management plan of the park was implemented, ending several habitat menaces, thereby allowing an application to the LIFE—NATURE Programme. The LIFE-BIOMARES project aimed at the restoration and management of the biodiversity of the marine park through several actions. The restoration of the seagrass prairies that were completely destroyed by fishing activities and recreational boating, was one of the most challenging. It included the transplanting of seagrasses from donor populations and the germination...

  13. From the past to the future : Natural sound recordings and the preservation of the bioacoustics legacy in Portugal

    Marques, Paulo A. M.; Magalhães, Daniel M; Pereira, Susana F.; Jorge, Paulo
    The preservation of historical and contemporary data safeguards our scientific legacy. Bioacoustic recordings can have historical as well as scientific value and should be assessed for their conservation requirements. Unpreserved bioacoustics recordings are generally not referenced and are frequently at high risk of loss by material degradation and/or by misplacement. In this study we investigated the preservation status of sets of natural sound recordings made in Portugal from 1983 until 2010 inclusive. We evaluated the recordings on the basis of their rate of loss, the degree to which unpreserved recordings could be preserved, and their risk of loss. Recordists of animal sounds were surveyed (by questionnaire or interview)...

  14. Ichthyofauna of the Selvagens Islands. Do small coastal areas show high species richness in the northeastern Atlantic?

    Almada, Frederico; Abecasis, David; Villegas-Ríos, David; Henriques, Sofia; Pais, Miguel P.; Batista, Marisa I.; Costa, Bárbara Horta e; Martins, Joana; Tojeira, Inês; Rodrigues, Nuno Vasco; Araújo, Ricardo; Souto, Miguel; Alonso, Hany Rafael de Drummond Ludovice Garcia; Falcón, Jesús M.; Henriques, Filipe; Catry, Paulo; Cabral, Henrique; Biscoito, Manuel; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    The Selvagens Islands are located in the northeastern Atlantic between the Canary Islands and Madeira Island. As a result of their small size, remote location and harsh sea conditions only a few studies have been conducted to describe their marine species diversity. We were able to identify 29 new coastal fish species, an increase of 33% in the ichthyofauna described for these islands (n = 88). There is a prevalence of species with tropical affinities and only 2.3% (n = 2) are endemic to Macaronesia. Considered a stepping-stone colonization vector from the nearest continental shore, as proposed by other authors for this region, the Selvagens...

  15. Different stocks of brook lamprey in Spain and their origin from Lampetra fluviatilis at two distinct times and places

    Pereira, Ana Martins; Doadrio, Ignacio; Robalo, Joana Isabel; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
    Using the mitochondrial non-coding region I, it was shown that the two Spanish Lampetra planeri populations (Cares–Deva and Olabidea–Ugarana) correspond to different genetic units. The Cares–Deva population is probably a recent offshoot of Lampetra fluviatilis, being the Olabidea–Ugarana population less diverse and of older origin.

  16. Metapopulations in temporary streams - The role of drought-flood cycles in promoting high genetic diversity in a critically endangered freshwater fish and its consequences for the future

    Santos, Carla Sousa; Robalo, Joana Isabel; Francisco, Sara Martins; Carrapato, Carlos; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Doadrio, Ignacio
    Genetic factors have direct and indirect impacts in the viability of endangered species. Assessing their genetic diversity levels and population structure is thus fundamental for conservation and management. In this paper we use mitochondria] and nuclear markers to address phylogeographic and demographic data on the critically endangered Anaecypris hispanica, using a broad sampling set which covered its known distribution area in the Iberian Peninsula. Our results showed that the populations of A. hispanica are strongly differentiated (high and significant Phi(ST) and F-ST values, corroborated by the results from AMOVA and SAMOVA) and genetically diversified. We suggest that the restricted gene...

  17. Phylogeographic pattern and glacial refugia of a rocky shore species with limited dispersal capability: the case of Montagu’s blenny (Coryphoblennius galerita, Blenniidae)

    Francisco, Sara Martins; Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Faria, Cláudia Barreiros Macedo de; Velasco, Eva Maria; Robalo, Joana Isabel
    Phylogeographic patterns among coastal fishes are expected to be influenced by distinct ecological, biological and life history traits, along with historical events and oceanography (past and present). This study focuses on the broad range phylogeography of the Montagu’s blenny Coryphoblennius galerita, a species with well-known ecological features, strictly tied to rocky environments and with limited dispersal capability. Eleven locations from the western Mediterranean to the Bay of Biscay (including the Macaronesian archipelagos) were sampled. Mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) and the first intron of the S7 ribosomal protein gene were used to address the population structure, the signatures of expansion/contraction events retained in the genealogies and potential glacial refugia. The genetic diversity of the...

  18. Photoperiod modulation of aggressive behavior is independent of androgens in a tropical cichlid fish

    Gonçalves-de-Freitas, Eliane; Billalba Carvalho, Thaís; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    Photoperiod is a major environmental cue that signals breeding conditions in animals living in temperate climates. Therefore, the activity of the reproductive (i.e. hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal, HPG) axis and of the expression of reproductive behaviors, including territoriality, is responsive to changes in day length. However, at low latitudes the seasonal variation in day length decreases dramatically and photoperiod becomes less reliable as a breeding entraining cue in tropical species. In spite of this, some tropical mammals and birds have been found to still respond to small amplitude changes in photoperiod (e.g. 17 min). Here we tested the effect of 2 photoperiod regimes, referred to as long-day (LD: 16L:08D)...

  19. Castration affects reproductive but not aggressive behavior in a cichlid fish

    Almeida, Olinda; Canário, Adelino V. M.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    Gonads are the main source of sex steroids, which have been implicated in the regulation of sexually differentiated behavior, such as reproductive and aggressive displays. In the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) territorial males have higher androgen levels than non-territorials, express reproductive behavior and use a urine-borne pheromone to signal their social status towards conspecifics. Here we investigated the effects of gonadectomy on the circulating levels of androgens and cortisol, and on the expression of aggressive and reproductive behavior (nest building, courtship behavior, and nuptial coloration). Males were either castrated, urine bladder damaged, or sham-operated and visually exposed to a group of females during 8 consecutive days and...

  20. Spatial heterogeneity in the Mediterranean Biodiversity Hotspot affects barcoding accuracy of its freshwater fishes

    Geiger, Matthias F.; Herder, Fabian; Monaghan, Michael T.; Almada, Vítor Carvalho; Barbieri, Roberta; Bariche, Michel; Berrebi, Patrick; Bohlen, Jörg; Casal-Lopez, Miriam; Delmastro, Giovanni B.; Denys, Gäel P. J.; Dettai, Agnès; Doadrio, Ignacio; Kalogianni, Elena; Kärst, Heiko; Kottelat, Maurice; Kovacic, Marcelo; Laporte, Martin; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Marcic, Zoran; Özulug, Müfit; Perdices, Anabel; Perea, Silvia; Persat, Henri; Porcellotti, Stefano; Puzzi, Cesare; Robalo, Joana Isabel; Sanda, Radek; Schneider, Michael; Slechtova, Vendula; Stumboudi, Maria; Walter, Simon; Freyhof, Jörg
    Incomplete knowledge of biodiversity remains a stumbling block for conservation planning and even occurs within globally important Biodiversity Hotspots (BH). Although technical advances have boosted the power of molecular biodiversity assessments, the link between DNA sequences and species and the analytics to discriminate entities remain crucial. Here, we present an analysis of the first DNA barcode library for the freshwater fish fauna of the Mediterranean BH (526 spp.), with virtually complete species coverage (498 spp., 98% extant species). In order to build an identification system supporting conservation, we compared species determination by taxonomists to multiple clustering analyses of DNA barcodes for 3165 specimens. The congruence of...

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