von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Pimenta, Filipa
Background: The aging experience influences the ways an aging individual self-adjusts to challenges in
late adulthood in various cultural settings. This study aims at examining the indicators of adjustment to
aging (AtA) and subjective age (SA), and at investigating the latent constructs that can work as major
determinants in AtA and SA in an older Portuguese and Angolan community-dwelling population.
Methods: Questionnaires were completed, specifically assessing participants’ sociodemographic and
health-related information. Semi-interviews with 102 older adults aged between 75 and 99 years
(mean ¼ 80.5, standard deviation ¼ 5.76) were conducted, focusing on AtA and SA. Data were subjected
to content analysis. The correlational structure and latent...
von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Pimenta, Filipa; Niculescu, Georgeta
To explore older adults’ perceptions of subjective age and adjustment to ageing and to analyse
the correlational structure of the pre-categories in our study: subjective age, indicators of
adjustment to ageing and of personal age perception. An exploratory, descriptive mixedmethods
design was utilised. A purposive sampling method was used to select 154 older adults
aged between 75 and 99 years from three different nationalities. Semi-structured interviews
were performed, addressing two core areas: subjective age and adjustment to ageing. Data was
subjected to content analysis. Representation of the correlational structure of the precategories
in our study (subjective age and indicators of adjustment to ageing) were analysed by a
von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira
Objetivos: Esta revisión sistemática de la literatura tiene como objetivo proporcionar una visión
fiable de las variables que influyen en el bienestar subjetivo (SWB – por sus siglas en ingles de Social
Well Being) de los adultos mayores y ofrece sugerencias para futuras investigaciones.
Métodos: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica informatizada, y se realizaron búsquedas
de bases de datos a partir de 2001 a 2012 en PubMed / Medline, Psicología y Ciencias del Comportamiento
de cobros y Scielo. Los estudios debían mencionar variables que hubieran influido en el
SWB, incluyendo sus facetas cognitivas y afectivas.
Resultados: Catorce artículos de 616 registros cumplieron los criterios de...
Almeida, André; Almeida, Ana Rita; Branco, Sara Castelo; Vesza, Zsófia; Pereira, Rui
Introduction: As the relative burden of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia among HIV-positive patients
increases, adequate prediction of case severity on presentation is crucial. We sought to determine what characteristics
measurable on presentation are predictive of worse outcomes.
Methods: We studied all admissions for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia over 1 year at a tertiary centre.
Patient demographics, comorbidities, HIV-specific markers and CURB-65 scores on Emergency Department presentation
were reviewed. Outcomes of interest included mortality, bacteraemia, intensive care unit admission and orotracheal
Results: A total of 396 patients were included, 49 HIV positive and 347 HIV negative. Mean CURB-65 score was 1.3 for
HIV-positive and 2.2 for HIV-negative patients (p<0.0001), its...
Zucoloto, Miriane Lucindo; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
Objective: Evaluate the validity, reliability, and factorial
invariance of the complete Portuguese version of the
Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) and its short version
(OHIP-14). Methods: A total of 1,162 adults enrolled in
the Faculty of Dentistry of Araraquara/UNESP participated
in the study; 73.1% were women; and the mean
age was 40.7 ± 16.3 yr. We conducted a confirmatory
factor analysis, where χ2/df, comparative fit index, goodness
of fit index, and root mean square error of approximation
were used as indices of goodness of fit. The
convergent validity was judged from the average variance
extracted and the composite reliability, and the
internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach standardized
alpha. The stability of the...
Marques, Marta Moreira; De Gucht, Véronique; Gouveia, Maria João Pinheiro Morais; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Maes, Stan
An updated systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to (1) evaluate the effects of behavioral and
psychological interventions containing a graded physical activity component upon fatigue severity, physical
functioning, physical activity and psychological distress, and to (2) examine potential moderator effects of trial
characteristics (type of control, setting, provider, length of treatment, psychological component, flexibility in
physical activity, and minimal face to face patient–provider contact). Pertinent content of selected studies was
extracted and rated on a scale of methodological quality. Sixteen randomized controlled trials (N = 2004)
were included in the meta-analyses. Significant small to medium effect sizes (Hedge's g = 0.25 to g = 0.66)
Costa, Joana; Maroco, João; Gouveia, José Augusto Pinto; Ferreira, Cláudia; Castilho, Paula
Background: During the last years, there has been a growing interest in self-compassion. Empirical
evidences show that self-compassion is associated with psychological benefits among young adults
and it might be considered a buffer factor in several mental disorders.
Aims: The aim of this study was to validate the psychometric properties of the Self-compassion Scale
(SCS: Neff, 2003a) after the initial lack of replicating the original six-factor structure.
Method: Data were collected from the overall database of a research centre (56 men and 305 women;
mean age = 25.19) and comprised four groups: borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorder, eating
disorder and general population.
Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported a...
Lemos, Raquel; Cunha, Catarina; Maroco, João; Afonso, Ana; Simões, Mário R.; Santana, Isabel
Aim: The Logical Memory (LM) and the Verbal Paired Associative Learning (VPAL) are subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale commonly used to characterize the memory deficit of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) was suggested to assess the memory impairment of AD spectrum patients by the International Working Group on AD. In the present study, we compared the properties of the tests and their accuracy in classifying aMCI and AD.
Methods: A group of aMCI patients (n=85) and AD patients (n=43) were included. The reliability and the validity of...
Dias, Juliana Chioda Ribeiro; Silva, Wanderson Roberto da; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Portuguese version of the Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) when applied to Brazilian university students. The scale was completed by 1084 university students from Brazilian public education institutions. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. The stability of the model in independent samples was assessed through multigroup analysis, and the invariance was estimated. Convergent, concurrent, divergent, and criterion validities as well as internal consistency were estimated. Results indicated that the one-factor model presented an adequate fit to the sample and values of convergent validity. The concurrent validity with...
Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; Zucoloto, Miriane Lucindo; Geremias, R. F.; Nogueira, S. S.; Maroco, João
To perform a validation of the Geriatric
Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) for
complete denture wearers and present a proposal
for estimation of perceived oral health. This is a
cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic
sampling. A total of 211 subjects with a mean age
of 62 5 (s.d. = 11 4) years participated, being 169
female. The GOHAI was applied in a personal
interview. The construct/convergent/discriminant
validity was tested using structural equation
modelling. Confirmatory factor analysis was used
to verify the fit of three proposals of the GOHAI:
three-factor, one-factor and second-order
hierarchical models. The stability of the models
was evaluated in independent samples. The threefactor
model presented an inadequate fit, and
items 3, 4 and 9...
Costa, Joana; Maroco, João; Gouveia, José Augusto Pinto; Galhardo, Ana
This study explores the factor structure of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II)
in both clinical and general normative groups. It also examines the factorial invariance of
a one-factor proposed model in both groups. Data was collected from the overall database
of a Portuguese Cognitive and Behavioral Research Center (N= 687, 425 females; mean
age= 36 years; SD= 11.33). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported a one-factor structure
with good internal consistencies and construct related validity. The one-factor solution
was also supported with a second independent data set, which showed a configural, strict
measurement and structural invariance of the one-factor solution proposed. Multigroup
Confirmatory Factorial Analysis showed the configural invariance,...
Pechorro, Pedro Fernandes dos Santos; Poiares, Carlos Alberto; Vieira, Rui Xavier; Maroco, João; Nunes, Maria Cristina de Oliveira Salgado; Jesus, Saul Neves de
The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquency.
Using a sample of 236 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice
and schools in the Lisbon area, a group of female youths with high psychopathic traits (n = 118; M =
15.84 years of age; range = 14–18 years of age) and a group of female youths with low psychopathic traits
(n = 118; M = 15.77 years of age; range = 14–18 years of age) were formed based on the Portuguese version
of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-Self-report (APSD-SR)....
Ferrajão, Paulo; Oliveira, Rui Aragão Gomes
This study analyzed the role of moral injury, self-awareness of mental states, self-integration of moral
injury in personal schemas, and perceived social on the severity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
and depression symptoms. The sample was composed of Portuguese war veterans (n 60) divided into
2 groups: 30 experienced chronic PTSD (nonrecovered) and 30 had remission from PTSD (recovered).
A cross-sectional study was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative data
were obtained through 2 interviews per participant, and the quantitative data were collected using the
Impact of Event Scale–Revised and Brief Symptom Inventory. Content analysis was performed to
analyze qualitative data. Multiple linear regression analyses...
Silva, Wanderson Roberto da; Dias, Juliana Chioda Ribeiro; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
This study aimed at evaluating the validity, reliability, and factorial invariance of the complete (34-item) and shortened (8-item and 16-item) versions of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) when applied to Brazilian university students. A total of 739 female students with a mean age of 20.44 (standard deviation = 2.45) years participated. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to verify the degree to which the one-factor structure satisfies the proposal for the BSQ's expected structure. Two items of the 34-item version were excluded because they had factor weights (lambda)< 40. All models had adequate convergent validity (average variance extracted =.43-.58; composite reliability=.85-.97)...
von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira
Background: This systematic review aims at providing a trustworthy overview of the concept of
adjustment to aging (AtA) in late adulthood.
Methods: A computerized literature search was carried out, and PubMed/Medline, Psychology and
Behavioral Sciences Collection, and Scielo databases were searched for studies published from 1981 to
2012. Studies must have investigated AtA in old age.
Results: Thirteen articles from 1291 records met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 1156 participants
aged 60 years. There are rather consistent findings that older adults develop active and adaptive
strategies during AtA, and that psychological variables, engagement with significant others, and social
and temporal processes of comparison have a relevant...
Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel Pereira
This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses
structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain.
Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from
pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of
weight gain were lower education level (β = −.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = −.111, p = .021),
having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β =
.147, p = .013)...
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Almeida, Rute; Anselmo, Cátia Marisa Duarte; Ferreira, André; Pereira, Henrique Marques; Leal, Isabel Pereira
The purpose of this study was to explore university students’ attitudes
toward same-sex parenting and toward gay and lesbian
rights. A total of 292 participants, aged between 18 and 27
(M = 21) responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward
parenting by gay men and lesbians, gay and lesbian rights, and
beliefs about the etiology of homosexuality. Results revealed that
the majority of students were against gay and lesbian parenting,
gay and lesbian equal rights, and believed that homosexuality
has a social/environmental basis. It was found that sexual prejudice
is highly prevalent in Portuguese university students, and
implications of these findings are discussed.
von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João
Adjustment to aging (AtA) is a multifactor adjustment process with implications
on aging well among older adults. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a
scale to assess the factors that older adults recognized as indicators of their AtA, with a
cross-national comparative perspective towards aging well. Convenience sampling was
used to gather questionnaire data, including demographics and the proposed scale. Complete
data was available for 1,291 older community-dwelling adults, aged between 75 and
102 years (M = 83.9; SD = 6.68), who represented four different nationalities. Exploratory
and confirmatory factor analyses were performed for dimension reduction and
exploration of the factorial structure. Data gathered...
Losoi, Heidi; Turunen, Senni; Wäljas, Minna; Helminen, Mika; Öhman, Juha; Julkunen, Juhani; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija
Aim: To investigate the psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and its short version (RS-14), as well as
the relationship of resilience with demographic variables and self-perceived health. Method: A standard procedure was used for translation
of the scale, and 243 participants (75% women, mean age = 41.0; SD = 17.8) were evaluated with the RS, the RS-14, and the EuroQol 5D.
Results: The mean level of resilience was found to be moderate. Both the RS and the RS-14 showed good internal consistency reliability,
.90 and .87, respectively. No clear factor structure was found. Both assessments correlated with age...
Balola, Michele Ferreira; Cláudio, Victor
Objetivo: Os autores pretendem rever os principais aspetos no estudo das memórias autobiográficas em adultos idosos.
Método: Neste trabalho foi efetuada, através da PsycINFO, uma pesquisa da literatura publicada de 1 de Janeiro de 2000 a 30 de Abril de
2013, utilizando como palavras-chave: "autobiographical memory", "aging" e "older adults". Um total de 59 artigos foram revistos, dos quais
18 foram incluídos na seleção final.
Resultados: A revisão dos diferentes estudos permitiu observar que existe um declínio da memória episódica. Este efeito não se observou
em relação à memória semântica. Os adultos idosos quando comparados com adultos mais jovens, evocam um maior número de memórias