Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (160.918 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 157

  1. Comparison of memory thresholds for planar qudit geometries

    Marks, Jacob; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Gheorghiu, Vlad
    We introduce and analyze a new type of decoding algorithm called general color clustering, based on renormalization group methods, to be used in qudit color codes. The performance of this decoder is analyzed under a generalized bit-flip error model, and is used to obtain the first memory threshold estimates for qudit 6-6-6 color codes. The proposed decoder is compared with similar decoding schemes for qudit surface codes as well as the current leading qubit decoders for both sets of codes. We find that, as with surface codes, clustering performs sub-optimally for qubit color codes, giving a threshold of 5.6% compared...

  2. Signatures of hypermassive neutron star lifetimes on r-process nucleosynthesis in the disc ejecta from neutron star mergers

    Lippuner, Jonas; Fernández, Rodrigo; Roberts, Luke F.; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian D.; Ott, Christian D.
    We investigate the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the winds ejected by accretion discs formed in neutron star mergers. We compute the element formation in disc outflows from hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) remnants of variable lifetime, including the effect of angular momentum transport in the disc evolution. We employ long-term axisymmetric hydrodynamic disc simulations to model the ejecta, and compute r-process nucleosynthesis with tracer particles using a nuclear reaction network containing ∼8000 species. We find that the previously known strong correlation between HMNS lifetime, ejected mass and average electron fraction in the outflow is directly related to the amount of...

  3. Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant

    Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad
    Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in...

  4. Superconformal index, BPS monodromy and chiral algebras

    Cecotti, Sergio; Song, Jaewon; Vafa, Cumrun; Yan, Wenbin
    We show that specializations of the 4d N=2 superconformal index labeled by an integer N is given by Tr ℳ^N where ℳ is the Kontsevich-Soibelman monodromy operator for BPS states on the Coulomb branch. We provide evidence that the states enumerated by these limits of the index lead to a family of 2d chiral algebras ANAN. This generalizes the recent results for the N = −1 case which corresponds to the Schur limit of the superconformal index. We show that this specialization of the index leads to the same integrand as that of the elliptic genus of compactification of the...

  5. Chaos, Complexity, and Random Matrices

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni
    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an $\mathcal{O}(1)$ scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is the Haar-invariance...

  6. Chaos, Complexity, and Random Matrices

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni
    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an $\mathcal{O}(1)$ scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is the Haar-invariance...

  7. Chaos, Complexity, and Random Matrices

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni
    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an O(1) scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is...

  8. Radiation reaction for spinning bodies in effective field theory. II. Spin-spin effects

    Maia, Natália T.; Galley, Chad R.; Leibovich, Adam K.; Porto, Rafael A.
    We compute the leading post-Newtonian (PN) contributions at quadratic order in the spins to the radiation-reaction acceleration and spin evolution for binary systems, entering at four-and-a-half PN order. Our calculation includes the backreaction from finite-size spin effects, which is presented for the first time. The computation is carried out, from first principles, using the effective field theory framework for spinning extended objects. At this order, nonconservative effects in the spin-spin sector are independent of the spin supplementary conditions. A nontrivial consistency check is performed by showing that the energy loss induced by the resulting radiation-reaction force is equivalent to the...

  9. Radiation reaction for spinning bodies in effective field theory. I. Spin-orbit effects

    Maia, Natália T.; Galley, Chad R.; Leibovich, Adam K.; Porto, Rafael A.
    We compute the leading post-Newtonian (PN) contributions at linear order in the spin to the radiation-reaction acceleration and spin evolution for binary systems, which enter at fourth PN order. The calculation is carried out, from first principles, using the effective field theory framework for spinning compact objects, in both the Newton-Wigner and covariant spin supplementary conditions. A nontrivial consistency check is performed on our results by showing that the energy loss induced by the resulting radiation-reaction force is equivalent to the total emitted power in the far zone, up to so-called “Schott terms.” We also find that, at this order,...

  10. Kähler Uniformization from Holographic Renormalization Group Flows of M5-branes

    Fluder, Martin
    In this paper, we initiate the study of holographic renormalization group flows acting on the metric of four-manifolds. In particular, we derive a set of equations which govern the evolution of a generic K\"ahler four-manifold along the renormalization group flow in seven-dimensional gauged supergravity. The physical eleven-dimensional M-theory setup is given by a stack of M5-branes wrapping a calibrated K\"ahler four-cycle inside a Calabi-Yau threefold. By topologically twisting the theory in the ultraviolet, we may choose an arbitrary K\"ahler metric on the four-cycle as an asymptotic boundary condition. Along the renormalization group flow, the metric moduli are largely washed out, and at the infrared fixed point we will reach...

  11. Spheres, Charges, Instantons, and Bootstrap: A Five-Dimensional Odyssey

    Chang, Chi-Ming; Fluder, Martin; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Yifan
    We combine supersymmetric localization and the conformal bootstrap to study five-dimensional superconformal field theories. To begin, we classify the admissible counter-terms and derive a general relation between the five-sphere partition function and the conformal and flavor central charges. Along the way, we discover a new superconformal anomaly in five dimensions. We then propose a precise triple factorization formula for the five-sphere partition function, that incorporates instantons and is consistent with flavor symmetry enhancement. We numerically evaluate the central charges for the rank-one Seiberg and Morrison-Seiberg theories, and find strong evidence for their saturation of bootstrap bounds, thereby determining the spectra of long multiplets in these theories. Lastly, our results provide...

  12. On the Large R-charge Expansion in N=2 Superconformal Field Theories

    Hellerman, Simeon; Maeda, Shunsuke
    In this note we study two point functions of Coulomb branch chiral ring elements with large R-charge, in quantum field theories with N = 2 superconformal symmetry in four spacetime dimensions. Focusing on the case of one-dimensional Coulomb branch, we use the effective-field-theoretic methods of [1], to estimate the two-point correlation function Yn ≡ |x − y|2n∆O(O(x))n(O¯(y))n�in the limit where the operator insertion On has large total R-charge J = n∆O. We show that Yn has a nontrivial but universal asymptotic expansion at large J , of the form Yn = J !�|NO|2π�2JJα Y˜n ,where Y˜ n approaches a constant as n → ∞, and NO is...

  13. Direct Detection of MeV-scale Dark Matter via Solar Reflection

    An, Haipeng; Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef; Ritz, Adam
    If dark matter (DM) particles are lighter than a few MeV/c^2 and can scatter off electrons, their interaction within the solar interior results in a considerable hardening of the spectrum of galactic dark matter received on Earth. For a large range of the mass vs. cross section parameter space, {m_e, σ_e}, the "reflected" component of the DM flux is far more energetic than the endpoint of the ambient galactic DM energy distribution, making it detectable with existing DM detectors sensitive to an energy deposition of 10−10^3 eV. After numerically simulating the small reflected component of the DM flux, we calculate...

  14. Exactly Solvable Model for Two Dimensional Topological Superconductor

    Wang, Zitao; Ning, Shang-Qiang; Chen, Xie
    In this paper, we present an exactly solvable model for two dimensional topological superconductor with helical Majorana edge modes protected by time reversal symmetry. Our construction is based on the idea of decorated domain walls and makes use of the Kasteleyn orientation on a two dimensional lattice, which was used for the construction of the symmetry protected fermion phase with Z_2 symmetry in Ref. 1 and 2. By decorating the time reversal domain walls with spinful Majorana chains, we are able to construct a commuting projector Hamiltonian with zero correlation length ground state wave function that realizes a strongly interacting...

  15. On thermalization in the SYK and supersymmetric SYK models

    Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Zhou, Yehao
    The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis is a compelling conjecture which strives to explain the apparent thermal behavior of generic observables in closed quantum systems. Although we are far from a complete analytic understanding, quantum chaos is often seen as a strong indication that the ansatz holds true. In this paper, we address the thermalization of energy eigenstates in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, a maximally chaotic model of strongly-interacting Majorana fermions. We numerically investigate eigenstate thermalization for specific few-body operators in the original SYK model as well as its $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric extension and find evidence that these models satisfy ETH. We discuss the implications of ETH for a gravitational dual and the quantum...

  16. M5-Brane and D-Brane Scattering Amplitudes

    Heydeman, Matthew; Schwarz, John H.; Wen, Congkao
    We present tree-level $n$-particle on-shell scattering amplitudes of various brane theories with $16$ conserved supercharges. These include the world-volume theory of a probe D3-brane or D5-brane in 10D Minkowski spacetime as well as a probe M5-brane in 11D Minkowski spacetime, which describes self interactions of an abelian tensor supermultiplet with 6D $(2,0)$ supersymmetry. Twistor-string-like formulas are proposed for tree-level scattering amplitudes of all multiplicities for each of these theories. The R symmetry of the D3-brane theory is shown to be $SU(4) \times U(1)$, and the $U(1)$ factor implies that its amplitudes are helicity conserving. Each of 6D theories (D5-brane and M5-brane) reduces to the D3-brane theory by dimensional reduction. As...

  17. Coherent μ-e Conversion at Next-to-Leading Order

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.
    We analyze next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections and uncertainties for coherent $\mu-e$ conversion . The analysis is general but numerical results focus on ${}^{27}\textrm{Al}$, which will be used in the Mu2E experiment. We obtain a simple expression for the branching ratio in terms of Wilson coefficients associated with possible physics beyond the Standard Model and a set of model-independent parameters determined solely by Standard Model dynamics. For scalar-mediated conversion, we find that NLO two-nucleon contributions can significantly decrease the branching ratio, potentially reducing the rate by as much as 50%. The pion-nucleon $\sigma$-term and quark masses give the dominant sources of parametric uncertainty in this case. For vector-mediated conversion, the impact...

  18. Neutrino Emissions in All Flavors up to the Pre-bounce of Massive Stars and the Possibility of Their Detections

    Kato, Chinami; Nagakura, Hiroki; Furusawa, Shun; Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi; Ishidoshiro, Koji; Yamada, Shoichi
    This paper is a sequel to our 2015 paper, Kato et al., which calculated the luminosities and spectra of electron-type anti-neutrinos (ν[overbar]_e) from the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae. Expecting that the capability to detect electron-type neutrinos (ν_e) will increase dramatically with the emergence of liquid-argon detectors such as DUNE, we broaden the scope in this study to include all flavors of neutrinos emitted from the pre-bounce phase. We pick up three progenitor models of electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) and iron-core collapse supernovae (FeCCSNe). We find that the number luminosities reach ~10^(57) s^(–1) and ~10^(53) s^(–1) at maximum for ν_e and...

  19. Topological frequency conversion in strongly driven quantum systems

    Martin, Ivar; Refael, Gil; Halperin, Bertrand I.
    When a physical system is subjected to a strong external multi-frequency drive, its dynamics can be conveniently represented in the multi-dimensional Floquet lattice. The number of the Floquet lattice dimensions equals the number of {\em irrationally}-related drive frequencies, and the evolution occurs in response to a built-in effective "electric" field, whose components are proportional to the corresponding drive frequencies. The mapping allows to engineer and study temporal analogs of many real-space phenomena. Here we focus on the specific example of a two-level system under two-frequency drive that induces topologically nontrivial band structure in the 2D Floquet space. The observable consequence of such construction is quantized pumping of energy between the...

  20. Topological frequency conversion in strongly driven quantum systems

    Martin, Ivar; Refael, Gil; Halperin, Bertrand
    When a physical system is subjected to a strong external multifrequency drive, its dynamics can be conveniently represented in the multidimensional Floquet lattice. The number of Floquet lattice dimensions equals the number of irrationally-related drive frequencies, and the evolution occurs in response to a built-in effective “electric” field, whose components are proportional to the corresponding drive frequencies. The mapping allows us to engineer and study temporal analogs of many real-space phenomena. Here, we focus on the specific example of a two-level system under a two-frequency drive that induces topologically nontrivial band structure in the 2D Floquet space. The observable consequence...

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