Recursos de colección
Caltech Authors (157.532 recursos)
Repository of works by Caltech published authors.
Group = Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics
Repository of works by Caltech published authors.
Group = Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics
Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Zhou, Yehao
The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis is a compelling conjecture which
strives to explain the apparent thermal behavior of generic observables in
closed quantum systems. Although we are far from a complete analytic
understanding, quantum chaos is often seen as a strong indication that the
ansatz holds true. In this paper, we address the thermalization of energy
eigenstates in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, a maximally chaotic model of
strongly-interacting Majorana fermions. We numerically investigate eigenstate
thermalization for specific few-body operators in the original SYK model as
well as its $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric extension and find evidence that
these models satisfy ETH. We discuss the implications of ETH for a
gravitational dual and the quantum...
Heydeman, Matthew; Schwarz, John H.; Wen, Congkao
We present tree-level $n$-particle on-shell scattering amplitudes of various
brane theories with $16$ conserved supercharges. These include the world-volume
theory of a probe D3-brane or D5-brane in 10D Minkowski spacetime as well as a
probe M5-brane in 11D Minkowski spacetime, which describes self interactions of
an abelian tensor supermultiplet with 6D $(2,0)$ supersymmetry.
Twistor-string-like formulas are proposed for tree-level scattering amplitudes
of all multiplicities for each of these theories. The R symmetry of the
D3-brane theory is shown to be $SU(4) \times U(1)$, and the $U(1)$ factor
implies that its amplitudes are helicity conserving. Each of 6D theories
(D5-brane and M5-brane) reduces to the D3-brane theory by dimensional
reduction. As...
Bartolotta, Anthony; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.
We analyze next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections and uncertainties for
coherent $\mu-e$ conversion . The analysis is general but numerical results
focus on ${}^{27}\textrm{Al}$, which will be used in the Mu2E experiment. We
obtain a simple expression for the branching ratio in terms of Wilson
coefficients associated with possible physics beyond the Standard Model and a
set of model-independent parameters determined solely by Standard Model
dynamics. For scalar-mediated conversion, we find that NLO two-nucleon
contributions can significantly decrease the branching ratio, potentially
reducing the rate by as much as 50%. The pion-nucleon $\sigma$-term and quark
masses give the dominant sources of parametric uncertainty in this case. For
vector-mediated conversion, the impact...
Kato, Chinami; Nagakura, Hiroki; Furusawa, Shun; Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi; Ishidoshiro, Koji; Yamada, Shoichi
This paper is a sequel to our 2015 paper, Kato et al., which calculated the luminosities and spectra of electron-type anti-neutrinos (ν[overbar]_e) from the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae. Expecting that the capability to detect electron-type neutrinos (ν_e) will increase dramatically with the emergence of liquid-argon detectors such as DUNE, we broaden the scope in this study to include all flavors of neutrinos emitted from the pre-bounce phase. We pick up three progenitor models of electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) and iron-core collapse supernovae (FeCCSNe). We find that the number luminosities reach ~10^(57) s^(–1) and ~10^(53) s^(–1) at maximum for ν_e and...
Martin, Ivar; Refael, Gil; Halperin, Bertrand I.
When a physical system is subjected to a strong external multi-frequency
drive, its dynamics can be conveniently represented in the multi-dimensional
Floquet lattice. The number of the Floquet lattice dimensions equals the number
of {\em irrationally}-related drive frequencies, and the evolution occurs in
response to a built-in effective "electric" field, whose components are
proportional to the corresponding drive frequencies. The mapping allows to
engineer and study temporal analogs of many real-space phenomena. Here we focus
on the specific example of a two-level system under two-frequency drive that
induces topologically nontrivial band structure in the 2D Floquet space. The
observable consequence of such construction is quantized pumping of energy
between the...
Skolasinski, Rafal; Pikulin, Dmitry I.; Alicea, Jason; Wimmer, Michael
We show that burying of the Dirac point in semiconductor-based
quantum-spin-Hall systems can generate unexpected robustness of edge states to
magnetic fields. A detailed ${\bf k\cdot p}$ band-structure analysis reveals
that InAs/GaSb and HgTe/CdTe quantum wells exhibit such buried Dirac points. By
simulating transport in a disordered system described within an effective
model, we further demonstrate that buried Dirac points yield nearly quantized
edge conduction out to large magnetic fields, consistent with recent
experiments.
Yunger Halpern, Nicole; White, Christopher David; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Refael, Gil
Many-body-localized (MBL) systems do not thermalize under their intrinsic
dynamics. The athermality of MBL, we propose, can be harnessed for
thermodynamic tasks. We illustrate by formulating an Otto engine cycle for a
quantum many-body system. The system is ramped between a strongly localized MBL
regime and a thermal (or weakly localized) regime. MBL systems' energy-level
correlations differ from thermal systems'. This discrepancy enhances the
engine's reliability, suppresses worst-case trials, and enables mesoscale
engines to run in parallel in the thermodynamic limit. We estimate analytically
and calculate numerically the engine's efficiency and per-cycle power. The
efficiency mirrors the efficiency of the conventional thermodynamic Otto
engine. The per-cycle power scales linearly with...
Bartolotta, Anthony; Deffner, Sebastian
The fluctuation theorems, and in particular, the Jarzynski equality, are the
most important pillars of modern non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We
extend the quantum Jarzynski equality together with the Two-Time Measurement
Formalism to their ultimate range of validity -- to quantum field theories. To
this end, we focus on a time-dependent version of scalar phi-four. We find
closed form expressions for the resulting work distribution function, and we
find that they are proper physical observables of the quantum field theory.
Also, we show explicitly that the Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation
theorems hold at one-loop order independent of the renormalization scale. As a
numerical case study, we compute the work...
Parameswaran, S. A.; Gopalakrishnan, S.
Non-Fermi liquids are metals that cannot be adiabatically deformed into free fermion states. We argue for the existence of “non-Fermi glasses,” phases of interacting disordered fermions that are fully many-body localized (MBL), yet cannot be deformed into an Anderson insulator without an eigenstate phase transition. We explore the properties of such non-Fermi glasses, focusing on a specific solvable example. At high temperature, non-Fermi glasses have qualitatively similar spectral features to Anderson insulators. We identify a diagnostic based on ratios of correlators that sharply distinguishes between the two phases even at infinite temperature. Our results and diagnostic should generically apply to...
Richers, Sherwood; Nagakura, Hiroki; Ott, Christian D.; Dolence, Joshua; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi
The mechanism driving core-collapse supernovae is sensitive to the interplay between matter and neutrino radiation. However, neutrino radiation transport is very difficult to simulate, and several radiation transport methods of varying levels of approximation are available. We carefully compare for the first time in multiple spatial dimensions the discrete ordinates (DO) code of Nagakura, Yamada, and Sumiyoshi and the Monte Carlo (MC) code Sedonu, under the assumptions of a static fluid background, flat spacetime, elastic scattering, and full special relativity. We find remarkably good agreement in all spectral, angular, and fluid interaction quantities, lending confidence to both methods. The DO...
Mark, Zachary; Zimmerman, Aaron; Du, Song Ming; Chen, Yanbei
Gravitational wave astronomy provides an unprecedented opportunity to test the nature of black holes and search for exotic, compact alternatives. Recent studies have shown that exotic compact objects (ECOs) can ring down in a manner similar to black holes, but can also produce a sequence of distinct pulses resembling the initial ringdown. These “echoes” would provide definite evidence for the existence of ECOs. In this work we study the generation of these echoes in a generic, parametrized model for the ECO, using Green’s functions. We show how to reprocess radiation in the near-horizon region of a Schwarzschild black hole into...
Moult, Ian; Solon, Mikhail P.; Stewart, Iain W.; Vita, Gherardo
We derive, in the framework of soft-collinear effective field theory (SCET),
a Lagrangian describing the $t$-channel exchange of Glauber quarks in the Regge
limit. The Glauber quarks are not dynamical, but are incorporated through
non-local fermionic potential operators. These operators are power suppressed
in $|t|/s$ relative to those describing Glauber gluon exchange, but give the
first non-vanishing contributions in the Regge limit to processes such as
$q\bar q \to gg$ and $q\bar q \to \gamma \gamma$. They therefore represent an
interesting subset of power corrections to study. The structure of the
operators, which describe certain soft and collinear emissions to all orders
through Wilson lines, is derived from the...
Giombi, Simone; Perlmutter, Eric
We explore the idea that large $N$, non-supersymmetric conformal field
theories with a parametrically large gap to higher spin single-trace operators
may be obtained as infrared fixed points of relevant double-trace deformations
of superconformal field theories. After recalling the AdS interpretation and
some potential pathologies of such flows, we introduce a concrete example that
appears to avoid them: the ABJM theory at finite $k$, deformed by $\int\!{\cal
O}^2$, where ${\cal O}$ is the superconformal primary in the stress-tensor
multiplet. We address its relation to recent conjectures based on weak gravity
bounds, and discuss the prospects for a wider class of similarly viable flows.
Next, we proceed to analyze the...
Kravchuk, Petr
We study the structure of series expansions of general spinning conformal
blocks. We find that the terms in these expansions are naturally expressed by
means of special functions related to matrix elements of Spin(d)
representations in Gelfand-Tsetlin basis, of which the Gegenbauer polynomials
are a special case. We study the properties of these functions and explain how
they can be computed in practice. We show how the Casimir equation in
Dolan-Osborn coordinates leads to a simple one-step recursion relation for the
coefficients of the series expansion of general spinning conformal block. The
form of this recursion relation is determined by 6j symbols of Spin(d-1). In
particular, it can be...
Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.
We propose a model for the statistics of the mass density in supersonic turbulence, which plays a crucial role in star formation and the physics of the interstellar medium (ISM). The model is derived by considering the density to be arranged as a collection of strong shocks of width
∼M^(-2), where M is the turbulent Mach number. With two physically motivated parameters, the model predicts all density statistics for M > 1 turbulence: the density probability distribution and its intermittency (deviation from lognormality), the density variance–Mach number relation, power spectra and structure functions. For the proposed model parameters, reasonable agreement...
Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao
We derive the nonlinear sigma model as a peculiar dimensional reduction of
Yang-Mills theory. In this framework, pions are reformulated as
higher-dimensional gluons arranged in a kinematic configuration that only
probes the cubic interactions. Via this procedure we obtain a purely cubic
nonlinear sigma action that exhibits a symmetry enforcing color-kinematics
duality. Remarkably, the associated kinematic algebra originates directly from
the Poincare algebra in higher dimensions. Applying the same construction to
gravity yields a new quartic action for Born-Infeld theory and, applied once
more, a cubic action for the special Galileon theory. Since the nonlinear sigma
model and special Galileon are subtly encoded in the cubic sectors of
Yang-Mills theory...
Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao
We derive the nonlinear sigma model as a peculiar dimensional reduction of
Yang-Mills theory. In this framework, pions are reformulated as
higher-dimensional gluons arranged in a kinematic configuration that only
probes the cubic interactions. Via this procedure we obtain a purely cubic
nonlinear sigma action that exhibits a symmetry enforcing color-kinematics
duality. Remarkably, the associated kinematic algebra originates directly from
the Poincare algebra in higher dimensions. Applying the same construction to
gravity yields a new quartic action for Born-Infeld theory and, applied once
more, a cubic action for the special Galileon theory. Since the nonlinear sigma
model and special Galileon are subtly encoded in the cubic sectors of
Yang-Mills theory...
Bao, Ning; Ooguri, Hirosi
We use the Holevo information to estimate distinguishability of microstates of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space by measurements one can perform on a subregion of a Cauchy surface of the dual conformal field theory. We find that microstates are not distinguishable at all until the subregion reaches a certain size and that perfect distinguishability can be achieved before the subregion covers the entire Cauchy surface. We will compare our results with expectations from the entanglement wedge reconstruction, tensor network models, and the bit threads interpretation of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula.
Meidinger, David; Nandan, Dhritiman; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao
In this note we investigate Graßmannian formulas for form factors of the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet in N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory. We present an all-n contour for the G(3, n + 2) Graßmannian integral of NMHV form factors derived from on-shell diagrams and the BCFW recursion relation. In addition, we study other G(3, n + 2) formulas obtained from the connected prescription introduced recently. We find a recursive expression for all n and study its properties. For n ≥ 6, our formula has the same recursive structure as its amplitude counterpart, making its soft behaviour manifest. Finally, we...
Renzo, M.; Ott, C. D.; Shore, S. N.; de Mink, S. E.
Mass loss processes are a key uncertainty in the evolution of massive stars. They determine the amount of mass and angular momentum retained by the star, thus influencing its evolution and presupernova structure. Because of the high complexity of the physical processes driving mass loss, stellar evolution calculations must employ parametric algorithms, and usually only include wind mass loss. We carried out an extensive parameter study of wind mass loss and its effects on massive star evolution using the open-source stellar evolution code MESA. We provide a systematic comparison of wind mass loss algorithms for solar-metallicity, nonrotating, single stars in...