Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (157.532 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 118

  1. On thermalization in the SYK and supersymmetric SYK models

    Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Zhou, Yehao
    The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis is a compelling conjecture which strives to explain the apparent thermal behavior of generic observables in closed quantum systems. Although we are far from a complete analytic understanding, quantum chaos is often seen as a strong indication that the ansatz holds true. In this paper, we address the thermalization of energy eigenstates in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, a maximally chaotic model of strongly-interacting Majorana fermions. We numerically investigate eigenstate thermalization for specific few-body operators in the original SYK model as well as its $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric extension and find evidence that these models satisfy ETH. We discuss the implications of ETH for a gravitational dual and the quantum...

  2. M5-Brane and D-Brane Scattering Amplitudes

    Heydeman, Matthew; Schwarz, John H.; Wen, Congkao
    We present tree-level $n$-particle on-shell scattering amplitudes of various brane theories with $16$ conserved supercharges. These include the world-volume theory of a probe D3-brane or D5-brane in 10D Minkowski spacetime as well as a probe M5-brane in 11D Minkowski spacetime, which describes self interactions of an abelian tensor supermultiplet with 6D $(2,0)$ supersymmetry. Twistor-string-like formulas are proposed for tree-level scattering amplitudes of all multiplicities for each of these theories. The R symmetry of the D3-brane theory is shown to be $SU(4) \times U(1)$, and the $U(1)$ factor implies that its amplitudes are helicity conserving. Each of 6D theories (D5-brane and M5-brane) reduces to the D3-brane theory by dimensional reduction. As...

  3. Coherent μ-e Conversion at Next-to-Leading Order

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.
    We analyze next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections and uncertainties for coherent $\mu-e$ conversion . The analysis is general but numerical results focus on ${}^{27}\textrm{Al}$, which will be used in the Mu2E experiment. We obtain a simple expression for the branching ratio in terms of Wilson coefficients associated with possible physics beyond the Standard Model and a set of model-independent parameters determined solely by Standard Model dynamics. For scalar-mediated conversion, we find that NLO two-nucleon contributions can significantly decrease the branching ratio, potentially reducing the rate by as much as 50%. The pion-nucleon $\sigma$-term and quark masses give the dominant sources of parametric uncertainty in this case. For vector-mediated conversion, the impact...

  4. Neutrino Emissions in All Flavors up to the Pre-bounce of Massive Stars and the Possibility of Their Detections

    Kato, Chinami; Nagakura, Hiroki; Furusawa, Shun; Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi; Ishidoshiro, Koji; Yamada, Shoichi
    This paper is a sequel to our 2015 paper, Kato et al., which calculated the luminosities and spectra of electron-type anti-neutrinos (ν[overbar]_e) from the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae. Expecting that the capability to detect electron-type neutrinos (ν_e) will increase dramatically with the emergence of liquid-argon detectors such as DUNE, we broaden the scope in this study to include all flavors of neutrinos emitted from the pre-bounce phase. We pick up three progenitor models of electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) and iron-core collapse supernovae (FeCCSNe). We find that the number luminosities reach ~10^(57) s^(–1) and ~10^(53) s^(–1) at maximum for ν_e and...

  5. Topological frequency conversion in strongly driven quantum systems

    Martin, Ivar; Refael, Gil; Halperin, Bertrand I.
    When a physical system is subjected to a strong external multi-frequency drive, its dynamics can be conveniently represented in the multi-dimensional Floquet lattice. The number of the Floquet lattice dimensions equals the number of {\em irrationally}-related drive frequencies, and the evolution occurs in response to a built-in effective "electric" field, whose components are proportional to the corresponding drive frequencies. The mapping allows to engineer and study temporal analogs of many real-space phenomena. Here we focus on the specific example of a two-level system under two-frequency drive that induces topologically nontrivial band structure in the 2D Floquet space. The observable consequence of such construction is quantized pumping of energy between the...

  6. Robust Helical Edge Transport in Quantum Spin Hall Quantum Wells

    Skolasinski, Rafal; Pikulin, Dmitry I.; Alicea, Jason; Wimmer, Michael
    We show that burying of the Dirac point in semiconductor-based quantum-spin-Hall systems can generate unexpected robustness of edge states to magnetic fields. A detailed ${\bf k\cdot p}$ band-structure analysis reveals that InAs/GaSb and HgTe/CdTe quantum wells exhibit such buried Dirac points. By simulating transport in a disordered system described within an effective model, we further demonstrate that buried Dirac points yield nearly quantized edge conduction out to large magnetic fields, consistent with recent experiments.

  7. MBL-mobile: Many-body-localized engine

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; White, Christopher David; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Refael, Gil
    Many-body-localized (MBL) systems do not thermalize under their intrinsic dynamics. The athermality of MBL, we propose, can be harnessed for thermodynamic tasks. We illustrate by formulating an Otto engine cycle for a quantum many-body system. The system is ramped between a strongly localized MBL regime and a thermal (or weakly localized) regime. MBL systems' energy-level correlations differ from thermal systems'. This discrepancy enhances the engine's reliability, suppresses worst-case trials, and enables mesoscale engines to run in parallel in the thermodynamic limit. We estimate analytically and calculate numerically the engine's efficiency and per-cycle power. The efficiency mirrors the efficiency of the conventional thermodynamic Otto engine. The per-cycle power scales linearly with...

  8. Jarzynski Equality for Driven Quantum Field Theories

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Deffner, Sebastian
    The fluctuation theorems, and in particular, the Jarzynski equality, are the most important pillars of modern non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We extend the quantum Jarzynski equality together with the Two-Time Measurement Formalism to their ultimate range of validity -- to quantum field theories. To this end, we focus on a time-dependent version of scalar phi-four. We find closed form expressions for the resulting work distribution function, and we find that they are proper physical observables of the quantum field theory. Also, we show explicitly that the Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation theorems hold at one-loop order independent of the renormalization scale. As a numerical case study, we compute the work...

  9. Non-Fermi Glasses: Localized Descendants of Fractionalized Metals

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Gopalakrishnan, S.
    Non-Fermi liquids are metals that cannot be adiabatically deformed into free fermion states. We argue for the existence of “non-Fermi glasses,” phases of interacting disordered fermions that are fully many-body localized (MBL), yet cannot be deformed into an Anderson insulator without an eigenstate phase transition. We explore the properties of such non-Fermi glasses, focusing on a specific solvable example. At high temperature, non-Fermi glasses have qualitatively similar spectral features to Anderson insulators. We identify a diagnostic based on ratios of correlators that sharply distinguishes between the two phases even at infinite temperature. Our results and diagnostic should generically apply to...

  10. A Detailed Comparison of Multidimensional Boltzmann Neutrino Transport Methods in Core-collapse Supernovae

    Richers, Sherwood; Nagakura, Hiroki; Ott, Christian D.; Dolence, Joshua; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi
    The mechanism driving core-collapse supernovae is sensitive to the interplay between matter and neutrino radiation. However, neutrino radiation transport is very difficult to simulate, and several radiation transport methods of varying levels of approximation are available. We carefully compare for the first time in multiple spatial dimensions the discrete ordinates (DO) code of Nagakura, Yamada, and Sumiyoshi and the Monte Carlo (MC) code Sedonu, under the assumptions of a static fluid background, flat spacetime, elastic scattering, and full special relativity. We find remarkably good agreement in all spectral, angular, and fluid interaction quantities, lending confidence to both methods. The DO...

  11. A recipe for echoes from exotic compact objects

    Mark, Zachary; Zimmerman, Aaron; Du, Song Ming; Chen, Yanbei
    Gravitational wave astronomy provides an unprecedented opportunity to test the nature of black holes and search for exotic, compact alternatives. Recent studies have shown that exotic compact objects (ECOs) can ring down in a manner similar to black holes, but can also produce a sequence of distinct pulses resembling the initial ringdown. These “echoes” would provide definite evidence for the existence of ECOs. In this work we study the generation of these echoes in a generic, parametrized model for the ECO, using Green’s functions. We show how to reprocess radiation in the near-horizon region of a Schwarzschild black hole into...

  12. Fermionic Glauber Operators and Quark Reggeization

    Moult, Ian; Solon, Mikhail P.; Stewart, Iain W.; Vita, Gherardo
    We derive, in the framework of soft-collinear effective field theory (SCET), a Lagrangian describing the $t$-channel exchange of Glauber quarks in the Regge limit. The Glauber quarks are not dynamical, but are incorporated through non-local fermionic potential operators. These operators are power suppressed in $|t|/s$ relative to those describing Glauber gluon exchange, but give the first non-vanishing contributions in the Regge limit to processes such as $q\bar q \to gg$ and $q\bar q \to \gamma \gamma$. They therefore represent an interesting subset of power corrections to study. The structure of the operators, which describe certain soft and collinear emissions to all orders through Wilson lines, is derived from the...

  13. Double-Trace Flows and the Swampland

    Giombi, Simone; Perlmutter, Eric
    We explore the idea that large $N$, non-supersymmetric conformal field theories with a parametrically large gap to higher spin single-trace operators may be obtained as infrared fixed points of relevant double-trace deformations of superconformal field theories. After recalling the AdS interpretation and some potential pathologies of such flows, we introduce a concrete example that appears to avoid them: the ABJM theory at finite $k$, deformed by $\int\!{\cal O}^2$, where ${\cal O}$ is the superconformal primary in the stress-tensor multiplet. We address its relation to recent conjectures based on weak gravity bounds, and discuss the prospects for a wider class of similarly viable flows. Next, we proceed to analyze the...

  14. Casimir recursion relations for general conformal blocks

    Kravchuk, Petr
    We study the structure of series expansions of general spinning conformal blocks. We find that the terms in these expansions are naturally expressed by means of special functions related to matrix elements of Spin(d) representations in Gelfand-Tsetlin basis, of which the Gegenbauer polynomials are a special case. We study the properties of these functions and explain how they can be computed in practice. We show how the Casimir equation in Dolan-Osborn coordinates leads to a simple one-step recursion relation for the coefficients of the series expansion of general spinning conformal block. The form of this recursion relation is determined by 6j symbols of Spin(d-1). In particular, it can be...

  15. The distribution of density in supersonic turbulence

    Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.
    We propose a model for the statistics of the mass density in supersonic turbulence, which plays a crucial role in star formation and the physics of the interstellar medium (ISM). The model is derived by considering the density to be arranged as a collection of strong shocks of width ∼M^(-2), where M is the turbulent Mach number. With two physically motivated parameters, the model predicts all density statistics for M > 1 turbulence: the density probability distribution and its intermittency (deviation from lognormality), the density variance–Mach number relation, power spectra and structure functions. For the proposed model parameters, reasonable agreement...

  16. Pions as Gluons in Higher Dimensions

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao
    We derive the nonlinear sigma model as a peculiar dimensional reduction of Yang-Mills theory. In this framework, pions are reformulated as higher-dimensional gluons arranged in a kinematic configuration that only probes the cubic interactions. Via this procedure we obtain a purely cubic nonlinear sigma action that exhibits a symmetry enforcing color-kinematics duality. Remarkably, the associated kinematic algebra originates directly from the Poincare algebra in higher dimensions. Applying the same construction to gravity yields a new quartic action for Born-Infeld theory and, applied once more, a cubic action for the special Galileon theory. Since the nonlinear sigma model and special Galileon are subtly encoded in the cubic sectors of Yang-Mills theory...

  17. Pions as Gluons in Higher Dimensions

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao
    We derive the nonlinear sigma model as a peculiar dimensional reduction of Yang-Mills theory. In this framework, pions are reformulated as higher-dimensional gluons arranged in a kinematic configuration that only probes the cubic interactions. Via this procedure we obtain a purely cubic nonlinear sigma action that exhibits a symmetry enforcing color-kinematics duality. Remarkably, the associated kinematic algebra originates directly from the Poincare algebra in higher dimensions. Applying the same construction to gravity yields a new quartic action for Born-Infeld theory and, applied once more, a cubic action for the special Galileon theory. Since the nonlinear sigma model and special Galileon are subtly encoded in the cubic sectors of Yang-Mills theory...

  18. Distinguishability of black hole microstates

    Bao, Ning; Ooguri, Hirosi
    We use the Holevo information to estimate distinguishability of microstates of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space by measurements one can perform on a subregion of a Cauchy surface of the dual conformal field theory. We find that microstates are not distinguishable at all until the subregion reaches a certain size and that perfect distinguishability can be achieved before the subregion covers the entire Cauchy surface. We will compare our results with expectations from the entanglement wedge reconstruction, tensor network models, and the bit threads interpretation of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula.

  19. A note on NMHV form factors from the Graßmannian and the twistor string

    Meidinger, David; Nandan, Dhritiman; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao
    In this note we investigate Graßmannian formulas for form factors of the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet in N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory. We present an all-n contour for the G(3, n + 2) Graßmannian integral of NMHV form factors derived from on-shell diagrams and the BCFW recursion relation. In addition, we study other G(3, n + 2) formulas obtained from the connected prescription introduced recently. We find a recursive expression for all n and study its properties. For n ≥ 6, our formula has the same recursive structure as its amplitude counterpart, making its soft behaviour manifest. Finally, we...

  20. Systematic survey of the effects of wind mass loss algorithms on the evolution of single massive stars

    Renzo, M.; Ott, C. D.; Shore, S. N.; de Mink, S. E.
    Mass loss processes are a key uncertainty in the evolution of massive stars. They determine the amount of mass and angular momentum retained by the star, thus influencing its evolution and presupernova structure. Because of the high complexity of the physical processes driving mass loss, stellar evolution calculations must employ parametric algorithms, and usually only include wind mass loss. We carried out an extensive parameter study of wind mass loss and its effects on massive star evolution using the open-source stellar evolution code MESA. We provide a systematic comparison of wind mass loss algorithms for solar-metallicity, nonrotating, single stars in...

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