Ceia-Hasse, Ana; Navarro, Laetitia M.; Borda-de-Água, Luís; Pereira, Henrique M.
Linear infrastructures, one of several forms of land-use, are a major driver of biodiversity loss. Roads impact
populations at many levels, with direct road mortality and barrier effect contributing to decreased population
abundance, higher isolation and subdivision, and therefore to increased extinction risk. In this paper, we
compared the effect of road mortality and of the barrier effect on population isolation, persistence and size, and
assessed the interaction of these effects with dispersal. We used a spatially explicit, process-based model of
population dynamics in landscapes fragmented by varying levels of road density. We modelled a barrier effect
independently from road mortality by varying the probability with...
Foley, Nicole M.; Hughes, Graham M.; Huang, Zixia; Clarke, Michael; Jebb, David; Whelan, Conor V.; Petit, Eric J.; Touzalin, Frédéric; Farcy, Olivier; Jones, Gareth; Ransome, Roger D.; Kacprzyk, Joanna; O'Connell, Mary J.; Kerth, Gerald; Rebelo, Hugo; Rodrigues, Luísa; Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Teeling, Emma C.
Research Article - Genetics
Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B.; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik
Research Article - Ecology
Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Martín-López, Berta; Ceballos, Olga; Pereira, Henrique M.
The inclusion of perceptions, interests and needs of stakeholders in biodiversity conservation is critical for the
long-term protection of endangered species. Yet, the social dimensions of endangered species conservation are
often overlooked. We examined the social perceptions of the conservational importance of the globally endangered
Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in one of the most important breeding areas worldwide: the
Bardenas Reales Protected Area, northern Spain. We assessed the factors that influence the stakeholders' views of
its conservation importance and identified the management strategies that would have social support. We found
that the understandings of the Egyptian vulture differed among stakeholders. Hunters had the highest level of
Casquilho, José Pinto
Neste ensaio, partindo-se da menção “Rio timor” no Atlas Vallard datado
de 1547, procura-se reconstituir a origem primeva da informação, sustentando-se a
hipótese de que os portugueses foram os primeiros europeus a fazer o reconhecimento
da linha de costa do que hoje designamos como Austrália. Nessa demanda, conclui-se
que existem relatos de cronistas e outros, que permitem situar Francisco Serrão como
uma fonte de informação na região das Molucas – mencionando, em cartas, um “um
novo mundo” com vasta extensão - que teria sido encaminhada para Portugal, aí
chegando cerca de 1515, incluindo padrão. Infere-se que terá sido essa uma origem
provável da representação cartográfica de Brasilie Regio...
Monteiro, Miguel; Figueira, Rui; Melo, Martim; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Beja, Pedro; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Reino, Luís
The Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical of the University of Lisbon, which resulted from the
recent merger (in 2015) of the former state laboratory Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical in the
University of Lisbon, holds an important collection of bird skins from the Portuguese-speaking African
Countries (Angola, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde), gathered as a
result of several scientific expeditions made during the colonial period. In this paper, the subset from Mozambique
is described, which was taxonomically revised and georeferenced. It contains 1585 specimens
belonging to 412 taxa, collected between 1932 and 1971, but mainly in 1948 (43% of specimens) and
Pina, Sílvia; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Reino, Luís; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Sánchez-Olivier, Juan S.; Catry, Inês; Moreira, Francisco; Ferreira, Sónia
With the increasing awareness of the need for Orthoptera conservation, greater efforts must be gathered to
implement specific monitoring schemes. Despite recent surveys, little is known about Portuguese Orthoptera
populations. This study was performed in 2014 and 2015 mainly in Castro Verde Special Protection
Area (SPA), southern Portugal, and is the first Orthoptera inventory conducted in the area. A total of 35
Orthoptera species was recorded, with two new species reported for Portugal. We provide species’ habitat
occurrences within the protected area and use information on the conservation status and the Iberian
distribution of each documented species to discuss the importance of Castro Verde SPA for...
Borda-de-Água, Luís; Barrientos, Rafael; Beja, Pedro; Pereira, Henrique M.
We have divided the book into two parts. The first aims at reviewing the main ideas
and methods related to the identification, monitoring, and mitigation of railway
impacts on biodiversity, with emphasis on wildlife mortality, barrier effects, biological
invasions, and the effects of other railway environmental impacts such as
noise and chemical pollution. The second part of the book provides a set of case studies from around the world
that illustrate the impacts of railways on wildlife and ways to reduce those impacts.
Reflecting the strong interest in the topic of wildlife mortality, four chapters focus
on the patterns of mortality resulting from collisions with trains and...
Casquilho, José Pinto
XXIV Encontro das Universidades de Língua Portuguesa, Dili, Timor-Leste, 2016
Santos, Carlos D.; Hanssen, Frank; Muñoz, António-Román; Onrubia, A.; Wikelski, Martin; May, Roel; Silva, João P.
Understanding how soaring birds use updrafts at small spatial scales is important to identify ecological
constraints of movement, and may help to prevent conflicts between wind-energy development and
the conservation of wildlife. We combined high-frequency GPS animal tracking and fine-spatial-scale
uplift modelling to establish a link between flight behaviour of soaring birds and the distribution
of updrafts. We caught 21 black kites (Milvus migrans) and GPS-tracked them while flying over the
Tarifa region, on the Spanish side of the Strait of Gibraltar. This region has a diverse topography and
land cover, favouring a heterogeneous updraft spatial distribution. Bird tracks were segmented and
classified into flight modes from...
Peris, Josep E.; Rodriguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Fedriani, José Maria
For four decades, an influential hypothesis has posited that competition for food resources between
microbes and vertebrates selects for microbes to alter these resources in ways that make them
unpalatable to vertebrates. We chose an understudied cross kingdom interaction to experimentally
evaluate the effect of fruit infection by fungi on both vertebrate (mammals and birds) fruit preferences
and on ecologically relevant fruit traits (volatile compounds, toughness, etc). Our well-replicated field
experiments revealed that, in contrast to previous studies, frugivorous mammals and birds consistently
preferred infested over intact fruits. This was concordant with the higher level of attractive volatiles
(esters, ethanol) in infested fruits. This investigation suggests that...
Borda-de-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert J.; Cardoso, Pedro; Rigal, François; Santos, Ana M.C.; Amorim, Isabel R.; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Triantis, Kostas A.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Borges, Paulo A.
Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a
major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work
on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data on
arthropods to test predictions obtained with computer simulations on whether dispersal ability
influences the rate of change of SADs as a function of sample size. To characterize the change of the
shape of the SADs we use the moments of the distributions: the skewness and the raw moments. In
agreement with computer simulations, low dispersal ability species generate a hump for...
Moreira, Francisco; Calado, Gonçalo; Dias, Susana
Nunes, Leónia; Gower, Stith T.; Peckham, Scott D.; Magalhães, Marco; Lopes, Domingos; Rego, Francisco Castro
Studies about the productivity of forest ecosystems help to quantify sequestered carbon and provide data that are
used in forest management. Forests in northern Portugal are an important economic resource, but their productivity
in scenarios of future climate change is not yetwell understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate
and compare simulated net primary production (NPP) andNPPbased onmeasured data of twotree species located
in the Vila Real district forests, pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) and oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and assess their simulatedNPPin
diverse climate conditions, including future climate scenariosandincreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
An ecosystem process model, Biome-BGC, which simulates carbon, nitrogen and water cycles...
Santana, Joana; Reino, Luís; Stoate, Chris; Borralho, Rui; Carvalho, Carlos Rio; Schindler, Stefan; Moreira, Francisco; Bugalho, Miguel N.; Ribeiro, Paulo Flores; Santos, José Lima; Vaz, Alexandre; Morgado, Rui; Porto, Miguel; Beja, Pedro
Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation funding is crucial for correct allocation
of limited resources. Here we used bird monitoring data to assess the
effects of long-term conservation investment in a Natura 2000 (N2000) bird
protection area (PA), which during two decades benefited from protection regulations,
conservation projects, and agri-environment schemes. Variation between
1995–1997 and 2010–2012 in richness and abundance of flagship (Otis
tarda, Tetrax tetrax, and Falco naumanni) and specialized fallow field species were
more favorable (i.e., increased more or declined less) inside the PA than in a
nearby control area. However, the reverse was found for total bird species,
farmland, ground-nesting and steppe species, species associated to ploughed
Ferreira, Mário; Filipe, Ana Filipa; Bardos, David C.; Magalhães, Maria Filomena; Beja, Pedro
Controlling for imperfect detection is important for developing species distribution
models (SDMs). Occupancy-detection models based on the time needed to
detect a species can be used to address this problem, but this is hindered when
times to detection are not known precisely. Here, we extend the time-to-detection
model to deal with detections recorded in time intervals and illustrate the
method using a case study on stream fish distribution modeling. We collected
electrofishing samples of six fish species across a Mediterranean watershed in
Northeast Portugal. Based on a Bayesian hierarchical framework, we modeled
the probability of water presence in stream channels, and the probability of species
occupancy conditional on water...
Cooper-Bohannon, Rachael; Rebelo, Hugo; Jones, Gareth; Cotterill, Fenton; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, M.Corrie; Taylor, Peter; Park, Kirsty
Species distribution models were used to predict bat species richness across southern Africa and
to identify potential drivers of these spatial patterns. We also identified species richness within
each biotic zone and the distributions of species considered of high conservation priority. We used
this information to highlight conservation priorities for bats in southern Africa (defined here as
between the latitudes of 8° S, slightly north of Zambia, to the southern tip of Africa 34° S, an area
of approximately 9781840 km2). We used maximum entropy modelling (Maxent) to model habitat
suitability for 58 bat species in order to determine the key eco-geographical variables influencing
their distributions. The...
Madeira, Pedro M.; Chefaoui, Rosa M.; Cunha, Regina L.; Moreira, Francisco; Dias, Susana; Calado, Gonçalo; Castilho, Rita
The Iberian Peninsula has an extensive record of species displaying strong genetic
structure as a result of their survival in isolated pockets throughout the Pleistocene
ice ages. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to analyze phylogeographic
patterns in endemic land snails from a valley of central Portugal (Vale da
Couda), putatively assigned to Candidula coudensis, that show an exceptionally narrow
distributional range. The genetic survey presented here shows the existence of five
main mitochondrial lineages in Vale da Couda that do not cluster together suggesting
independent evolutionary histories. Our results also indicate a departure from the
expectation that species with restricted distributions have low genetic variability. The
Moreira, Francisco; Encarnação, Vitor; Rosa, Gonçalo; Gilbert, Nathalie; Infante, Samuel; Costa, Julieta; D'Amico, Marcello; Martins, Ricardo C.; Catry, Inês
Power lines are increasingly widespread across many regions of the planet. Although these linear
infrastructures are known for their negative impacts on bird populations, through collision and
electrocution, some species take advantage of electricity pylons for nesting. In this case, estimation
of the net impact of these infrastructures at the population level requires an assessment of trade-offs
between positive and negative impacts. We compiled historical information (1958–2014) of the
Portuguese white stork Ciconia ciconia population to analyze long-term changes in numbers,
distribution range and use of nesting structures. White stork population size increased 660% up to
12000 breeding pairs between 1984 and 2014. In the same period,...