Ramos-Villagrasa, Pedro J.; Silva, Pedro Marques-Quinteiro Fernandes da; Navarro, José; Rico, Ramón
At the turn of the century, Arrow, McGrath, and Berdahl portrayed teams
as complex adaptive systems (CAS). And yet, despite broad agreement that
this approach facilitates a better understanding of teams, it has only now
been timidly incorporated into team research. To help fully incorporate the
logic of teams as CAS in the science of teams, we review extant research
on teams approached from a nonlinear dynamical system theory. Using a
systematic review approach, we selected 92 articles published over the last
17 years to integrate what we know about teams as CAS. Our review reveals
the evidence supporting teams as CAS, and the set of analytical techniques...
Curral, Luís Alberto; Leitão, Paulo; Gomes, Catarina; Silva, Pedro Marques-Quinteiro Fernandes da; Lind, Pedro G.
This research tested the hypothesis that enabling leadership behaviors are positively related to the objective and
subjective dimensions of teamwork effectiveness. Hypotheses testing was done during a laboratory task in which
40 teams of 5 people each (N = 200) engaged in a simulation task using the pc game SimCity4. The results suggest
that enabling leadership and task cohesion are not related to team performance, R2 = .08, MSE = 1.02, F(4, 35) = .79,
p = .54; and that enabling leadership is positively related to team viability, mediated by task cohesion, R2 = .71, MSE =
0.31, F(4, 35) = 21.87, p < .001....
Cesário, Francisco J. Santos; Chambel, Maria José
The need for a strong organizational commitment and a high work engagement have been frequently labelled by
organization as critical success factors to achieve higher performance. But are they in fact related to employee
performance? And if so, do they have the same strength and intensity as performance predictors? In this study, we
used a Work Engagement Scale, commitment scale and employee performance measured through an almost real
performance measure, where employees were asked to indicate the latest year’s performance appraisal rating
reported by their manager. Data analysed (N = 274 workers) first confirmed the existence of a positive relation
between performance and effective commitment, normative...
Cesário, Francisco J. Santos; Magalhães, Sara Serra De
Framed by a social exchange perspective, this study address the issue of whether positive employees’
perceptions about human resource management practices influence positive attitudes and
behaviour. We hypothesize that human resource management practices (HRMP) have a significant
negative effect on intention to voluntary leave the organization and a positive effect on organizational
citizenship behaviour (OCB), and that OCB could mediate the relationship between HRMP and
turnover intention. A sample of 165 employees from the Portuguese public administration participated
in the study. Data was analysed through descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis
and hypotheses were tested using single and multiple linear regressions. Results indicate that HRMP
is positively associated with...
Cesário, Francisco J. Santos
Increased research has been focused on establishing positive effects of HR practices on behaviors outcomes and firm performance and less attention has been taken to the perceptions of employees about the importance of the HR management practices on their professional development and career success. In particularly, we wanted to understand these perceptions under a deep economic and labor recession context, such as the one in Portugal between 2010-2014. With this assumption, our study aims to present an instrument that accurately captures employees’ perceptions of the importance of Human Resources management practices promoted by organizations. Based on literature, a written questionnaire...
Smarr, Benjamin L.; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Driscoll, Joseph R.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.
The circadian system has pronounced influence on learning and memory, manifesting as marked changes
in memory acquisition and recall across the day. From a mechanistic perspective, the majority of studies
have investigated mammalian hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, as this system is highly
tractable. The hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory, and has the potential to integrate
circadian information in many ways, including information from local, independent oscillators, and
through circadian modulation of neurogenesis, synaptic remodeling, intracellular cascades, and epigenetic
regulation of gene expression. These local processes are combined with input from other oscillatory
systems to synergistically augment hippocampal rhythmic function. This overview presents an...
Silver, Rae; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.
Circadian rhythms are generated by an endogenously organized timing system that drives daily rhythms in behavior, physiology
and metabolism. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the locus of a master circadian clock.
The SCN is synchronized to environmental changes in the light:dark cycle by direct, monosynaptic innervation via the retino-hypothalamic
tract. In turn, the SCN coordinates the rhythmic activities of innumerable subordinate clocks in virtually all bodily tissues
and organs. The core molecular clockwork is composed of a transcriptional/post-translational feedback loop in which clock genes
and their protein products periodically suppress their own transcription. This primary loop connects to downstream output...
Sanders, Karin; Shipton, Helen; Gomes, Jorge F. S.
Ten years ago, Bowen and Ostroff (2004) criticized the one-sided focus on
the content-based approach, where researchers take into account the inherent
virtues (or vices) associated with the content of HR practices to explain
performance. They explicitly highlight the role of the psychological processes
through which employees attach meaning to HRM. In this fi rst article of the
special section entitled “Is the HRM Process Important?” we present an overview
of past, current, and future challenges. For past challenges, we attempt
to categorize the various research streams that originated from the seminal
piece. To outline current challenges, we present the results of a content analysis
of the original 15...