Sousa, Daniel Cunha Monteiro de
There is a lack of clarity about the technical interventions of existential psychotherapy. The approach has been described dichotomously as being more descriptive or more hermeneutic, as being anti-technique or relying on intervention exclusively experiential nature. This paper presents a genetic-phenomenological approach of existential psychotherapy and argues that it uses both postures and therapeutic techniques that are interconnected and influence each other in the therapeutic process. The existential therapist’s interventions are based in part on common factors but also on specific techniques. The paper presents a theoretical framework of existential psychotherapy and a definition of the postures and intervention techniques...
Correia, Edgar A.; Lima, Vítor André Diaz y Pais Sartóris de; Fernandes, Tiago Miguel Dos Santos; Cooper, Mick; Berdondini, Lucia; Sousa, Daniel Cunha Monteiro de; Pires, Branca Sá; Fonseca, João Eusébio da
Within the major therapeutic paradigms, observational instruments have
been developed to assess orientation-specific interventions or processes.
However, to date, no such instrument exists to assess existential
practices. Recent research indicates the key practices of existential
therapists, and forms an empirical basis on which to develop an
observatory grid. This paper describes the development of such a grid,
and its exploratory testing with eight clients of four Portuguese
existential psychotherapists. A total of 32 sessions were observed and
both speaking turn and whole-session analysis showed that it was
feasible to assess existential therapy using the instrument, although
psychometric findings recommend further refinement of the tool.
Session-rating data suggest that the chief practices...
Pires, António Augusto Pazo; Goncalves, João; Sá, Vânia; Silva, Andrea Manuela Melo; Sandell, Rolf
A systematic method is presented whereby material from a full course of psychoanalytic treatment is analyzed to assess changes and identify patterns of change. Through an analysis of session notes, changes were assessed using the CHange After Psychotherapy scales (CHAP; Sandell 1987a), which evaluate changes in five rating variables (symptoms, adaptive capacity, insight, basic conflicts, and extratherapeutic factors). Change incidents were identified in nearly every session. Early in the analysis, relatively more change incidents related to insight were found than were found for the other types of change. By contrast, in the third year and part of the fourth year,...
Silva, Sofia A.; Pires, António Augusto Pazo; Gouveia, Maria João Pinheiro Morais
Pretende fazer-se uma revisão da literatura acerca da parentalidade de mães
toxicodependentes, abordando as 1) consequências da toxicodependência na maternidade
e 2) as condições ambientais e contextuais dos pais toxicodependentes,
e suas famílias de origem. A literatura atual aponta para um comportamento
parental perturbado das mães toxicodependentes, embora saliente a importância
da gravidez e maternidade como fator predisponente ao início de um tratamento
e recuperação. São referidos efeitos disruptivos na saúde, nascimento e desenvolvimento
pós-natal das crianças, na qualidade do vínculo e da interação mãe-filho,
bem como repercussões que se refletem na inadequação de cuidados maternais
e risco aumentado de negligência e abuso. A investigação focaliza a atenção em
Carvalheira, Ana Alexandra; Traeen, Bente; Stulhofer, Aleksandar
The relation between masturbation and sexual desire has not been systematically studied. The present
study assessed the association between masturbation and pornography use and the predictors and
correlates of frequent masturbation (several times a week or more often) among coupled heterosexual
men who reported decreased sexual desire. Analyses were carried out on a subset of 596 men
with decreased sexual desire (mean age = 40.2 years) who were recruited as part of a large online
study on male sexual health in 3 European countries. A majority of the participants (67%) reported
masturbating at least once a week. Among men who masturbated frequently, 70% used pornography
Sousa, Daniel Cunha Monteiro de
The criteria for the validation of qualitative research are still open to discussion. This
article has two aims: first, to present a summary of concepts, emerging from the field
of qualitative research that present answers regarding issues of validation, reliability,
and generalization; and second, to propose six concepts that allow the monitoring of
the validation of phenomenological research within the context of qualitative research
in psychology—intentionality, psychological phenomenological reduction, eidetic psychological
analysis, syntheses of identification, phenomenon versus individual, and
invariant structures. It is argued that there are general criteria that qualitative methods
must meet, and specific methodological criteria to monitor the quality control. A final
definition is proposed, to...
Ferrajão, Paulo; Oliveira, Rui Aragão Gomes
This study explored the factors to which a sample of Portuguese war veterans attributed their recovery
from posttraumatic symptoms related to their war experiences. Participants were a sample (n 60) of
war veterans with mental sequelae of the Portuguese Colonial war: 30 suffered from chronic PTSD
(unrecovered) and 30 veterans with remission from PTSD (recovered). Two individual semistructured
interviews were conducted. Analysis of the interviews was conducted using the Thematic and Categorical
Analysis. Six themes were identified to which participants attributed their recovery: war zone stressors,
stressful life events, mental and coping strategies, self-integration in personal schemas of morally
incongruent experiences, self-awareness of mental states, and perceived...
Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart
Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense...
Magalhães, Eunice; Salgueira, Ana; Gonzalez, António José C. A.; Costa, José Joaquim; Costa, Manuel João; Costa, Patrício; Lima, Margarida Pedroso
The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the
Portuguese adaptation of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and to compare the obtained
structure to the original North American version. The methods of analysis used for cross-validation
of the factorial structure were the Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) and the Confi rmatory Factor
Analysis (CFA). PAF reproduced the original structure of NEO-FFI and CFA revealed a satisfactory
fi t of single-factor models for the fi ve dimensions. The reliability analysis showed high values of
internal consistency which are congruent with previous international adaptations of the NEO-FFI.
Multidimensional analysis showed signifi cant main...
Cláudio, Victor; Noronha, Maria; Balola, Michele Ferreira
Basing ourselves upon the cognitive processing and recall of information, we studied
directed forgetting in a sample of individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The sample
consisted of 30 such subjects and also included 15 subjects diagnosed with panic disorder and 30
subjects without a psychopathological disorder. The depressed subjects were evaluated on two
occasions three months apart. We used a series of clinical scales and a Directed Forgetting Task.
The results indicated that the instruction to forget was effective for the three groups. Depressed
subjects showed a bias towards negative information in the processing and recall of information in
depressed subjects. In addition, a self-characterisation task...
Sousa, Daniel Cunha Monteiro de
A new framework for phenomenological psychology is proposed based on
Husserl’s static and genetic methods. Static phenomenology holds a eidetic
psychology centred on the processes of noetic-noematic constitution and
elaborates typologies and general notions about human beings in connection
with the world. Genetic analysis is research into facticity, it focus on the personal
history of a subject, which is constantly in the process of becoming. When the
temporal dimension of consciousness is considered, the phenomenological
method becomes ‘static’, as it excludes the factitious dimension of self, its
personal and individual history, sedimented in layers of meaning, which are in
part pre-reflective, non-thematic and anonymous to the self, but which
Nodin, Nuno; Valera, Pamela; Ventuneac, Ana; Maynard, Emily; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
The Internet has become a venue for men who have sex with men to search for sexual
partners. Some of these men intentionally seek unprotected anal intercourse with other
men (‘bareback’ sex). This paper focuses on the creation, use, and content of Internet
personal profiles of men who have sex with men in the greater New York City
metropolitan area who use bareback sites for sexual networking. We used a mixedmethods
approach to examine data from a cybercartography of Internet sites conducted
during the first phase of the research (199 personal profiles) and from in-depth
interviews conducted during its second phase (120 men who have sex with...