Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (122.777 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Química

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 141

  1. Improvements of air quality simulations of particulate matter in the Iberian peninsula with road dust resuspension and dust emission modules

    Paz Martín, David de la; Borge García, Rafael; Vedrenne, Michel
    The Mediterranean Basin is one of the most sensitive zones in the planet to air pollution. Besides anthropogenic emissions, the Iberian Peninsula is affected by natural particule matter (PM) sources. Dry weather conditions allow road dust to be resuspended by vehicle-induced turbulence. These emissions may be as important as those directly emitted by vehicles (combustion and from road abrasion and tyre and break wear processes). In addition, it is widely documented that crustal particles transported from the Saharan Desert may contribute significantly to ambient PM concentration in Madrid. This poster summarizes the methodology and results of the implementation of a...

  2. Modelling the effects of local emission abatement measures in hot-spots of Madrid

    Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Borge García, Rafael
    This work aims at estimating NOx and PM10 emissions from road traffic with high spatial and temporal resolution (seconds and meters). This is useful to understand the effect of local abatement measures and it is an essential input to microscale air quality models. For that, 1-hour representative traffic scenarios are simulated with the traffic microsimulation model VISSIM in selected hot-spots. Measured traffic data (fluxes and fleet composition) are used as inputs for the model to obtain speed-time profiles for each vehicle. These profiles are used to calculate specific emission factors for different vehicle classes according to the VERSIT+micro model through...

  3. CFD modelling of particle matter dispersion in a real hot-spot

    Santiago, José Luis; Sanchez, Beatriz; Martín, Fernando; Martilli, Alberto; Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Paz Martín, David de la; Borge García, Rafael; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Díaz, Elías; Artíñano, Begoña; Yagüe, C.; Blanco, C.; Vardoulakis, Sotiris
    Urban air quality is one of the main environmental concerns. The interaction between atmosphere and buildings induces complex flows within the streets and squares. This fact joint with the traffic emissions produce a heterogeneous distribution of pollutants with high gradients of concentration. The main objective of this work is to obtain high resolution maps of particle matter concentration using a CFD model so as to analyze air quality and population exposure. This study is focused on a heavily trafficked roundabout in Madrid (Fernandez Ladreda square). To achieve this objective, CFD modelling coupled with detailed emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 and...

  4. Modelling reactive pollutants dispersion in an urban hot-spot in summer conditions using a CFD model coupled with meteorological mesoscale and chemistry-transport models

    Sanchez, Beatriz; Santiago, José Luis; Martín, Fernando; Martilli, Alberto; Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Paz Martín, David de la; Borge García, Rafael
    Air quality assessment requires detailed studies about urban air pollution. In a city, the interaction between atmosphere and urban morphology induces complex flow pattern which leads to irregular spatial distributions of pollutants in the streets. In addition, the influence of chemical reactions and the variability of air temperature and wind make difficult to reproduce the pollutants dispersion at microscale during long periods, especially in summer conditions. The aim of this work is to simulate reactive pollutants dispersion in summer conditions in an urban hot-spot using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. In summer, the high solar radiation and the high...

  5. Traffic Emission Simulation and Validation with Measured Data in South Korea

    Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Kwak, K. H.; Borge García, Rafael; Lee, S. B.
    In major urban areas, air quality is directly related to traffic emissions. Major efforts have been made in recent years to compute emissions from simulated traffic conditions at microscale level in an accurate way. To validate this modelling techniques on-road air pollutant emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) estimated from mobile monitoring laboratory data are compared to the computed emissions results. The selected location is a traffic hot-spot with more than 4000 vehicles at weekday peak hours. The study area is a 300 m x 300 m domain focused on a signalized intersection of two major roads in Seoul (South Korea)....

  6. TECNAIRE. Técnicas para la mejora de la calidad del aire urbano

    Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta
    TECNAIRE (innovative technologies for the assessment and improvement of urban air quality) is a scientific programme funded by the Directorate General for Universities and Research of the Greater Madrid Region (S2013/MAE-2972). This research project ultimately aims to solve air quality issues in the Greater Madrid Region (CM) by bridging the gaps among the modelling and measuring techniques to consistently assess air quality in urban environments. The expected output from this research effort is a significant contribution to atmospheric science with a decided focus on providing useful information and tools to air quality managers and decision-makers, so that the project is also...

  7. Comparison of Microscale Traffic Emission Models for Urban Networks

    Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Smit, R.; Borge García, Rafael; Hickman, M.
    Traffic is the major source of pollution in many cities. Despite recent efforts to improve air quality, some issues (usually related to NOX and PM) remain in urban areas worldwide. Ambient air quality standards non-compliance situations are often linked to traffic-related hot-spots. The assessment of potential solutions for such locations requires very high-resolution models that can successfully capture the complexity of the processes that determine emissions from mobile sources and provide accurate inputs for highly detailed microscale air quality models. These estimations are based on acceleration-deceleration processes and speed that are significantly influenced by congestion. There are several approaches that...

  8. Diversidad bacteriana en suelos de zonas contaminadas y no contaminadas de una mina de cobre = Bacterial diversity in soils from contaminated and uncontaminated areas of a copper mine

    Navas, Marinela; Pérez Esteban, Javier; Prieto Godoy, Mario; Rodriguez Iglesias, Alejandro; Masaguer Rodríguez, Alberto; Moliner Aramendia, Ana María
    Para entender la dinámica ecológica del suelo es de primordial importancia realizar un esquema de la distribución filogenética de las distintas bacterias que viven en él. Los análisis moleculares, en especial el metagenómico, puede aportar información detallada sobre la diversidad, estructura y funcionamiento de los microorganismos presentes en un suelo, información que pueden servir como base para su manejo y recuperación. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la diversidad de las comunidades bacterianas en dos zonas de un suelo minero ubicado en la comunidad de Madrid. Los muestreos se realizaron en dos zonas de la mina identificadas como zona...

  9. Determination of Methane Oxidation in Landfill Fugitive Emissions by 13C Isotope Measurements

    Sánchez Fernández, Carlos; Fuente García-Soto, María del Mar de la; Narros Sierra, Adolfo; Peso Díaz, Maria Isabel del; Rodríguez Hurtado, Encarnación
    Still today, the final destiny of a large part of the waste dumped is landfilling, which is an important source of methane. Quantifying the amount of methane that is oxidized when the landfill gas passes through the seal, it can provide valuable information when determining the total GHG potential emission of a landfill. In this work, methane oxidation has been determined for landfill gas samples taken on the surface of three Spanish landfills. For this, it has been determined the 13C isotopic signal in methane by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS-WS). Previously, the preference of methanotrophic bacteria for 12C isotope versus...

  10. Remoción de Boro a partir óxidos mixtos derivados de Hidróxidos Dobles Laminares

    Heredia, Angélica C.; Bálsamo, Nancy F.; Comini, A.; Fuente García-Soto, María del Mar de la; Narros Sierra, Adolfo; Crivello, Mónica E.
    La contaminación hídrica es una preocupación a nivel mundial, la escasez de recursos hídricos y falta de métodos eficaces de descontaminación han incentivado al estudio de nuevos materiales y tecnologías para la remediación de agua. El boro está presente de manera natural en aguas subterráneas por procesos geotérmicos, principalmente como B(OH)4-, la concentración máxima permitida por la OMS es de 0,5 ppm. Los óxidos mixtos derivados por calcinación de los hidróxidos dobles laminares, presentan estabilidad térmica, alta área superficial y poseen la capacidad de recuperar su estructura laminar en presencia de soluciones acuosas por incorporación del oxianión en la intercapa,...

  11. Remoción de boro en agua empleando óxidos mixtos con metales alcalinotérreos sintetizados a partir de Hidróxidos Dobles Laminares.

    Heredia, Angélica C.; Bálsamo, Nancy F.; Fuente García-Soto, María del Mar de la; Narros Sierra, Adolfo; Crivello, Mónica E.
    El Boro y sus compuestos tienen una amplia variedad de aplicaciones en la industria química, la electrónica y la medicina. En la naturaleza se encuentra presente en aguas subterráneas en forma de ácido Bórico H3BO3 o disociado como oxianión borato B(OH)4-. Los Hidróxidos Dobles Laminares poseen la fórmula general [M(II)1-XM(III)X(OH)2]x+(Anx/n).m H2O. Donde M(II) y M(III) representan los cationes di y trivalentes respectivamente y An- al anión. Los óxidos metálicos mixtos se sintetizaron por co-precipitación. El tercer metal, Ca o Ba, sustituyó el 15% en moles de Mg, la relación de cationes M2+/M3+ se mantuvo constante e igual a 3. Por...

  12. How the surrounding environment affects the biosensing performance of resonant nanopillars arrays: Under dry conditions or immersed in fluid

    López Hernández, Ana; Casquel Del Campo, Rafael; Holgado Bolaños, Miguel; Cornago, Iñaki; Fernández, Fátima; Ciaurriz, Paula; Sanza Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier; Santamaría Fernández, Beatriz; Maigler, M. Victoria; Quintero Moreno, Sergio Andrés; Laguna Heras, Maria Fe
    In this work we demonstrate the advantage of performing the biosensing process of a refractive indexoptical biosensor under dry conditions, in comparison with the biosensing structure immersed in fluid.We developed a biosensing experiment over a specific transducer based on resonant nanopillars (R-NPs)arrays. The optical interrogation to monitor the recognition events was firstly performed with the R-NPsin dry, only in contact with the air, and secondly with the R-NPs immersed in water. We observed asignificant enhance in the sensitivity of the biosensing curve response for the R-NPs in dry conditions,leading an improvement of the Limit of Detection (LoD) in more than...

  13. Efecto del reciclado mecánico simulado en las propiedades de nanocompuestos poli(ácido láctico) - haloisita destinados a aplicaciones de envasado

    Beltrán González, Freddys; Orden Hernández, María Ulagares de la; Lorenzo Esteban, Vicente; Martínez Urreaga, Joaquín
    El incremento previsto en el consumo de poli(ácido láctico) (PLA) en los próximos años, especialmente en aplicaciones de envasado, justifica el interés de estudiar el reciclado mecánico como alternativa para el manejo de los residuos de PLA, reduciendo así el consumo de materias primas y energía. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el efecto del reciclado mecánico en las propiedades y estructura de un nanocompuesto de PLA y haloisita. Para ello se ha sometido un nanocompuesto con 2% m/m de haloisita a un proceso de reciclado que incluye un envejecimiento acelerado y un reprocesado. Los resultados de viscosidad intrínseca...

  14. Validation of the Hirst-Type Spore Trap for Simultaneous Monitoring of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Biodiversities in Urban Air Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing

    Nuñez Hernández, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Ferencova, Zuzana; Rastrojo, Alberto; Guantes, Raúl; García, Ana M.; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A. Montserrat; Moreno Gómez, Diego Alejandro
    Pollen, fungi, and bacteria are the main microscopic biological entities present in outdoor air, causing allergy symptoms and disease transmission and having a significant role in atmosphere dynamics. Despite their relevance, a method for monitoring simultaneously these biological particles in metropolitan environments has not yet been developed. Here, we assessed the use of the Hirst-type spore trap to characterize the global airborne biota by high-throughput DNA sequencing, selecting regions of the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer for the taxonomic assignment. We showed that aerobiological communities are well represented by this approach. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of two...

  15. Antigen-Antibody Affinity for Dry Eye Biomarkers by Label Free Biosensing. Comparison with the ELISA Technique

    Laguna Heras, Maria Fe; Holgado Bolaños, Miguel; López Hernández, Ana; Santamaría Fernández, Beatriz; Lavín Hueros, Álvaro; Soria, Javier; Suarez, Tatiana; Bardina, Carlota; Jara, Mónica; Sanza Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier; Casquel Del Campo, Rafael
    The specificity and affinity of antibody-antigen interactions is a fundamental way to achieve reliable biosensing responses. Different proteins involved with dry eye dysfunction: ANXA1, ANXA11, CST4, PRDX5, PLAA and S100A6; were validated as biomarkers. In this work several antibodies were tested for ANXA1, ANXA11 and PRDX5 to select the best candidates for each biomarker. The results were obtained by using Biophotonic Sensing Cells (BICELLs) as an efficient methodology for label-free biosensing and compared with the Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) technique.

  16. Comparing Madrid and Salvador GHG emission inventories: implications for future researches

    Silveira Andrade, José Célio; Dameno Nielsen, Andrea; Pérez Rodríguez, Javier; Andrés Almeida, Juan Manuel de; Lumbreras Martin, Julio
    This paper compares the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission inventories of Madrid and Salvador and discusses some implications for future researches, focusing on citylevel carbon accounting (CLCA) of emissions from urban supply chains (USC) and final consumers. To carry out this study, secondary data were collected from official documents of municipal governments of these two cities. According to the results, there are differences in stationary energy GHG emissions due to the big distinction concerning electricity emission factors used by each city. Air transportation GHG emissions are also very different. These two cities share some common figures regarding road transportation and per...

  17. New electrodes prepared by Pt/Ru e-beam evaporation for application in fuel cell

    Carrillo Ramiro, Isabel; Santiago Carretero, Óscar; Raso García, Miguel Ángel; Mora Peña, Eleuterio; García García-Tuñón, Miguel Ángel; Navarro Arevalo, Emilio; Leo Mena, Teresa de Jesus
    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), as environmentally friendly energy devices, are being intensively studied due to their numerous advantages with respect to other energy storing systems, including low environmental impact, high-energy density, high-efficiency and low noise, portable applications. One of the main problems of these fuel cells is the cost of the MEA due to the platinum content as catalyst. The Pt-Rub binary alloy electrocatalyst appears as the most promising formulation to oxidize the methanol at DMFC anodes. Pt sites in Pt-Ru alloys are especially involved in both the methanol dehydrogenation step and strong chemisorption of methanol residues. The aim of...

  18. Metodología de los trabajos de campo para la prospección de zeolitas naturales

    Costafreda Mustelier, Jorge Luis
    Los yacimientos de zeolitas naturales, como cualquier otro, están sujetos a normas de investigación que varían en dependencia de las necesidades del momento. En los últimos seis años, por citar un ejemplo, el estudio y la explotación de los recursos no metálicos en España, incluyendo las zeolitas naturales, ha experimentado un fuerte declive que ubica la demanda muy por debajo de las cifras conocidas antes del 2008, fecha en que se destapó la verdadera cara de la llamada “burbuja inmobiliaria”, cuya ruptura arrastró consigo, en una espectacular y desastrosa caída, un mercado que representaba el trabajo y las aspiraciones de...

  19. Cation exchange testsof natural zeoliteswith rare earth elements

    Cháves, Sandra; Canoira López, Laureano; Martín Sánchez, Domingo Alfonso; Costafreda Mustelier, Jorge Luis; Del Barrio, Santiago
    he present work aims to analyze the effectiveness of natural zeolites for the concentration of certain elements in the rare earth group, as well as some associated cations. The work has been centered on four samples of natural zeolites from Cuba that are characterized by physical, chemical and mineralogical methods, which confirm their membership to the mordenite zeolite family, except one that was discarded in the exchange tests because it belonged to the heulandite family. The elements exchange tests were carried out over a period of 168 hours with the cations: Y3+, Eu3+, Yb3+, Ba2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ y Ni2+. Initial...

  20. Properties of photocatalytic render cement based in globalization age

    Laplaza Guerra, Agustín; Ayuso Sánchez, Julia; Campos Acosta, Joaquin; Castellote Armero, Marta María; García Santos, Alfonso
    Today´s cities and the process of urbanization have been associated with significant, economic and social environmental transformations. So, rapid, unplanned or inadequately managed urban expansion leads to rapid sprawl, pollution, and environmental degradation, together with unsustainable production, consumption, and growth patterns. Currently, over half of the world’s population (54%) live in urban ecosystems. Around 90% of the urban population in the EU is exposed to concentrations of air pollutants that WHO considers harmful to health. This asseveration is demonstrated by the latest study on air quality in Europe that has published the EEA. In the other hand, the primary energy...

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