Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (120.672 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Agricultura

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 136

  1. Caracterización de cepas aviares de enterococcus faecalis mediante la prueba de letalidad embrionaria

    Blanco Garcia, Ana; Buxade Carbo, Carlos
    Enterococus faecalis (E. faecalis) es el agente causante de la Artropatía Amiloide (AA) en las aves. Dada la dificultad de estimar el riesgo que suponen las cepas de campo de esta bacteria, en la presente experiencia se caracterizaron 68 cepas de E. faecalis mediante la prueba de letalidad embrionaria (ELA) utilizando la tasa de mortalidad embrionaria (TME). Se realizaron un total de 10 ELAs con subgrupos de 7 u 8 cepas y dos grupos control (positivo y negativo). Se utilizaron 100 huevos fecundados por cepa y grupo control. Según la cepa, se inocularon de 3 a 24 unidades formadoras de...

  2. Monitoring maize N status with airborne and ground level sensors

    Quemada Saenz-Badillos, Miguel; Gabriel Pérez, José Luis; Zarco Tejada, Pablo; López de Herrera, Juan; Perez Martin, Enrique; Alonso Ayuso, María
    The anaerobic digestion of food waste for energy recovery produces a nutrient-rich digestate which is a valuable source of crop available nitrogen (N). As with any ‘new’ material being recycled to agricultural land it is important to develop best management practices that maximise crop available N supply, whilst minimising emissions to the environment. The objective of this study was to measure N losses following application of food-based digestate, green/food compost and green compost to agricultural land via ammonia (NH3) volatilisation and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to air, and nitrate (NO3) leaching to water, and to compare these with losses from livestock manure (slurry and solids farmyard...

  3. Caracterización morfológica de la diversidad de razas de Zea mays en la Sierra norte de Ecuador

    Tapia Bastidas, César Guillermo; Paredes Andrade, Nelly Judith; Naranjo Quinaluisa, Edwin Jesús; Tacán, Marcelo; Monteros Altamirano, Álvaro Ricardo; Pérez Ruiz, César; Valverde Vanegas, Yolanda Marilú
    Ecuador tiene gran diversidad genética de maíz con 36 razas, seis de las cuales no están bien definidas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar morfológicamente 129 accesiones provenientes de la zona norte de la Sierra de Ecuador, a fin de contribuir a la conservación de la agrobiodiversidad. Para la caracterización morfológica se utilizaron siete descriptores cualitativos y ocho cuantitativos. La similitud entre las accesiones se analizó con el agrupamiento de Ward y la distancia con el coeficiente de Gower. Se calculó el estadístico Chi-cuadrado (X2 ), el coeficiente de Cramer (V) y el de contingencia (P) para identificar descriptores...

  4. Performance, carcass and ruminal fermentation characteristics of heifers fed concentrates differing in energy level and cereal type (corn vs. wheat)

    Carrasco Barco, Coral; Carro Travieso, Maria Dolores; Fuentetaja, A.; Medel de la Torre, Pedro
    A total of 144 beef heifers (218 ± 26.4 kg body weight) were housed in 24 pens (6 animals each) and used in a 168-day feedlot study to evaluate the influence of cereal type and energy level on performance, carcass quality and ruminal fermentation. Four concentrates were formulated according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two energy levels (1,452 vs. 1,700 kcal net energy/kg) and two main cereals (wheat vs. corn). Concentrate and straw were offered ad libitum. Concentrate intake and body weight were recorded on days 42, 84, 126 and 168. Ruminal fluid was obtained by ruminocentesis...

  5. Sistema de guiado, navegación y control para vehículo eléctrico mediante el uso de sistemas de navegación GNSS y técnicas borrosas

    Panero Martínez, Rubén
    Se estima que el incremento de la población mundial y el crecimiento económico provocarán que la demanda de alimentos se multiplicará por dos en un futuro no muy lejano. Para tratar de dar solución a este problema, surge la Agricultura de Precisión (AP), que conforma las técnicas de gestión de cultivos con el fin de maximizar el rendimiento al mismo tiempo que se respeta el medio ambiente. La AP se compone de varias etapas, que implican la recogida de información del entorno (etapa de Percepción), el procesado de dichos datos y la aplicación de los tratamientos adecuados (etapa de Actuación)....

  6. Influence of particle size of the main cereal of the diet on egg production, gastrointestinal tract traits, and body measurements of brown laying hens

    Herrera Llorente, Jorge; Saldaña Mancebo, Beatriz; Guzmán Medina, María del Pilar; Camara Garcia, Lourdes; Gonzalez Mateos, Gonzal
    The influence of the screen size used to grind the main cereal of the diet on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and body measurements was studied in hens from 17 to 49 wk of age. Diets formed a 2 × 5 factorial with 2 main cereals (corn vs. barley) and 5 screen sizes of the cereal (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mm). Each treatment was replicated 5 times. No interactions between main cereal and screen size were observed for any of the traits studied. Cereal type and screen size did not affect feed intake, egg production, BW gain,...

  7. Desiccation method and cryoconservation affects amino acids composition of embryonic axes of Phaseolus vulgaris L and Arachis hypogaea L.

    Tacán, Marcelo; Tapia, César; Pérez Ruiz, César
    The effect of seeds desiccation and cryopreservation on amino acids content in embryonic axes of two Leguminosae of great economic importance, Phaseolus vulgaris L and Arachis hypogaea L, was studied. Proline content in bean embryonic axes was higher, at 24 h of germination, in the control than in those from desiccated and cryopreserved seeds. There were, later, a proline decrease in the control and embryonic axes from desiccated seeds while increased in axes from cryopreserved seeds. In groundnut, at 24 h, in the control and in embryonic axes from cryopreserved seeds, proline content was lower than in those obtained from...

  8. Evaluation of over-the-row harvester damage in a super-high-density olive orchard using on-board sensing techniques

    Pérez Ruiz, Manuel; Rallo, Pilar; Jiménez, M. Rocío; Garrido Izard, Miguel; Suárez, M. Paz; Casanova, Laura; Valero Ubierna, Constantino; Martínez Guanter, Jorge; Morales Sillero, Ana
    New super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards designed for mechanical harvesting using over-the-row harvesters are becoming increasingly common around the world. Some studies regarding olive SHD harvesting have focused on the effective removal of the olive fruits; however, the energy applied to the canopy by the harvesting machine that can result in fruit damage, structural damage or extra stress on the trees has been little studied. Using conventional analyses, this study investigates the effects of different nominal speeds and beating frequencies on the removal efficiency and the potential for fruit damage, and it uses remote sensing to determine changes in the plant...

  9. Monitoring oxidation changes in commercial extra virgin olive oils with fluorescence spectroscopy-based prototype

    Mishra, Puneet; Lleó García, Lourdes; Cuadrado Domínguez, Teresa; Ruiz Altisent, Margarita; Hernández Sánchez, Natalia
    Maintaining the quality of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) in the current globalised market is a key challenge for the olive oil manufacturers. To maintain the quality, one major factor is to resist its oxidation during processing and storage. Resisting the oxidation in EVOOs is a challenging task requiring control of diferent physical and chemical factors. However, rapid, real-time, and non-destructive monitoring the oxidation in EVOOs could support in maintaining its quality during storage. The present study utilises a novel right-angle fuorescence spectroscopy-based prototype for rapid monitoring of oxidation changes in three diferent EVOOs varieties (Arbequina, Picual, and Cornicabra) during...

  10. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis isolates by Chicken Embryo Lethality Assay and ERIC-PCR.

    Blanco García, Ana Estefanía; Barz, Martin; Cavero, David; Icken, Wiebke; Sharifi, A. Reza; Voss, Matthias; Buxade Carbo, Carlos; Presisinger, Rudolf
    Enterococcus faecalis is the major causative agent of amyloid arthropathy in chickens. Given the difficulty of estimating the risk from field strains, the Embryo Lethality Assay (ELA) is proposed in this study as model to predict the virulence of 68 avian E. faecalis strains. Additionally, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) was used to characterize the genetic diversity of the E. faecalis strains. The ELA was performed ten times with subsets of seven-eight E. faecalis strains each on a sample of 9987 eggs including control groups. Three to 24 colony-forming units were inoculated into the allantoic cavity of...

  11. Vacuolar processing enzyme 4 contributes to maternal control of grain size in barley by executing programmed cell death in the pericarp

    Radchuk, Volodymir; Tran, Van; Radchuk, Ruslana; Díaz Mendoza, María Mercedes; Weier, Diana; Fuchs, Joerg; Riewe, David; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, J.; Munz, Eberhard; Heinzel, Nicolas; Rolletschek, Hardy; Martinez Muñoz, Manuel; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla
    The angiosperm embryo and endosperm are limited in space because they grow inside maternal seed tissues. The elimination of cell layers of the maternal seed coat by programmed cell death (PCD) could provide space and nutrition to the filial organs. Using the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed as a model, we elucidated the role of vacuolar processing enzyme 4 (VPE4) in cereals by using an RNAi approach and targeting the enzymatic properties of the recombinant protein. A comparative characterization of transgenic versus wild-type plants included transcriptional and metabolic profiling, flow cytometry, histology and nuclear magnetic imaging of grains. The recombinant...

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamine on the performance of rabbit does and their litters during the first three lactations

    Delgado Morcillo, Maria Rebeca; Abad Guaman, Rodrigo; Mata, E. de la; Menoyo Luque, David; Nicodemus Martin, Nuria; Garcia Alonso, Javier; Carabaño Luengo, Rosa Maria
    The aim of this work was to study whether the dietary supplementation with arginine (Arg) and glutamine (Gln) or the combination of both influence the digestibility, body composition, and reproductive performance of rabbit does during the first three parturitions. A Control diet containing 29.8 g nitrogen (N), 313 g aNDFom per kg DM and 1.85 g digestible N/MJ digestible energy (DN/DE) was formulated, and another 3 diets were obtained by adding (g/kg) 4 Arg, 4 Gln and a mixture of 4 Arg and 4 of Gln to the Control diet. Eighty nulliparous rabbit does were randomly assigned to the diets...

  13. A diet supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids influences the metabolic and endocrine response of rabbit does and their offspring

    Rodríguez Francisco, María; García García, R. M.; Arias Álvarez, María; Formoso Rafferty, Nora; Millán, P.; López Tello, J.; Lorenzo, P.L.; González Bulnes, Antonio; García Rebollar, Pilar
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the productive, endocrine, and metabolic responses as well as oxidative stress of rabbit does and their offspring when fed a diet supplemented with n -3 PUFA during their first productive cycle. To this aim, a total of 105 rabbit does were fed ad libitum from d 60 to 172 of age 2 isoenergetic and isoproteic diets dif - fering in fatty acid composition. The control diet ( n = 52 does) contained 45.9 g/kg of n -3 of the total fatty acids and the enriched diet ( n = 53 does)...

  14. Effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on performance, meat quality and cecal fermentation of growing rabbits

    Rodríguez Francisco, María; Carro Travieso, Maria Dolores; Valiente, V.; Formoso Rafferty, Nora; García Rebollar, Pilar
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil on growth performance (during all fatening period), carcass characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of muscle and fat tissues (at slaughter), as well as cecal fermentation and ileal mucosa morphology of growing rabbits (at 30, 45, and 60 d of age). Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, only differing in their fat source, were formulated and provided each to 24 does (12 per diet) and their offspring during pregnancy and lactation. The control diet contained 4.59 g of n-3 per 100 g of total FA,...

  15. Contribuciones al desarrollo de un equipo de tratamiento de precisión de cultivos con funcionamiento autónomo basado en mapas de distribución de malas hierbas

    García López, Diego
    Este proyecto trata de diseñar y construir un prototipo capaz de realizar la pulverización de herbicida de manera automática y controlada. El objetivo es que este sea capaz de conocer en cada momento, a partir de un mapa de tratamientos, que zonas del entorno necesitan ser tratadas y realizar dicho tratamiento. La idea básica es partir de un terreno conocido que se va a tratar y ubicar previamente las zonas que requieren de un tratamiento fitosanitario. Posteriormente, cuando el tractor avance con el equipo de tratamiento, conocer continuamente la ubicación de este y decidir en tiempo real qué ha de...

  16. Conservation Agriculture practices reduce the global warming potential of rainfed low N input semi-arid agriculture

    Téllez del Río, Ángela; Vallejo Garcia, Antonio; García Marco, Sonia; Martín Lammerding, Diana; Tenorio, J. L.; Rees, Robert M.; Guardia Vázquez, Guillermo
    Conservation tillage and crop rotations improve soil quality. However, the impact of these practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields is not well defined, particularly in dry climates. A rainfed 2-year field-experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of three long-term (17–18 years) tillage systems (Conventional Tillage (CT), Minimum Tillage (MT) and No Tillage (NT)) and two cropping systems (rotational wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) preceded by fallow, and wheat in monoculture), on nitrous oxide (N2O) andmethane (CH4) emissions,during twofieldcampaigns. Soilmineral N, water-filled pore space, dissolved organic carbon (C) and grain yield were measured and yield-scaled N2O emissions, N...

  17. Effect of inhibitors and fertigation strategies on GHG emissions, NO fluxes and yield in irrigated maize

    Guardia Vázquez, Guillermo; Andreu, Gemma; Sanz Cobeña, Alberto; Garcia Marco, Sonia; Álvarez Álvarez, José Manuel; Recio Huetos, Jaime; Vallejo Garcia, Antonio; Cangani, Max T.
    Abating large losses of nitrogen (N) oxides while maintaining or enhancing crop yield is a major goal in irrigated maize (Zea mays L) cropping areas. During two consecutive campaigns, the new nitrification inhibitor 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) succinic acid isomeric mixture (DMPSA) applied with calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and the same fertilizer applied by drip-fertigation without the inhibitor, were evaluated and compared with CAN broadcast to the surface and irrigated with sprinklers. Concurrently, urea-based treatments such as urea-fertigation and the broadcast application of urea combined with sprinkler irrigation, with or without the urease inhibitor N-butyl thiophosphorictriamide (NBPT), were also assessed. Nitrous oxide (N2O)...

  18. Development of simplified sampling methods for behavioural data in rabbit does

    Alfonso Carrillo, Clara; Martin Bravo, E.; Blas Beorlegui, Juan Carlos de; Ibañez, M.A.; García Ruiz, Ana Isabel; García Rebollar, Paloma
    The aim of this study was to compare the results of different simplified sampling methods for behavioural data compared to reference records of 24-h in order to assess rabbit doe behaviours at different physiological stages (gestation and lactation) in animals housed in 2 types of cages (conventional and alternative). In total, we analysed 576 h of continuous video of 12 rabbit does at the end of lactation and the same females after weaning. The behavioural observations were studied using 3 independent categories of classification (location in the cage, posture and functional behaviours). Continuous behavioural recordings of 24 h were considered...

  19. Conservación de Forrajes (III): Calidad del forraje y del heno

    Callejo Ramos, Antonio
    En esta tercera entrega sobre la conservación de forrajes abordaremos la cuestión de la calidad del forraje y del heno. Podríamos definir calidad del forraje y/o del heno como el potencial que éstos tienen de producir una respuesta deseada en el animal. Dicho de otra forma, el grado en que cubre las necesidades del animal que lo consume. Se analizan en este trabajo aquellos factores que condicionan la calidad del forraje verde original así como los que determinan la calidad del heno que se obtiene y que no han sido expuestos en los dos trabajos anteriores sobre la henificación (Frisona Española nº 119 y nº 120). Asimismo, y de forma previa, se...

  20. Conservación de forrajes (IV): Almacenamiento y suministro de heno

    Callejo Ramos, Antonio
    Sólo en Estados Unidos, cada año se recogen 150 millones de toneladas de heno. Es evidente, pues, la necesidad de minimizar las pérdidas en todo el proceso de henificación, desde la misma siega hasta el momento en que el ganado consume el heno. En las anteriores entregas publicadas en Frisona Española se han analizado las pérdidas que se pueden producir durante el secado del forraje en el campo, su recogida o las derivadas de un almacenamiento con humedad excesiva. En este último trabajo de los dedicados a explicar la conservación de forrajes mediante henificación, vamos a analizar las pérdidas que se producen por un almacenamiento inadecuado y aquéllas que tienen lugar en el propio...

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