Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (106.784 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Agricultura

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 2.016

  1. Evaluación y gestión del ordeño mediante soporte informático

    López, Alejandro; Callejo Ramos, Antonio
    Al hablar de rutina de ordeño, se hacía referencia casi exclusivamente al concepto de repetición, de acción rutinaria y constante en la tarea de preparar a la vaca para el posterior ordeño. Pero se debe tener en cuenta que, detrás del ordeño están los ordeñadores, que son los que en última instancia y por medio de su trabajo extraen la leche de los animales.

  2. Bioseguridad ambiental en vacuno de leche

    Callejo Ramos, Antonio
    La intensificación de la producción lechera ha derivado en la utilización de animales muy productivos pero muy exigentes en lo referente a condiciones de vida, de manejo, de alimentación y de sanidad se refiere, lo que les hace más susceptibles a padecer enfermedades provenientes del exterior o del interior de la granja, al deprimirse su sistema inmunitario.

  3. An exponential fertilization dose–response model to promote restoration of the Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex

    Oliet Pala, Juan Antonio; Uscola, Mercedes; Salifu, Francis; Jacobs, Douglass F.
    Nursery nitrogen (N) fertilization influences seedling N reserves, morphology, photosynthesis rate and stress tolerance and frequently enhances outplanting performance. Although mineral nutrition is a critical aspect of seedling quality, fertility targets of Mediterranean sclerophylous species have not been thoroughly quantified. We sought to define those fertility targets for seedlings of Quercus ilex, a key species in Mediterranean areas. Nine fertility treatments, ranging from 0 to 200 mg N seedling-1 applied under an exponential regime were tested in a greenhouse dose response trial in which phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were increased in the same proportion as N (15N:5P:15K). Height and...

  4. Warning habitats due to climate change: effects of streamflow and temperature changes at the rear edge of the distribution of a coldwater fish.

    Santiago Saez, Jose Maria; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Solana Gutierrez, Joaquin; García de Jalón Lastra, Diego; Alonso González, Carlos; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert; Ribalaygua Batalla, Jaime
    Climate change affects aquatic ecosystems altering temperature and precipitation patterns, and the rear edge of the distribution of cold-water species is especially sensitive to them. The main goal was to predict in detail how change in air temperature and precipitation will affect streamflow, the thermal habitat of a cold-water fish (brown trout, Salmo trutta 15 Linnaeus 1758), and their synergistic relationships at the rear edge of its natural distribution. 31 sites in 14 mountain rivers and streams were studied in Central Spain. Models at several sites were built using regression trees for streamflow, and a non-linear regression method for stream temperature....

  5. The use of vegetation series to assess á and â vegetation diversity and their relationships with geodiversity in the province of Almeria (Spain) with watersheds as operational geographic units

    Pérez Gomez, Rufino; Ibañez, Juan José; Ganis, Paula; Feoli, Enrico
    Abstract With this paper we suggest that vegetation series is a useful conceptual tool to identify a clear level of biodiversity of land systems among the many possible logical levels. The suggestion is supported by the results of a case study carried out for the province of Almeria (Spain) using the watersheds as operational geographic units. The application of standard correlation analysis, simple and partial, the Mantel?s test, and the cluster analysis has shown that ? and ? vegetation diversities, based on vegetation series, are significantly predictive with respect to environmental heterogeneity expressed by pedodiversity, lithodiversity, and some parameters of...

  6. Hyperspectral image applied to determine quality parameters in leafy vegetables

    Lara Blas, Miguel Ángel
    La imagen hiperespectral aúna la espectroscopia con las técnicas de análisis de imagen en un solo sistema, capaz de adquirir un mapa espacial de la variación espectral de la muestra. Ha sido ampliamente estudiada y perfeccionada en los últimos tiempos como una herramienta potencial para el análisis no destructivo y aseguramiento de la calidad de los alimentos, desarrollándose con éxito múltiples aplicaciones en diferentes productos alimentarios. Por otro lado, los productos vegetales mínimamente procesados o listos para consumir, denominados comúnmente productos de cuarta gama, han ganado popularidad desde hace años, al tratarse de productos frescos y saludables, fáciles de preparar...

  7. Comparative study of the inclusion of sunflower hulls in the diet on growth performance and digestive tract traits of broilers and pullets from 0 to 21 days of age

    Kimiaeitalab, Mohammad Vahid
    Se realizaron dos experimentos (Exp.) para evaluar los efectos de la inclusión de un 3% de cascarilla de girasol (CG) en piensos para pollos de engorde y pollitas de recría de puesta sobre el crecimiento, la retención fecal aparente de los nutrientes (RFA), el desarrollo del tracto gastrointestinal (TGI), y la concentración de ácidos grasos de cadena corta (AGCC) a nivel del ciego en aves de 0 a 21 d de edad. En el Exp. 1 se utilizaron cuatro tratamientos organizados como un factorial 2 × 2, con 2 tipos de aves (broilers hembra y pollitas de puesta comercial) y...

  8. Diseño e implantación de un sistema de iluminación suplementario led en un invernadero de investigación en La Grajera, Logroño (La Rioja)

    Villar Alegría, Emilio
    El objeto del proyecto es el diseño de un sistema de control espectral en un invernadero ya construido perteneciente al Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (ICVV) situado en la Finca La Grajera, Logroño, La Rioja. La motivación de este proyecto son: la inexistencia por el momento de un invernadero en una institución investigadora con un control lumínico básico en la región, y la voluntad de la universidad local y del gobierno regional para desarrollar la investigación agrícola pública en lo relativo al estudio de la influencia de determinadas bandas del espectro electromagnético en el desarrollo de...

  9. Atmospheric concentration and deposition of reactive nitrogen in Spanish forests of Quercus ilex

    García Gómez, Héctor
    El depósito atmosférico de nitrógeno (N) es considerado la tercera causa más importante de pérdida de biodiversidad, tras los cambios de uso del suelo y el cambio climático. La cuenca mediterránea presenta una extraordinaria riqueza biológica y se reconoce como uno de los 25 puntos de conservación prioritaria de la diversidad biológica mundial. Sin embargo, hay poca información disponible sobre la amenaza que la contaminación atmosférica puede representar para la biodiversidad en esta región. Esta Tesis se ha desarrollado en el marco del proyecto "Efectos del depósito de N en encinares mediterráneos" (EDEN), que surgió tras la publicación de varias...

  10. Improvement of regulated deficit irrigation in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) : water relations and rootstocks influence

    Memmi, Houssem
    El objetivo general de esta tesis doctoral fue optimizar la gestión del riego en el pistachero en base a la aplicación de estrategias de riego deficitario controlado (RDC) y el uso de indicadores del estado hídrico de la planta. Este propósito implicaba la evaluación de la aplicabilidad y utilidad del potencial hídrico del tronco (Ψs) como herramienta para la programación del riego, así como la evaluación de las respuestas agronómicas y fisiológicas del pistacho a diferentes regímenes de riego y porta-injertos. Para este propósito, pistacheros del cultivar "Kerman", injertados sobre tres patrones diferentes (Pistacia Terebinthus, Pistacia atlantica y Pistacia integerrima)...

  11. Hyperspectral Imaging to Evaluate the Effect of Irrigation Water Salinity in Lettuce

    Lara, M.A.; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Lleó García, Lourdes; Roger, Jean-Michel; Garrido, Y.; Gil, M. I.; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita
    Salinity is one of the most important stress factors in crop production, particularly in arid regions. This research focuses on the effect of salinity on the growth of lettuce plants; three solutions with different levels of salinity were considered and compared (S1 = 50, S2 = 100 and S3 = 150 mM NaCl) with a control solution (Ct = 0 mM NaCl). The osmotic potential and water content of the leaves were measured, and hyperspectral images of the surfaces of 40 leaves (10 leaves per treatment) were taken after two weeks of growth. The mean spectra of the leaves (n...

  12. Growing a population of Cynara cardunculus L. for further selection as a reference energy crop

    Mauri, Pedro Vicente; Plaza, Antonio; Amorós, M. C.; Ruíz Fernández, Juan; Curt Fernández de la Mora, Mª Dolores; Sanz Gallego, Marina; Fernández, J.
    A population of cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC) was grown in Madrid (Spain) as a reference crop to select outstanding individuals for energy applications. The work was carried out within the frame of the Spanish funded projects PROBIOCOM (INIA) and FP13-ENER. Seeds for this work were produced by one of the partners of PROBIOCOM - the Agro-Energy Group of UPM - and came from a clonal crop (in vitro propagated plants) previously grown in Madrid. IMIDRA, as Head of that Project, established the reference crop according to the protocol for cardoon energy crop and was responsible for the...

  13. Energy and compositional characteristics of giant reed grown under different levels of water deficit

    Curt Fernández de la Mora, Mª Dolores; Sanz Gallego, Marina; Sánchez López, Javier; Aguado Cortijo, Pedro Luis; Fernández González, Jesús
    The aim of this work was to investigate if water-deficit conditions affect the energy and compositional characteristics of giant reed when grown under a continental-Mediterranean climate. A two-year field experiment was designed with two sources of variation: water-deficit level (three levels or treatments) and biomass fraction (leaves, stalks), and thirteen variables (biomass properties.

  14. Drop-in biofuels technologies: Jatropha curcas L., an alternative crop for biodiesel to energetically isolated farms in Angola

    Rosenberg, Klaus Philip; Curt Fernández de la Mora, Mª Dolores; Arce Martinez, Augusto
    The new drop-in fuels technologies stream deals with renewable fuels that can be blended with diesel or gasoline meeting current standards and being used in engines without major design modifications. In the last years, the crop of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) has been introduced in the African countries like Tanzania, Zambia and South Africa, among others. The aim of this research is to determine the energy potential of Jatropha for biodiesel production in Angola, with a special focus on the reduction of current consumption of fossil fuels in energetically isolated farms.

  15. Agricultural insurance policies in Spain and the EU: an analysis of existent and new risk management tools focusing on indirect risk assessment, and asymmetric information

    Castañeda Vera, Alba
    A sustainable agricultural insurance system provides benefits to both insurers and insured agents. Equilibrium in the loss ratio and risk pooling are fundamental to guarantee such sustainability. Achieving equilibrium in the loss ratio requires accurate risk estimation. An agricultural insurance risk pool is a concurrence of producers whose different production risks in time and space are combined. Pooling risks together allows the losses of the producers registering claims in a certain year and a certain area to be offset by total premiums paid by producers participating in the system either registering claims or not. Agricultural insurance faces a number of...

  16. Effect of plant density on biomass yield of Cynara cardunculus

    Sanz Gallego, Marina; Mauri, Pedro Vicente; Curt Fernández de la Mora, Mª Dolores; Sanchez, Javier; García Müller, Maximiliano; Plaza, Antonio; Fernandez Gonzalez, Jesus
    Cynara cardunculus L. is a perennial herb that has been proposed as an energy crop in Mediterranean environments because of its adaptation to dry and hot summers. Plant density is an important factor for biomass production but it is related to water availability; therefore, in water-constrained conditions it should be optimized. In this work the effect of plant density on the production of C. cardunculus is studied at field level in the rain-fed conditions of central Spain. The experiment was conducted under Mediterranean-continental conditions, 430 mm annual rainfall and 3-month dry period, on average. Sowing was carried out beginning autumn...

  17. Effect of nitrogen fertigation on the yield of Arundo donax L. grown in central Spain

    Cano Ruiz, Judith; Sanz Gallego, Marina; Curt Fernández de la Mora, Mª Dolores; Plaza, Antonio; Guerrero, A. M.; Lobo, Maria Carmen; Mauri, Pedro Vicente
    Arundo donax L. has been recognized as a promising energy crop for biomass production. Nitrogen is the primary macronutrient with the highest effect on plant production. Different studies have shown that N granular fertilizers slightly increase the biomass yield of giant reed. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of N fertilization applied in fertigation on the yield of Arundo donax grown in Central Spain. The experiment was carried out in field. The fertigation treatment was applied in June and July 2015. Three levels of N were established N0 (0 kgN.ha-1), N1 (60 kgN.ha-1); and N2 (120...

  18. Comparison of different methods of grapevine yield Prediction in the time window Between fruitset and veraison

    De La Fuente Lloreda, Mario; Linares Torres, Rubén; Baeza Trujillo, Pilar; Miranda, Carlos; Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon
    Aim: To compare grape yield prediction methods to determine which provide the best results in terms of earliness of prediction in the growing season, accuracy and precision. Methods and results: The grape yields predicted by six models ? one for use at fruitset (FS), two for use at veraison (V1 and V2), and three for use during the lag phase (LP40, LP50 and LP60) ? were compared to fieldmeasured yields. Regressions for the yield predicted by each model were constructed. The V1 and V2 models had the highest R2 (0.75) and efficiency index (EF; 0.67-0.71) and the lowest RMSE values...

  19. Evaluacion del uso de residuos organicos para la produccion de biochar y su aplicacion como enmienda organica

    Cely Parra, Paola Andrea
    En la actualidad el uso de biochar ha despertado gran interés por sus supuestos aportes en la lucha contra el calentamiento global, la mejora de la calidad de los suelos y el aumento de la productividad de cultivos. Esta tesis se ha centrado en el estudio de los efectos de este material carbonoso en los suelos y en evaluar la viabilidad de gestión de diversos residuos organicos mediante procesos de pirólisis o gasificación. Con este propósito, se estudió la influencia de distintas materias primas y procesos de producción sobre las propiedades de los biochars y los impactos asociados a su...

  20. MtZIP6 is a novel metal transporter required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in nodules of Medicago truncatula plants

    Saez Somolinos, Ángela; Imperial Ródenas, Juan; Gonzalez Guerrero, Manuel
    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) carried out by the interaction rhizobia-legumes takes place in legume root nodules. Many of the enzymes involved in SNF are metalloproteins that obtain their metal cofactor from the host plant. Metals reach the nodule through the vasculature, where they are released in the apoplast on the infection/differentiation zone (zone II) of the nodule (Rodriguez-Haas et al., 2013). From there, these oligonutrients have to cross a number of membranes to be used for metalloprotein synthesis (plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, symbiosomes,..). Although several proteins have been suggested to mediate metal transport to the endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia (bacteroids), very...

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