Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (109.118 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Biología

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 823

  1. Análisis por técnicas morfológicas y secuenciación de ADN del polen atmosférico de la Comunidad de Madrid: estudios preliminares. Morphological analysis and DNA sequencing of atmospheric pollen in Madrid region: preliminary study

    Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A. Montserrat; Ferencova, Zuzana; Núñez, Andrés; Alcamí, Antonio; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Guantes, Raúl; Moreno Gómez, Diego Alejandro
    Hasta el momento, el estudio de las partículas biológicas en el aire que respiramos, se ha dirigido, principalmente, al conocimiento y control del polen y esporas, aeroalérgenos cuyo impacto en salud es bien conocido. Recientemente la comunidad científica ha sugerido que el aire es un ecosistema en sí mismo, que tendría su propia “aerobiota”, compuesta principalmente por virus, bacterias, esporas de hongos y polen. Para estudiar en conjunto toda esta biodiversidad en el aire urbano en la Comunidad de Madrid, surge el consorcio pluridisciplinar AIRBIOTA-CM, que integra a cinco grupos de investigación de áreas muy diferentes, que pretenden obtener una...

  2. Las técnicas de secuenciación masiva en el estudio de la diversidad biológica

    López De Heredia Larrea, Unai
    En la presente revisión se describe la situación actual de las plataformas de secuenciación masiva, señalando sus ventajas y limitaciones para el análisis en organismos no modelo, para a continuación detallar las bases de dos de las técnicas más populares que se benefician de la secuenciación masiva (RAD-seq y RNA-seq) y señalar algunos ejemplos de su uso para el estudio de la diversidad biológica.

  3. El Pino Canario: Un superviviente entre volcanes

    López De Heredia Larrea, Unai; López Rodríguez, Rosa Ana; Collada Collada, Maria Carmen; Pita Andreu, Pilar; Miranda García-Roves, José Carlos; Chano González, Victor Manuel; Soto De Viana, Álvaro; Gil Sanchez, Luis Alfonso
    El pino canario constituye una singularidad dentro del conjunto de pinos, ya que presenta una amplia gama de estrategias que permiten su persistencia y que han sido adquiridas a lo largo de su evolución en un ambiente volcánico. Todos los pinos son especies que presentan adaptaciones frente al fuego y de centran en dos estrategias: 1) una eficiente dispersión posincendio basada en una gran capacidad dispersiva y en la presencia de piñas serótinas; y 2) la resistencia individual, con cortezas gruesas que les permiten alcanzar gran longevidad.

  4. Los Olmos empiezan a recuperar sus territorios

    Gil Sanchez, Luis Alfonso; Gonzalez Doncel, Ines; Collada Collada, Maria Carmen; Garcia Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Martin Garcia, Juan Antonio; Zafra Felipe, Elena Cristina; Domínguez, Jorge; Iglesias, Salustiano; León, David; Macaya-Sanz, David; Medel, David; Miravalles, Oscar; Venturas, Martin David
    El artículo describe la problemática de la grafiosis y el papel del proyecto LIFE+"Olmos Vivos" (LIFE13 BIO/ES/000556)en la recuperación de los olmos.

  5. Libro de Actas del IX Congreso de estudiantes universitarios de Ciencia, Tecnología e Ingeniería Agronómica

    ETSIAAB, UPM
    Compendio de 26 trabajos presentados por estudiantes de la ETSIAAB.

  6. Libro de Actas del VI Congreso de estudiantes universitarios de Ciencia, Tecnología e Ingeniería Agronómica

    ETSIA, UPM
    Compendio de los trabajos presentados en el VI Congreso de estudiantes universitarios que organiza la Escuela de Agrónomos

  7. Restauración de las olmedas ibéricas (Ulmus minor y U. laevis) en zonas riparias de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Miravalles, Oscar; Martin Garcia, Juan Antonio; González Doncel, Inés; García-Viñas, J.I.; Medel, David; Venturas, Martín David; Soto De Viana, Álvaro; Collada Collada, Maria Carmen; Gil Sanchez, Luis Alfonso; Domínguez Nuñez, José Alfonso; León, D.; Iglesias, S.; Gil, L.
    El proyecto LIFE+ “Olmos Vivos” (LIFE13 BIO/ES/000556) tiene como objetivo la restauración de unas formaciones vegetales, las olmedas, que por diversos motivos prácticamente han desaparecido del paisaje forestal español, a pesar de haber poseído un alto valor ecológico y cultural. La grafiosis ha constituido una de las enfermedades forestales más devastadoras, y supuso la práctica desaparición de las olmedas ibéricas de Ulmus minor . En el caso de Ulmus laevis , la alteración de su hábitat ligado a zonas temporalmente encharcadas y riberas ha provocado que las poblaciones españolas se encuentren en riesgo de desaparición. Gracias a la obtención de...

  8. Respuesta fisiológica y química de clones de Ulmus minor susceptibles y resistentes a la grafiosis tras la inoculación con Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Rodriguez Calcerrada, Jesus; Li, Meng; Lopez Rodriguez, Rosa Ana; Venturas, Martín David; Martin Garcia, Juan Antonio; Domínguez Nuñez, José Alfonso; Gordaliza, G. G.; Gil Sanchez, Luis Alfonso
    Los motivos por los que algunos genotipos de Ulmus minor Mill. resisten más que otros a la infección con el hongo patógeno Ophiostoma novo-ulmi son aun desconocida. Con el objetivo de evaluar si la resis- tencia a la enfermedad de la grafiosis está relacionada con la posesión de ciertos rasgos fisiológicos o quí- micos, se compararon clones de U. minor resistentes y susceptibles a la grafiosis, antes y después de la ino- culación con O. novo-ulmi . Se midieron el potencial hídrico, las tasas de respiración y fotosíntesis foliar, y la conductividad hidráulica de ramas terminales y su composición química mediante espectroscopía de infrarrojo (FT-IR). La inoculación con el hongo produjo un...

  9. Mathematical modeling of neuronal connexin-36 channels

    Jaimes-Reátegui, Rider; Barrio, Luis C.; González Nieto, Daniel; Pisarchik, Alexander N.
    Neurotransmission through electrical synapses play an important role in the spike synchrony among neurons and oscillation of neuron networks. Connexin36 (Cx36) is the principal gap junction protein of electrical synapses between inhibitory interneurons in vertebrates. Coupling strength between coupled neurons is modulated, among other factor, by the voltage difference between cell interiors, termed transjunctional voltage (Vj), in a complex manner; with the Vj gradient junctional conductance of Cx36 channels first increases instantaneously (+ 20% for + 100 mV) and then it decreases slowly to half for a similar range of Vj. The significance of this regulation by voltage, a stimulus...

  10. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears

    Ortiz Menéndez, José Eugenio; Fortes, Gloria G.; Grandal-d'anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Loana N.; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-llona, Ana C.; Constantin, Silviu; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel
    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as...

  11. Changes in canola plant architecture and seed physiological quality in response to different sowing densities

    Abrahao Jacob Junior, Elias; Márcia Mertz, Liliane; Henning, Fernando Augusto; Rodríguez Quilón, Isabel; Souza Maia, Manoel de; Duran Altisent, Jose Maria
    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in canola yield components and seed physiological quality in response to different sowing densities. The study was made in a greenhouse at the REIPESOL Company Technological Center, Madrid - Spain, with the commercial "Toccata" hybrid variety. The initial sowing density was 360,000 plants/ha and the plant population was later thinned down to include treatments of 250 and 180 thousand plants/ha. Harvested seeds were sent to the Seed Technology Center Laboratory (CATES) at the Madrid Polytechnic University (UPM) to evaluate changes in plant architecture and yield components, as well as the seed...

  12. Functional brain networks: great expectations, hard times and the big leap forward

    Papo, David; Zanin, Massimiliano; Pineda Pardo, José Ángel; Boccaletti, Stefano; Martín Buldú, Javier
    Many physical and biological systems can be studied using complex network theory, a new statistical physics understanding of graph theory. The recent application of complex network theory to the study of functional brain networks has generated great enthusiasm as it allows addressing hitherto non-standard issues in the field, such as efficiency of brain functioning or vulnerability to damage. However, in spite of its high degree of generality, the theory was originally designed to describe systems profoundly different from the brain. We discuss some important caveats in the wholesale application of existing tools and concepts to a field they were not...

  13. Asymptotic stability of a two species chemotaxis system with non-diffusive chemoattractant

    Tello del Castillo, José Ignacio; Negreanu Pruna, Mihaela
    ABSTRACT We study the behavior of two biological populations “u” and “v” attracted by the same chemical substance whose behavior is described in terms of second order parabolic equations. The model considers a logistic growth of the species and the interactions between them are relegated to the chemoattractant production. The system is completed with a third equation modeling the evolution of chemical. We assume that the chemical “w” is a non-diffusive substance and satisfies an ODE, more precisely, ⎧ ⎪⎨ ⎪⎩ ut = u −∇· � uχ1(w)∇w � + μ1u(1 − u), x ∈ Ω, t > 0, vt = v −∇· � vχ2(w)∇w � + μ2v(1 − v), x ∈ Ω,...

  14. Bayesian network classifiers for categorizing cortical gABAergic interneurons

    Mihaljevic, Bojan; Bielza Lozoya, María Concepción; Larrañaga Múgica, Pedro María; Benavides Piccione, Ruth; Felipe Oroquieta, Javier de
    Abstract An accepted classification of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex is a major goal in neuroscience. A recently proposed taxonomy based on patterns of axonal arborization promises to be a pragmatic method for achieving this goal. It involves characterizing interneurons according to five axonal arborization features, called F1–F5, and classifying them into a set of predefined types, most of which are established in the literature. Unfortunately, there is little consensus among expert neuroscientists regarding the morphological definitions of some of the proposed types. While supervised classifiers were able to categorize the interneurons in accordance with experts’ assignments, their accuracy was limited because they were...

  15. Deterministic coherence resonance in a ring of coupled chaotic oscillators

    Garcia Vellisca, Mariano Alberto; Pisarchik, Alexander N.; Jaimes-Reategui, Rider
    We study synchronization three unidirectionally Rössler oscillator the presence small mismatch between their natural frequencies w1< w2< w3. The forward (1 - 2 - 3 - 1) backward coupling directions are considered. As strength increases, common route to both configurations is intermittent phase imperfect perfect almost synchronization. difference scenario two only occurs couplings regime characterized with time-averaged dominant frequency power spectrum linear approximated slope dependent phases oscillators. Although more easily achieved configuration, results significant enhancement which within narrow range strengths as soon oscillators synchronize phases.

  16. Roles of C1A peptidases during barley leaf senescence mediated by abiotic stresses

    Velasco Arroyo, Blanca
    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues, such as leaves, to growing and sink organs, such as grains or tubers, are some of the metabolic features associated with leaf senescence, essential for nutrient recycling. Senescence may be naturally activated by endogenous signals and/or modified by the prevalence of abiotic/biotic stresses, as a survival strategy. Protein breakdown in senescing leaves involves many plastidial and nuclear proteases, regulators, different subcellular locations and a dynamic protein traffic to ensure transformation of high molecular weight proteins into transportable and useful hydrolyzed products. C1A cysteine proteases are the most abundant key players responsible...

  17. Functional characterization of DEMETER-like DNA demethylases during growth-dormancy cycles in poplar

    Conde Rodríguez, Daniel
    During their life cycle, plants are exposed to different environmental conditions that are often unfavorable. Their sessile condition has favored the acquisition of sophisticated molecular mechanisms that guarantee the plastic response to the different conditions faced during their development. Current advances indicate that changes in the functional state of chromatin by epigenetic modifications play important roles in the regulatory networks involved in plant responses to environmental cues. More specifically, several evidences in different plant species indicate that changes in the overall genomic DNA methylation promote tolerance to stressful environmental conditions, and also are associated with developmental programmed transition in response...

  18. Genómica comparativa de cepas de Xanthomonas arboricola asociada a Prunus spp.: caracterización de los procesos de infección de la mancha bacteriana de frutales de hueso y almendro

    Garita Cambronero, Jerson M.
    Xanthomonas arboricola es una especie de bacterias asociada a plantas. Dentro de la misma se han descrito nueve grupos infraespecíficos o patovares causantes de enfermedad en diversas especies vegetales. Asimismo, se han identificado tanto cepas patógenas como no patógenas que no se incluyen en ninguno de estos grupos. Entre los grupos definidos como fitopatógenos se encuentra X. arboricola pv. pruni, agente causal de la mancha bacteriana de los frutales de hueso y el almendro. Este patógeno de aparición reciente en España, está considerado como organismo de cuarentena en la Unión Europea. En este trabajo se ha caracterizado, tanto molecular como...

  19. Arabidopsis NITRILASE 1 contributes to the regulation of root growth and development through modulation of auxin biosynthesis in seedlings

    Lehmann, Thomas; Janowitz, TiM; Sánchez Parra, Beatriz; Pérez Alonso, Marta Marina; Trompetter, Inga; Piotrowski, Markus; Pollmann, Stephan
    Nitrilases consist of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of organic cyanides. They are found ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom. Plant nitrilases are mainly involved in the detoxification of ß-cyanoalanine, a side-product of ethylene biosynthesis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana a second group of Brassicaceae-specific nitrilases (NIT1-3) has been found. This so-called NIT1-subfamily has been associated with the conversion of indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) into the major plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, apart of reported functions in defense responses to pathogens and in responses to sulfur depletion, conclusive insight into the general physiological function of the...

  20. An Ethylene-Protected Achilles' Heel of Etiolated Seedlings for Arthropod Deterrence

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane
    A small family of Kunitz protease inhibitors exists in Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of which (encoded by At1g72290) accomplishes highly specific roles during plant development. Arabidopsis Kunitz-protease inhibitor 1 (Kunitz-PI;1), as we dubbed this protein here, is operative as cysteine PI. Activity measurements revealed that despite the presence of the conserved Kunitz-motif the bacterially expressed Kunitz-PI;1 was unable to inhibit serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, but very efficiently inhibited the cysteine protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21. Western blotting and cytolocalization studies using mono-specific antibodies recalled Kunitz-PI;1 protein expression in flowers, young siliques and etiolated seedlings. In dark-grown seedlings,...

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