Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (109.492 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Transporte

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 588

  1. Acessibilidade e SIG no Planeamento em Saúde Uma Abordagem Baseada em Modelos de Alocação-Localização

    Ribeiro, Vítor; Remoaldo, Paula; Gutiérrez Puebla, Javier; Cadima Ribeiro, J.
    The health system should be endowed with adequate accessibility leveis to each functional population cohort it envisages to setve. ln the case we are before higher leveis of elder population, those health necessities increase. The location of health facilities should have in mind the demographic structure of each territory. Accordingly, the increase of elder people turns more needed public health policies addressed to mitigate social exclusion processes that can occur. Health public policies and planning practices should promete accessibility to primary health care facilities. ln such a context, the location of those facilities and its accessibility have a particular importance....

  2. Las previsiones de demanda y costes en los proyectos de infraestructuras de transporte en España y otros países de la Unión Europea

    Perea Sardón, Francisco Javier; Barreiro Pereira, Fernando
    En este artículo se analizan las desviaciones entre el coste previsto de construcción de grandes infraestructuras de transportes construidas y el coste finalmente acaecido, así como un análisis ex-post relativo a la demanda de viajeros, tanto en España como en diferentes países de la UE. Se analizan las causas de las desviaciones detectadas, y las consecuencias que de ello se han derivado. Se proponen medidas para mejorar la calidad de las previsiones de coste de construcción y demanda de viajeros en futuras infraestructuras de transporte, y se plantea un método simplificado de evaluación expost a partir de la calidad de...

  3. Spatial analysis of the competitiveness of the high-speed train and air transport: The role of access to terminals in the Madrid? Barcelona corridor

    Martín, Juan Carlos; Román, Concepción; Garcia Palomares, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez Puebla, Javier
    This paper analyzes the effect of access and egress time to transport terminals over the spatial competiveness of the high-speed train (HST) in the Madrid–Barcelona (Spain) corridor, one of the densest airline domestic markets in the world. Applying spatial data from 2010 provided by a geographical information system (GIS) to a mode choice model estimated with sample travelers in this corridor, the present study examines whether and how the level-of-service of transport terminals spatially affects the competitiveness or modal distribution of HST and air transport in the provinces of Madrid and Barcelona; and, in particular, the degree of competitiveness that...

  4. Generalized transport costs and index numbers: A geographical analysis of economic and infrastructure fundamentals

    Zofío, Jose L.; Condeço Melhorado, Ana M.; Maroto Sánchez, Andrés; Gutiérrez Puebla, Javier
    We rely on the economic theory approach to index numbers to improve the existing definitions and decompositions of variations in generalized transport costs (GTCs). As a value index, we decompose GTCs into price and quantity indices associated to economic—market—costs and infrastructure variables—distance and time within a network. The methodology allows the accurate identification of the sources of GTCs decline. We illustrate it for the case of road freight transportation in Spain between 1980 and 2007 and at a highly detailed geographical level. Average GTCs weighted by trade flows have decreased by 16.3%, with infrastructure driving that reduction. We find large...

  5. A highly detailed land-use vector map for Madrid region based on photo-interpretation

    Díaz Pacheco, Jaime; García Palomares, Juan Carlos
    Land Use – Land Cover (LULC) maps have developed remarkably since the global community became aware of the importance of knowing where LULC change is taking place on the Earth's surface. The rapid evolution of geographic information data handling and the automation of satellite image interpretation through remote sensing techniques and algorithms is providing increasingly abundant and up-to-date information on LULC. In addition, at large detail scales, it is important to link LULC maps to available statistical information, such as census information and business activities, which allow land parcels to be more accurately classified. Though automated classification methods can produce...

  6. Measuring the vulnerability of public transport networks

    Rodríguez Núñez, Eduardo; García Palomares, Juan Carlos
    In the last years, studies on the vulnerability of public transport networks attract a growing attention because of the repercussions that incidents can have on the day-to-day functioning of a city. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for measuring public transport network vulnerability taking the Madrid Metro system as an example. The consequences of a disruptions of riding times or the number of missed trips are analysed for each of the network links with a full scan approach implemented in GIS (Geographic Information Systems). Using real trips distribution, each link in the network is measured for...

  7. Distributive effects of the new highway infrastructure in the Netherlands: the role of network effect and spatial spillovers

    Condeço Melhorado, Ana M.; Tillema, Taede; Jong, Tom de; Koopal, Rogier
    Network effects and spatial spillovers are intrinsic impacts of transport infrastructure. Network effects imply that an improvement in a particular link in a network generates effects in many other elements of that network, while spillover effects can be defined as those impacts occurring beyond the regions where the actual transport investment is made. These two related effects entail a redistribution of impacts among regions, and their omission from road planning is argued to cause the systematic underestimation of the profitability of transport projects and therefore the public financing they require. However, traditional transport appraisal methodologies fail to consider network and...

  8. An Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving a Combined Utility-Regret Approach

    Wang, Yang; Monzón de Cáceres, Andrés; Ciommo, Floridea di; Kaplan, Sigal
    Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b) the least-regret scenario forms a compromise between the desired and the expected scenarios, (c) the least-regret scenario can lead to...

  9. Federal Toll Road Concession Program in Brazil: Is It Moving in the Right Direction?

    Rodrigues Bochado, Mariana; Vassallo Magro, Jose Manuel
    This paper assesses the toll road concession program started by the federal government of Brazil, from its beginning in 1996 until 2012. Brazil has one of the longest road networks, under private concessions, in the entire world. The authors use the case study approach, based on the available information, to analyze the evolution of the program over the course of its history. Specifically, a detailed analysis is conducted from three perspectives: those of the competitiveness of the tender, the impact of toll modifications caused by the rebalancing of the economics of the contract, and the actual evolution of the traffic...

  10. Are Longer and Heavier Vehicles (LHVs) Beneficial for Society? A Cost Benefit Analysis to Evaluate their Potential Implementation in Spain

    Ortega Hortelano, Alejandro; Vassallo Magro, Jose Manuel; Guzman Valderrama, Andres Felipe; Pérez-Martínez, P.J.
    In this paper we carry out a thorough review of the current research related to the benefits and costs arising from the implementation of longer and heavier vehicles (LHVs). From this review we concluded that despite the many studies available, little has been said about the sensitivity of the benefits and costs to the ultimate performance of the key variables related to the evolution of the economy, road transport performance, safety, and so on. In order to fill this gap, we have designed a sensitivity approach based on a cost benefit analysis tool to determine which variables demonstrate the greatest...

  11. Diseño de la trama urbana y cobertura de las redes de transporte público

    Garcia Palomares, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez Puebla, Javier; Ribeiro, J.; Marques, T. Sa
    Una de las claves en su uso del transporte público es la accesibilidad de la población a las paradas o estaciones. Los planificadores del transporte han buscado siempre localizaciones de paradas y estaciones en espacios con un volumen importante de población residente y/o empleo en su entorno inmediato. En los últimos años, se conjugan también políticas urbanísticas para generar nuevos desarrollos urbanos orientados al uso del transporte público. Se busca potenciar las llamadas 3D: densidad, diversidad de usos y diseño urbano. En esta comunicación el objetivo es analizar cómo influye el diseño de la trama urbana en la cobertura de...

  12. Innovation in the European transport sector: a review

    Condeço Melhorado, Ana M.; Wiesenthal, Tobias; Leduc, Guillaume
    This article reviews innovation of the European transport industries. It combines a quantitative analysis of the R&D investment of manufacturers of transport equipment, transport service providers and the constructors of transport infrastructure for the years 2008 and 2011 with a qualitative assessment of their incentives to innovate. The latter takes into account sector-specific innovation systems, their distinct market environments and the products and services produced. The findings show that, although the transport sector as a whole is the largest industrial R&D investor in the EU, there are important differences in the level of innovation activities carried out by the highly...

  13. El impacto del efecto frontera en el cálculo del potencial de mercado en la Unión Europea.

    García Alonso, Patricia; Gutiérrez Puebla, Javier; Salas Olmedo, María Henar
    Existe un creciente interés por desentrañar el papel de las fronteras en el transporte internacional de mercancías incluso en áreas como la Unión Europea, donde opera una política de mercado único. Si bien existe una gran diversidad de investigaciones centradas en analizar la influencia de las fronteras en el comercio internacional, no ocurre lo mismo con el impacto que estas provocan en laaccesibilidad potencial a los mercados. En este sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo es doble; por un lado, se realiza una calibración adecuada de los parámetros de impedancia que afectan al transporte, entre ellos el efecto frontera y...

  14. Modelos de optimización de localización de bases de bicicletas públicas: un enfoque basado en Sistemas de Información

    Gutierrez Puebla, Javier; Garcia Palomares, Juan Carlos
    Un número creciente de ciudades están implementando programas de bicicletas públicas para incrementar el uso de la bicicleta. Uno de los factores clave en el éxito de estos programas es la localización de las bases en relación a la demanda potencial (población, actividades, estaciones de transporte público). En este trabajo se propone una metodología apoyada en un Sistema de Información Geográfica (GIS) para optimizar la localización de bases de bicicletas en función de la distribución espacial de la demanda potencial de viajes. Esta metodología utiliza modelos de localización óptima de servicios. Aquí se comparan los resultados obtenidos mediante dos de...

  15. Urban Sprawl in the Mediterranean Urban Regions in Europe and the Crisis Effect on the Urban Land Development: Madrid as Study Case

    Garcia Palomares, Juan Carlos; Díaz Pacheco, Jaime
    The middle of 2007 saw the beginning of a worldwide financial crisis that led to a sharp reduction in investment based on construction and urban development. This new situation is generating a new process, characterised by a slowdown that has almost reached a standstill when compared with the frenzied development of previous decades. In order to analyse these processes, this study examines urban land use changes and the urban growth rate and spatial dynamics of the metropolitan region of Madrid. The analysis has been carried out on a large scale between two periods (2000?2006 and 2006?2009) using a regional land...

  16. Explaining heavy vehicle demand evolution in toll roads: a dynamic panel data approach in Spain

    Gomez Sanchez, Juan; Vassallo Magro, Jose Manuel
    Improving the knowledge of demand evolution over time is a key aspect in the evaluation of transport policies and in forecasting future investment needs, specially critical for the case of toll roads. However, literature regarding demand elasticity estimates in toll roads is sparse and leaves some important aspects to be analyzed in greater detail. In particular, previous research does not focus on heavy vehicle demand, so that the specific behavioral patterns of this traffic segment are not taken into account. Furthermore, GDP is the main socioeconomic variable most commonly chosen to explain road freight traffic growth over time. This paper...

  17. Optimización de los peajes en un corredor completamente tarificado para sociedades con distintos ingresos

    Ortega Hortelano, Alejandro; Vassallo Magro, José Manuel; Pérez Díaz, Juan Ignacio
    El problema de la tarificación vial ha sido estudiado en diversas ocasiones. Existe un amplio consenso en que para lograr el máximo bienestar social, los usuarios deben internalizar las externalidades que producen y no perciben a través de un peaje. Sin embargo, dicho peaje puede perjudicar a los usuarios con bajos ingresos. Dependiendo de la función objetivo a optimizar (por ejemplo, maximizar el bienestar, maximizar la equidad social, la amortización de la construcción de la carretera, etc) el peaje óptimo podría variar sustancialmente. La literatura académica acerca de los peajes, la eficiencia y la equidad es vasta y diversa. Sin...

  18. Carga tarifaria y fiscal del transporte por carretera: un análisis comparado entre Estados Unidos y Europa

    Gomez Sanchez, Juan; Vassallo Magro, Jose Manuel
    Las infraestructuras de transporte constituyen un elemento fundamental para el desarrollo económico de un país, y por ello han recibido especial atención por parte de los planificadores del transporte, especialmente en épocas de escasez presupuestaria. Los modelos de financiación de carreteras varían sustancialmente según el país que se considere. En Estados Unidos, el actual sistema ha sido puesto en duda al mostrarse incapaz de financiar los próximos programas de gasto. Por el contrario, los países europeos cuentan con cargas altas y no afectadas sobre la carretera. El presente artículo realiza un balance económico comparando los ingresos y gastos recaudados en...

  19. ¿Crisis económica y mayor eficiencia? Análisis de las emisiones GEI del transporte por carretera en España

    Sobrino Vazquez, Natalia
    En las últimas décadas, la actividad de transporte en España ha aumentado significativamente, y muy notablemente el transporte por carretera. Esto ha provocado algunos problemas energéticos y medioambientales tales como las inestabilidades en el suministro del petróleo o las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) precursoras del calentamiento global. Sin embargo, en los últimos años España ha venido marcada por la crisis económica, afectando al transporte por carretera. El presente estudio analiza los principales determinantes de la evolución de las emisiones GEI del tráfico de carretera durante el comienzo de la crisis económica en España. Para ello, se propone...

  20. Optimización del diseño geométrico de glorietas mediante algoritmos genéticos

    Rubio Martín, Juan Luis
    Las glorietas son un tipo de nudo que canaliza los flujos procedentes de tres o más accesos por medio de una calzada anular. De la experiencia acumulada en países de todo el mundo se deduce que en muchos casos este tipo de nudo ofrece numerosas ventajas respecto a las intersecciones convencionales. Por este motivo, se ha extendido su aplicación como solución alternativa a las intersecciones urbanas e interurbanas convencionales. La definición del trazado en planta de una glorieta es un proceso iterativo en el cual se deben establecer las características de un número importante de elementos geométricos para posteriormente comprobar...

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