Silva, Mónica C.; Matias, Rafael; Wanless, Ross M.; Ryan, Peter G.; Stephenson, Brent M.; Bolton, Mark; Ferrand, Nuno; Coelho, Manuela M.
Analytical methods that apply coalescent theory to multilocus data have improved infer-ences of demographic parameters that are critical to understanding population divergenceand speciation. In particular, at the early stages of speciation, it is important to implementmodels that accommodate conﬂicting gene trees, and beneﬁt from the presence of sharedpolymorphisms. Here, we employ eleven nuclear loci and the mitochondrial control regionto investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of the pelagic seabirdWhite-faced Storm-petrel (Pelagodroma marina)bysamplingsubspeciesacrossitsanti-tropical distribution. Groups are all highly differentiated: global mitochondrial ΦST= 0.89(P < 0.01) and global nuclear ΦSTvaries between 0.22 and 0.83 (all P < 0.01). The completelineage sorting of...
Bernardino, Joana; Bispo, Regina; Torres, Paulo; Rebelo, Rui; Mascarenhas, Miguel; Costa, Hugo
During the last years there has been a significant worldwide increase in the number of wind farms. This kind of energy can have negative impacts, such as the direct mortality or lethal injury of birds and bats caused by collision with wind turbines. In order to evaluate bird (or bat) mortality regarding wind power generation facilities, strict monitoring protocols are required which must take into account the possibility of carcass removal by scavenging animals or decomposition before the monitoring session. For this purpose, carcass removal trials with 180 carcasses representing three size classes (small, medium and large) were conducted in...
Seixas, Rui; Gabriel, Marta; Machado, Jorge; Tavares, Luís; Bernardo, Fernando; Oliveira, Manuela
Salmonella Typhimurium 1,4,,12:i:- is a major serovar responsible for human salmonellosis whose biofilm-forming ability,
influenced by environmental conditions like those found in the gastrointestinal tract, is one of the main contributing factors to
its ability to persist in the host and thus one of the main causes of chronic relapsing infections. Most studies to evaluate biofilm
formation are performed in microtiter assays using standard media. However, no reports are available on the ability of this serovar
to produce biofilm under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions which better correlate with the environment found in
the gastrointestinal tract. To address this, a modified biofilm assay simulating intestinal...
Marques, Tiago A.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Bispo, Regina; Howland, Brett
Distance sampling is extensively used for estimating animal density or
abundance. Conventional methods assume that location of line or point transects is
random with respect to the animal population, yet transects are often placed along
linear features such as roads, rivers or shorelines that do not randomly sample the
study region, resulting in biased estimates of abundance. If it is possible to collect
additional data that allow an animal density gradient with respect to the transects to
be modelled, we show how to extend the conventional distance sampling likelihood to
give asymptotically unbiased estimates of density for the covered area. We illustrate
the proposed methods using data for...
Santos, Tiago P.; Lopes, Carlos Manuel Antunes; Rodrigues, M. Lucília; Souza, Cláudia R. de; Silva, Jorge R.; Maroco, João; Pereira, João Santos; Chaves, Maria Manuela
The partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation technique
has been proposed for viticulture as a possible way to
save water without compromising yield. Half of the plant
root system is slowly dehydrating whereas the other half is
irrigated; after about two weeks the opposite side of vines is
irrigated. A PRD irrigation system (50 % of the crop
evapotranspiration - ETc) was installed in a vineyard (Vitis
vinifera L. cv. Castelão) in Southern Portugal and compared
with two other irrigation systems, deficit irrigation,
DI (50 % ETc) and full irrigation, FI (100 % ETc), as well
as with non-irrigated vines (NI). Water was applied twice a
week, from fruit set (mid-June) until...
Santos, Tiago P.; Lopes, Carlos Manuel Antunes; Rodrigues, M. Lucília; Souza, Cláudia R. de; Maroco, João; Pereira, João Santos; Silva, Jorge R.; Chaves, Maria Manuela
A study to assess the effects of the Partial Rootzone Drying (PRD) irrigation strategy in comparison to other irrigation systems was carried out in southern Portugal in two field-grown grapevines varieties, Moscatel and Castelão. We addressed the question of whether by regulating growth and plant water use, the PRD system would enable an equilibrated vegetative development, leading to a favourable capture of solar radiation for photoassimilate production and, at the same time to provide an optimum environment for fruit maturation. Three irrigation schemes were applied in addition to the non-irrigated (NI) vines: partial root drying (PRD), 50% of crop evapotranspiration...
Francisco, Sara Martins; Congiu, Leonardo; von der Heyden, Sophie; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
Sand-smelts are small fishes inhabiting inshore, brackish and freshwater environments and with a distribution
in the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, extending south into the Indian Ocean. Here, we
present a broad phylogenetic analysis of the genus Atherina using three mitochondrial (control region,
12S and 16S) and two nuclear markers (rhodopsin and 2nd intron of S7). Phylogenetic analyses fully support
the monophyly of the genus. Two anti-tropical clades were identified, separating the South African
Atherina breviceps from the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Atherina’ species. In European
waters, two groups were found. The first clade formed by a well supported species-pair: Atherina presbyter
(eastern Atlantic) and Atherina hepsetus...