Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (147.820 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 244

  1. Star Formation Quenching Timescale of Central Galaxies in a Hierarchical Universe

    Hahn, ChangHoon; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wetzel, Andrew
    Central galaxies make up the majority of the galaxy population, including the majority of the quiescent population at M_* > 10^(10)M_☉. Thus, the mechanism(s) responsible for quenching central galaxies play a crucial role in galaxy evolution as whole. We combine a high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation with observed evolutionary trends of the "star formation main sequence," quiescent fraction, and stellar mass function at z < 1 to construct a model that statistically tracks the star formation histories and quenching of central galaxies. Comparing this model to the distribution of central galaxy star formation rates in a group catalog of the SDSS...

  2. The structure and dynamical evolution of the stellar disc of a simulated Milky Way-mass galaxy

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Kirby, Evan N.; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Quataert, Eliot
    We study the structure, age and metallicity gradients, and dynamical evolution using a cosmological zoom-in simulation of a Milky Way-mass galaxy from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project. In the simulation, stars older than 6 Gyr were formed in a chaotic, bursty mode and have the largest vertical scaleheights (1.5–2.5 kpc) by z = 0, while stars younger than 6 Gyr were formed in a relatively calm, stable disc. The vertical scaleheight increases with stellar age at all radii, because (1) stars that formed earlier were thicker ‘at birth’, and (2) stars were kinematically heated to an even thicker distribution...

  3. Cosmic Equilibration: A Holographic No-Hair Theorem from the Generalized Second Law

    Carroll, Sean M.; Chatwin-Davies, Aidan
    In a wide class of cosmological models, a positive cosmological constant drives cosmological evolution toward an asymptotically de Sitter phase. Here we connect this behavior to the increase of entropy over time, based on the idea that de Sitter space is a maximum-entropy state. We prove a cosmic no-hair theorem for Robertson-Walker and Bianchi I spacetimes by assuming that the generalized entropy of a Q-screen ("quantum" holographic screen), in the sense of the cosmological version of the Generalized Second Law conjectured by Bousso and Engelhardt, increases up to a finite maximum value, which we show coincides with the de Sitter horizon entropy. We do not use the Einstein...

  4. Bulk Connectedness and Boundary Entanglement

    Bao, Ning; Remmen, Grant N.
    We prove, for any state in a conformal field theory defined on a set of boundary manifolds with corresponding classical holographic bulk geometry, that for any bipartition of the boundary into two non-clopen sets, the density matrix cannot be a direct product of the reduced density matrices on each region of the bipartition. In particular, there must be entanglement across the bipartition surface. We extend this no-go theorem to general, arbitrary partitions of the boundary manifolds into non-clopen parts, proving that the density matrix cannot be a direct product. This result gives a necessary condition for states to potentially correspond to holographic duals.

  5. Quantum Circuit Cosmology: The Expansion of the Universe Since the First Qubit

    Bao, Ning; Cao, ChunJun; Carroll, Sean M.; McAllister, Liam
    We consider cosmological evolution from the perspective of quantum information. We present a quantum circuit model for the expansion of a comoving region of space, in which initially-unentangled ancilla qubits become entangled as expansion proceeds. We apply this model to the comoving region that now coincides with our Hubble volume, taking the number of entangled degrees of freedom in this region to be proportional to the de Sitter entropy. The quantum circuit model is applicable for at most 140 e-folds of inflationary and post-inflationary expansion: we argue that no geometric description was possible before the time t_1 when our comoving region was one Planck length across, and contained one...

  6. Why Boltzmann Brains Are Bad

    Carroll, Sean M.
    Some modern cosmological models predict the appearance of Boltzmann Brains: observers who randomly fluctuate out of a thermal bath rather than naturally evolving from a low-entropy Big Bang. A theory in which most observers are of the Boltzmann Brain type is generally thought to be unacceptable, although opinions differ. I argue that such theories are indeed unacceptable: the real problem is with fluctuations into observers who are locally identical to ordinary observers, and their existence cannot be swept under the rug by a choice of probability distributions over observers. The issue is not that the existence of such observers is ruled out by data, but that the theories...

  7. Axion detection via Topological Casimir Effect

    Cao, ChunJun; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
    We propose a new table-top experimental configuration for the direct detection of dark matter axions with mass in the (10^(−6) eV − 10^(−2)eV) range using non-perturbative effects in a system with non-trivial spatial topology. Different from most experimental setups found in literature on direct dark matter axion detection, which relies on ˙θ or ∇~ θ, we found that our system is in principle sensitive to a static θ ≥ 10^(−14) and can also be used to set limit on the fundamental constant θ_(QED) which becomes the fundamental observable parameter of the Maxwell system if some conditions are met. Connection with Witten effect when the induced electric charge...

  8. Rescuing complementarity with little drama

    Bao, Ning; Bouland, Adam; Chatwin-Davies, Aidan; Pollack, Jason; Yuen, Henry
    The AMPS paradox challenges black hole complementarity by apparently constructing a way for an observer to bring information from the outside of the black hole into its interior if there is no drama at its horizon, making manifest a violation of monogamy of entanglement. We propose a new resolution to the paradox: this violation cannot be explicitly checked by an infalling observer in the finite proper time they have to live after crossing the horizon. Our resolution depends on a weak relaxation of the no-drama condition (we call it “little-drama”) which is the “complementarity dual” of scrambling of information on...

  9. The AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. II. Isolated Disk Test

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hummels, Cameron B.
    Using an isolated Milky Way-mass galaxy simulation, we compare results from nine state-of-the-art gravito-hydrodynamics codes widely used in the numerical community. We utilize the infrastructure we have built for the AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. This includes the common disk initial conditions, common physics models (e.g., radiative cooling and UV background by the standardized package Grackle) and common analysis toolkit yt, all of which are publicly available. Subgrid physics models such as Jeans pressure floor, star formation, supernova feedback energy, and metal production are carefully constrained across code platforms. With numerical accuracy that resolves the disk scale height, we...

  10. The Structure and Dynamical Evolution of the Stellar Disk of a Simulated Milky Way-Mass Galaxy

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Kirby, Evan N.; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Quataert, Eliot
    We study the structure, age and metallicity gradients, and dynamical evolution using a cosmological zoom-in simulation of a Milky Way-mass galaxy from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project. In the simulation, stars older than 6 Gyr were formed in a chaotic, bursty mode and have the largest vertical scale heights (1.5–2.5 kpc) by z = 0, while stars younger than 6 Gyr were formed in a relatively calm, stable disk. The vertical scale height increases with stellar age at all radii, because (1) stars that formed earlier were thicker ‘at birth’, and (2) stars were kinematically heated to an even thicker...

  11. The Complexity of Identifying Ryu-Takayanagi Surfaces in AdS_3/CFT_2

    Bao, N.; Chatwin-Davies, A.
    We present a constructive algorithm for the determination of Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces in AdS_3/CFT_2 which exploits previously noted connections between holographic entanglement entropy and max-flow/min-cut. We then characterize its complexity as a polynomial time algorithm.

  12. The connection between the host halo and the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H. G.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H.
    Many properties of the Milky Way's (MW) dark matter halo, including its mass-assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the MW and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the MW halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of MW-mass halos with a fixed final M_(vir) ~ 10^(12.1),M_⊙, we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that MW-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds...

  13. Reconciling Dwarf Galaxies with ΛCDM Cosmology: Simulating A Realistic Population of Satellites Around a Milky Way-Mass Galaxy

    Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Quataert, Eliot
    Low-mass "dwarf" galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group (LG) of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE). This simulation models the formation of an MW-mass galaxy to z = 0 within ΛCDM cosmology, including dark matter, gas, and stars at unprecedented resolution: baryon particle mass of 7070 M_⊙ with gas kernel/softening that...

  14. Static spherically symmetric Kerr-Schild metrics and implications for the classical double copy

    Ridgway, Alexander K.; Wise, Mark B.
    We discuss the physical interpretation of stress-energy tensors that source static spherically symmetric Kerr-Schild metrics. We find that the sources of such metrics with no curvature singularities or horizons do not simultaneously satisfy the weak and strong energy conditions. Sensible stress-energy tensors usually satisfy both of them. Under most circumstances, these sources are not perfect fluids and contain shear stresses. We show that for these systems the classical double copy associates the electric charge density to the Komar energy density. In addition, we demonstrate that the stress-energy tensors are determined by the electric charge density and their conservation equations.

  15. Space from Hilbert Space: Recovering Geometry from Bulk Entanglement

    Cao, ChunJun; Carroll, Sean M.; Michalakis, Spyridon
    We examine how to construct a spatial manifold and its geometry from the entanglement structure of an abstract quantum state in Hilbert space. Given a decomposition of Hilbert space H into a tensor product of factors, we consider a class of “redundancy-constrained states” in H that generalize the area-law behavior for entanglement entropy usually found in condensed-matter systems with gapped local Hamiltonians. Using mutual information to define a distance measure on the graph, we employ classical multidimensional scaling to extract the best-fit spatial dimensionality of the emergent geometry. We then show that entanglement perturbations on such emergent geometries naturally give...

  16. Entanglement Conservation, ER=EPR, and a New Classical Area Theorem for Wormholes

    Remmen, Grant N.; Bao, Ning; Pollack, Jason
    We consider the question of entanglement conservation in the context of the ER=EPR correspondence equating quantum entanglement with wormholes. In quantum mechanics, the entanglement between a system and its complement is conserved under unitary operations that act independently on each; ER=EPR suggests that an analogous statement should hold for wormholes. We accordingly prove a new area theorem in general relativity: for a collection of dynamical wormholes and black holes in a spacetime satisfying the null curvature condition, the maximin area for a subset of the horizons (giving the largest area attained by the minimal cross section of the multi-wormhole throat...

  17. Strong CMB Constraint On P-Wave Annihilating Dark Matter

    An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue
    We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of this suppression. In this letter we show that dark matter annihilation to bound states occurs through...

  18. De Sitter Space Without Dynamical Quantum Fluctuations

    Boddy, Kimberly K.; Carroll, Sean M.; Pollack, Jason
    We argue that, under certain plausible assumptions, de Sitter space settles into a quiescent vacuum in which there are no dynamical quantum fluctuations. Such fluctuations require either an evolving microstate, or time-dependent histories of out-of-equilibrium recording devices, which we argue are absent in stationary states. For a massive scalar field in a fixed de Sitter background, the cosmic no-hair theorem implies that the state of the patch approaches the vacuum, where there are no fluctuations. We argue that an analogous conclusion holds whenever a patch of de Sitter is embedded in a larger theory with an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, including...

  19. Breathing FIRE: How Stellar Feedback Drives Radial Migration, Rapid Size Fluctuations, and Population Gradients in Low-Mass Galaxies

    El-Badry, Kareem; Wetzel, Andrew; Geha, Marla; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André
    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M_(star) = 2 × 10^6 − 5 × 10^(10) M_⊙) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ~1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong...

  20. Bulk Local States and Crosscaps in Holographic CFT

    Nakayama, Yu; Ooguri, Hirosi
    In a weakly coupled gravity theory in the anti-de Sitter space, local states in the bulk are linear superpositions of Ishibashi states for a crosscap in the dual conformal field theory. The superposition structure can be constrained either by the microscopic causality in the bulk gravity or the bootstrap condition in the boundary conformal field theory. We show, contrary to some expectation, that these two conditions are not compatible to each other in the weak gravity regime. We also present an evidence to show that bulk local states in three dimensions are not organized by the Virasoro symmetry.

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