López Jiménez, Jose María; Gómez Vargas, Juan Carlos; Moreno Vargas, Francisco
[EN] Warsaw, after the strong oppression suffered during the Second World War, conducted a thorough process of urban, social and political restructuring. Since 1944 (with the entry of the Soviet army liberating the city), until 1970, there was a complete restructuring of urban traces. In fact, it could clearly identify the various co-existing ideologies in the new urban plan.
This article aims to show how the process envisioned prior to the commencement of the destruction of the city was “drawn” in a revamped urban structure. The regeneration of the city made cohabit with socialist theories conservation concepts or ideas from the...
López Quintero, Javier Luis; García Molina, Diego Francisco; Montes Tubio, Francisco de Paula
[EN] “Puente de Tablas” was an olive oil factory located in Priego de Córdoba (Spain). The original building had been lost due to urban reconstruction around the zone. This article summarizes a study of the primary location and a virtual 3D reconstruction of all the original constitutive and functional elements. An unpublished diagram, found on “Archivo de la Real Chancillería de Granada” and dated from 1802 – a period when the factory was still active – has been used as a reference for the virtual 3D model. In addition, other resources have been considered, such as the following: (a) the...
León Robles, Carlos; Reinoso Gordo, Juan Francisco; Mataix Sanjuán, Jesús
[EN] The interest in cataloguing historical heritage has involved the growing development of techniques of three-dimensional scanning in recent years. The present work introduces the technique of structured light as a digitalization method that despite its limitations provides a powerful tool for surveying architectural details.
The results found with structured light in the architectural survey of the Hospital Real of the Universidad de Granada (Spain) have been satisfactory as a substitute or a complement to the laser scanner and digital photography.
Aladro Prieto, José Manuel; Mosquera Adell, Eduardo
[EN] The Jerez de la Frontera urban and landscape transformation in the 19th century central decade is reconstructed and interpreted by a set of images that go from the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 21th. During this period of time, Jerez become one of the most relevant industrial cities of the country thank to the Sherry trade. The city territorial image transformation was carried out by the industrial building implantation, from an initial process of industrial redefinition of the urban front to the final denial of his own landscape condition. At the same time, the...
Martínez Rubio, José; Fernández Martín, Juan José; San José Alonso, Jesús Ignacio
[EN] The process of writing a report about the captured data and the graphic documentation is an essential part of the study and intervention in built heritage. This is not only due to the need for describing the architectural form, but also to accurately measure the geometry, size and, especially, the formal alterations which may affect the building. In this regard, the laser and digital photogrammetric technology used in the data capture process has the following benefits:
• It is an essential source of information when it comes to assessing structural deformation and all the pathologies that affect the building structures,...
Del Blanco García, Federico Luis; García Ríos, Ismael
[EN] The work presented below is part of the results of a research project at “Universidad Politécnica de Madrid”. In this paper we analyze the project for Murcia airport, which was done by Fernando Higueras under the guidance of Félix Candela.
Some of the unpublished original documents of the project are included in the paper. The source of them are the Official Colleges of Architects of Madrid and Cataluña. In addition, the authors of the paper have done a 3D reconstruction that allowed to analyze the airport.
The project is compounded by hyperbolic-paraboloid surfaces, such as those that Candela developed during the...
Giménez Ribera, Manuel
[EN] This article analyzes the graphic language of Luis Albert Ballesteros, a representative architect of a generation that put an end to the academicism tradition of the nineteenth century and laid the groundwork for a renewal that new century socially demanded.
Of all his extensive professional work, emphasis is placed on the two decades prior to the Civil War, when all realms of life were infused with the pretension of progress and attention directed to the European avant-garde, although never with the same degree of enthusiasm or commitment.
His modern drawings of unexecuted projects, his preliminary sketches and final communicative language reflect...
Moral Andrés, Fernando; Merino Gómez, Elena
[EN] Contemporaneousness has represented, in different formats, situations that are socially unstable and capable of transforming urban public spaces. The 20th century, since its beginnings, has been proof of that, generating documents of irregular technical quality but of undoubted interest. Those who have elaborated them have participated, sometimes individually and in some other times as a collective, creating planimetries that contribute to the understanding of conflictive situations in present-day Europe. This context has brought about a renewed reading and a generation of maps that reflect these sociopolitical upheavals. Faced with plans of a precise nature and with an eagerness to...
Lus Arana, Luis Miguel
[EN] Since the advent of the movement in the early 1920s, the marriage of surrealism and photography has found in architecture one of its privileged subjects, producing impossible architectural fantasies covered with a veil of reality. With the arrival of digital photo-manipulation tools, this experimentation has undergone a radical expansion, giving rise to a great variety of approaches that play with photographic imagery in order to produce impossible but fascinating architectural scenarios. This article focuses on the work of Jim Kazanjian, an author coming from the realm of digital building who, working on the fringes of the discipline, has produced...
Candelas Gutiérrez, Ángel L.
[EN] The construction of five-plane timber roof frames originated as an evolution of the simpler rafter-couple system in order to cover greater spans. In this article, an interpretation is provided of the procedure that is included in the unpublished manuscript by Rodrigo Álvarez (c. 1674) for such a construction, wherein the consideration of geometric and constructive circumstances is essential. The validity of the empirical procedure indicated by Álvarez for the construction of five-plane timber roof frames that form a regular polygon is verified, in which Álvarez remained indifferent to the interlacing patterns commonly used in these constructions. Furthermore, comparative references...
Montes Serrano, Carlos; Alonso Rodríguez, Marta
[EN] It is possible that the architectural exhibition of greatest influence in diffusing the Modern Movement was the show organized by Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock at the Museum of Modern Art of New York in 1932. It was initially intended to offer the public a sample of ten scale models by the ten European and American architects most involved in the avant-garde, requesting each to submit the model of a project designed specifically for the exhibition. In the end, they were given somewhat greater freedom, as the exhibition was fleshed out with a selection of photographs of the work...
Serrano León, David
[EN] This study aims to demonstrate that the curvilinear perspective in the world of Antonio López is obtained, exclusively, through the measurement of reality. The architecture also plays a decisive role since its rectilinear nature shows the distortion of shapes, which depends on spatial determinants the artist uses. The result is a pictorial space that combines geometric, methodological and optical principles.
Ros-García, Juan Manuel
[EN] At a moment of accelerated complexity, John Hejduk´s Architecture stands apart from conventional rules. Context and program are reinterpreted within a current framework of global transformation that goes beyond any elementary observation. The reality of his drawn work is represented by the power of memory and by the dynamising process of the social community, participating in its configuration without pretending to reach its final materiality. Thus, Hejduk froze the movement of his idea in the Mask of Medusa for Buenos Aires, where he reflected the ubicumque freedom of all his work.
Cabezos Bernal, Pedro M.; Cisneros Vivó, Juan J.
[EN] This article is born as a game in which art, geometry, physics and mathematics are related to reveal a space that remained trapped in the form of a reflection in one of the best-known works of the fascinating Dutch artist M. C. Escher, entitled: Hand with reflecting sphere. This work is a self-portrait in which the artist reproduces his own hand holding a specular globe in which he himself is reflected sitting in his Rome studio. Thanks to the meticulousness and perfection with which the artist executed his works, it has been possible to restore this space from his...
Escoda Pastor, Carmen
[EN] In the Modern Movement the transparency of the large glass panes, independent of the structure, became a basic repertoire of modern language. Architects however encountered major problems of light and thermal heat control. The difficulty of representing heat and light and solving the problems related to them, led one architect, Le Corbusier, to initiate a period of research that culminated in the design of a new architectural creative style with the use of thermal and luminous passive control elements and natural ventilation: the brise-soleil, the loggia and the aerateur. Drawing and the blackbooks – small moleskin notebooks, were his...
Estepa Rubio, Antonio; Estepa Rubio, Jesús
[EN] In the work of Andrés de Vandelvira, and of course in the manuscript treatise by his son Alonso, a number of complex stonecutting problems are worked out, including those involving warped surfaces. Adding complexity and refinement to the field of stereotomic architecture, Vandelvira also incorporated, as a main or secondary feature, cyclic surfaces in order to generate helixes and helicoids. The reasons underpinning the deployment of these geometric shapes lie halfway between utilitarian solutions to specific problems and the search for a heightened plasticity capable of eliciting a more nuanced psychological response in viewers. We dare say that these...
Melián García, Ángel
[EN] Analysing and interpreting the design and construction of the Galician Centre of Contemporary Art (CGAC) and its surroundings enables us to understand and appreciate Álvaro Siza’s approach to architecture. A careful study of this work reveals Siza’s ability to give form to architecture that blends with its natural environs. His ceaseless search for unique expression through the fragmentation of architectural form and its surrounding space should, above all, be framed within the artistic movement of Cubism, primarily within the Analytical Cubism of Picasso and Braque: a synthesis that transcends the opposition of figure and background.
Castaño Perea, Enrique; Bustos Juez, Carlota
[EN] An eclectic style developed in Spain in the early twentieth century, which can be recognised in numerous houses in the centres of Spanish cities. This article examines the drawings produced by Pedro Muguruza for the Madrid home of the second Marquis of Ibarra (1929), which are an example of this type of design and construction. In addition to providing a better understanding of the architect who drew them, Muguruza’s work is an example of architectural drawings –and the creative process they involved– typical of the characteristic architecture of the early twentieth century.
Rossi, Adriana; Palmero Iglesias, Luis; De Gregorio, Stefania
[EN] For any given set of experimentally surveyed coordinates, there are some baseline data that are based on those we consider objective if we take care to specify the tolerances of the tools employed. The interpretation of the geometric model requires founded methodological reflections. In the present case study the question might be: what was the configuration of the façade’s projecting elements? The mathematical computation supports the hypothesis but it is the instrumental survey that legitimizes the choices in that it measures the gap between the numerical experimental model and the more abstract one of ideas. This information allows to...
León Cascante, Íñigo; Pérez Martínez, José Javier
[EN] The inclusion of the BIM (Building Information Modelling) methodology in Architecture Degree studies is an unavoidable fact. Its introduction particularly affects how the teaching of Architectural Graphic Expression (AGE) is addressed. After studying the most significant congresses and publications on this subject, an Educational Innovation Project was undertaken based on collaboration between courses and conducted by the AGE Section. The implementation characteristics are determined, concluding that the key lies in collaboration, wherein AGE plays a lead role. Innovative teaching methodologies for BIM are put forward without rejecting certain traditional techniques indispensable for AGE.