Humboldt, Sofia von; Monteiro, Ana; Leal, Isabel Pereira
Objectives: Positive and negative affect is a relevant facet of well-being for community-dwelling older adults.
This article reports the validation of the Positive And Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), by means of
Methods: A community-dwelling cross-national sample of 1291 older adults aged 75 years-old and older
voluntarily completed the PANAS. The relations between variables in the model were evaluated using structural
equation based on maximum likelihood estimation. The distributional properties, cross-sample stability, internal
reliability, and convergent, external and criterion-related validities of the PANAS were analyzed and found to be
Results: Our results outcomes support for the hypothesis that the PANAS is valid and reliable in...
von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Monteiro, Ana
Objectives: To analyze sexual well-being (SWB) in older adults’ perspective, to investigate the latent constructs
that can work as major determinants in SWB and to examine the potential explanatory mechanisms of a SWB
overall model, in an older cross-national sample. Method: Measures were completed, using a variety of
appropriate methods, including demographics and interviews. Complete data were available for 163 older adults
aged between 65-97 years (M=74.2; SD = 4.743). Data were subjected to content analysis. Representation of the
associations and latent constructs were analyzed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Results: The
most prevalent response of the interviewed participants for SWB was “affection and care”...
Santos, Joana; Carvalhais, Carlos; Ramos, Catarina; Coelho, Tiago; Monteiro, Pedro Rocha; Vaz, Mário
Objectives: Reliable and valid instruments are essential for understanding fatigue in occupational settings. This study
analyzed the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI).
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 218 workers from an automotive industry involved in
assembly tasks for fabrication of mechanical cables. Convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability
and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results: Results showed adequate fit to data, yielding a 20-item, 5-factor
structure (all intercorrelated): Chi2/df (ratio Chi2 and degrees of freedom) = 2.530, confirmatory fit index (CFI) = 0.919,
goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.845, root mean square...
Carvalheira, Ana Alexandra; Price, Cynthia; Neves, Cide Filipe Branco de Campos
The goal of this study was to explore potential body awareness and bodily dissociation differences between men and women with and without sexual difficulties, using the Scale of Body Connection in a sample of 909 participants. In women, bodily dissociation scores were significantly higher across all reported sexual difficulties, except in sexual pain. Women with lack of sexual interest and sexual arousal had significantly lower body awareness when compared to women without these difficulties. These findings suggest the importance of targeting body awareness and bodily dissociation in the treatment of women's sexual difficulties.
Figueiras, Maria João; Maroco, João; Monteiro, Rita; Caeiro, Raúl; Neto, David Dias
Research into how people perceive risk has highlighted the interaction between the available information and personal variables and their impact on judgement. This study sought to identify demographic and health variables that influenced risk and the influence of individual risk assessment, dispositional optimism and negative affect on judgement. A total of 476 participants were asked to make risks judgements of 24 vignettes depicting hypothetical risk scenarios. The findings showed that while people are able to correctly recognise, in others, relevant risk factors for coronary heart disease, risk perception is likely to imply a personal consideration of the same risk factors...
Oliveira, Raquel Lara Velez; Schneider, Valéria; Bonafé, Fernanda Salloume Sampaio; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
Background: In the correctional context, occupational characteristics may contribute to the development of burnout. Objective: To compare the scores of Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Cynicism (CY) and Professional Efficacy (PE) of staff members according to occupational variables in two correctional facilities (CF1 and CF2). Methods: 339 Brazilian employees from two correctional facilities completed a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). The comparison between the scores obtained on each MBI-GS factor, according to variables of interest vs. correctional facilities, was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA-two way: p < 0.05). Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between the levels...
Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mackie, Diane M.; Maitner, Angela T.; Claypool, Heather M.
Research has shown that familiarity induced by prior exposure can decrease
analytic processing and increase reliance on heuristic processing,
including the use of stereotypes (the familiarity-stereotyping effect). We hypothesize
that the familiarity-stereotyping effect will occur only when a stereotype
provides information that fits with the judgmental context. When
a stereotype and other encountered information are inconsistent with one
another, heuristic processing will be disrupted and the familiarity-stereotyping
effect will be eliminated. To test this hypothesis, we replicated two
experiments from Garcia-Marques and Mackie (2007), manipulating the
level of familiarity of information and the stereotypic fit of a suspect’s occupation
to a crime context. Prior exposure to both categorical information
Costa, Rui Miguel; Pestana, José Antonio Melo; Costa, David; Wittmann, Marc
Greater vibrotactile sensitivity has been related to better erectile function in men, and vibrotactile and pressure tactile sensitivity have been related to better sexual function in women. Our previous study found that, for both sexes, greater recalled body awareness during last sexual relation correlated with greater recalled desire and arousal. Using the same sample of that study (68 women and 48 men, recruited in the Lisbon area, Portugal), we tested if greater recalled body awareness during last sexual relation correlates with tactile pressure sensitivity, as assessed by von Frey microfilaments. In simple and partial correlations controlling for social desirability and...
Pechorro, Pedro Fernandes dos Santos; Maroco, João; Ray, James V.; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Nunes, Maria Cristina de Oliveira Salgado
Research on narcissism has a long tradition, but there is limited knowledge regarding its application among female youth, especially for forensic samples of incarcerated female youth. Drawing on 377 female adolescents (103 selected from forensic settings and 274 selected from school settings) from Portugal, the current study is the first to examine simultaneously the psychometric properties of a brief version of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-13) among females drawn from incarcerated and community settings. The results support the three-factor structure model of narcissism after the removal of one item due to its low factor loading. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and...
Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Loureiro, Filipe Pereira
In this paper, we approach the relationship between believing that affect informs about the validity of
a claim and believing that one persuasive strategy will be more or less efficient in changing one’s
own attitude. In one study, participants were asked to select from a set of features of a persuasive
context those they perceived to have more persuasive power. Results showed that these selections
were clearly clustered in two groups, suggesting that individuals tend to select either more cognitive
features or more experiential affective features. Individual measures regarding participants’ need for
cognition and faith in intuition did not explain the tendency to select more one...
Soares, Sandra Cristina de Oliveira; Maior, Rafael S.; Isbell, Lynne A.; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao
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von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira
This study aims to compare the correlates of adjustment to aging (AtA)
reported by young-old and oldest-old adults and to build two structural
models to explore the correlates of AtA for these two age groups. A crossnational
study encompassing a community-dwelling sample of 823 older
adults aged 65 years and older was undertaken. Several measures were
employed to assess AtA, subjective well-being, and sense of coherence. A
questionnaire to determine socio-demographic (sex, age, professional and
marital status, education, household, adult children, family’s annual income,
living setting, and self-reported spirituality), lifestyle and health-related characteristics
(perceived health, recent disease, medication, and leisure) was also
used. Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate...
Couto, Marta Barley de La Cueva; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.
Two experiments examine how people interpret and reason about advice conditionals,
such as tips, for example, “if you study more your grades will improve”, and warnings,
for example, “if you stop exercising you will gain weight”. Experiment 1 showed that
when participants reason about whether a tip or warning could be true in different
situations, their judgments correspond to a biconditional or conditional interpretation
on about half of all trials, but to an enabling or tautology interpretation on many
others. Experiment 2 showed that participants make few modus ponens and tollens
inferences from tips and warnings, and more modus ponens inferences from tips than
warnings. The implications for...
Rasga, Célia Maria Batalha Silva; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.
We examine false belief and counterfactual reasoning in children with autism with a new change-of-intentions task. Children listened to stories, for example, Anne is picking up toys and John hears her say she wants to find her ball. John goes away and the reason for Anne's action changes-Anne's mother tells her to tidy her bedroom. We asked, 'What will John believe is the reason that Anne is picking up toys?' which requires a false-belief inference, and 'If Anne's mother hadn't asked Anne to tidy her room, what would have been the reason she was picking up toys?' which requires a...
Traeen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A.; Enzlin, Paul; Janssen, Erick; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Carvalheira, Ana Alexandra; Stulhofer, Aleksandar
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Sexual Healthon 14 Sep 2016, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/19317611.2016.1224286.
Lemos, Raquel; Maroco, João; Simões, Mário R.; Santiago, Beatriz; Tomás, José; Santana, Isabel
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients carry a greater risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the International Working Group (IWG) on AD aims to consider some cases of aMCI as symptomatic prodromal AD. The core diagnostic marker of AD is a significant and progressive memory deficit, and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) was recommended by the IWG to test memory in cases of possible prodromal AD. This study aims to investigate whether the performance on the FCSRT would enhance the ability to predict conversion to AD in an aMCI group. A longitudinal study was conducted...
Silva, Rita Rocha da; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Reber, Rolf
We contrast the effects of conceptual and perceptual fluency resulting from repetition in the truth effect. In Experiment 1, participants judged either verbatim or paraphrased repetitions, which reduce perceptual similarity to original statements. Judgments were made either immediately after the first exposure to the statements or after one week. Illusions of truth emerged for both types of repetition, with delay reducing both effects. In Experiment 2, participants judged verbatim and paraphrased repetitions with either the same or a contradictory meaning of original statements. In immediate judgments, illusions of truth emerged for repetitions with the same meaning and illusions of falseness...
Soares, Sandra Cristina de Oliveira; Kessel, Dominique; Lorca, María Hernández; Rubio, María J. García; Rodrigues, Paulo; Gomes, Nuno; Carretié, Luis
Research has consistently shown that threat stimuli automatically attract attention in order to activate the defensive response systems. Recent findings have provided evidence that snakes tuned the visual system of evolving primates for their astute detection, particularly under challenging perceptual conditions. The goal of the present study was to measure behavioral and electrophysiological indices of exogenous attention to snakes, compared with spiders - matched for rated fear levels but for which sources of natural selection are less well grounded, and to innocuous animals (birds), which were presented as distracters, while participants were engaged in a letter discrimination task. Duration of...
Gomes, Nuno; Silva, Samuel; Silva, Carlos Fernandes da; Soares, Sandra Cristina de Oliveira
Snakes and spiders constitute fear-relevant stimuli for humans, as many species have deleterious and even fatal effects. However, snakes provoked an older and thus stronger evolutionary pressure than spiders, shaping the vision of earliest primates toward preferential visual processing, mainly in the most complex perceptual conditions. To the best of our knowledge, no study has yet directly assessed the role of ecologically-relevant stimuli in preferentially accessing visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS), the present study assessed the role of evolutionary pressure in gaining a preferential access to visual awareness. For this purpose, we measured the time needed for three...
Rubini, Monica; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ravenna, Marcella; Albarello, Flavia; Moscatelli, Silvia; Semin, Gün R.
This study examines the negative stereotypes of the category of women and their subcategories through the language of insults. Participants produced a list of epithets induced by the same hypothetical scenario in which the protagonist was presented either as a 'prostitute' or as a 'girl' (i.e., nonprostitute). Findings showed that the prostitute was addressed with taboo-related insults exaggerating sexual behavior, whereas the girl was mainly given warnings and intellectual insults. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the underlying processes.