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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (11.872 recursos)

No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

WJCR - William James Center for Research

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 180

  1. How do formal caregivers experience the sexuality of older adults? Beliefs and attitudes towards older adults’ sexuality

    Monteiro, Ana; von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira
    Aim: The way caregivers experience the sexuality of older adults has implications to their identity and sexual manifestations. There are few studies that focus on the meaning of caring of older adults, taking into account their sexuality. This study aims to explore the experiences of formal caregivers (FC) towards sexuality among older adults, and to obtain a description of their experiences. Method: Complete data were available from six caregivers working in a nursing home. We used a sociodemographic questionnaire and topic interview guide. The data was subjected to content analysis. Results: The most prevalent response of the interviewed participants for ‘beliefs about the interest in...

  2. The memory of what we do not recall: Dissociations and theoretical debates in the study of implicit memory

    Ramos, Tânia; Marques, João Amaral; Garcia-Marques, Leonel
    Implicit memory reflects itself on situations in which previously acquired information is expressed, without awareness or intention. The study of implicit memory has had a profound impact on how researchers have investigated the human memory. In this paper, we review the main studies which have revealed dissociations between direct and indirect tests of memory, and address the two main theoretical approaches used to explain these dissociations: the processing view and the multiple systems view. We then describe recent neuroscience studies and discuss its contributions to help clarify the debate about the mechanisms involved in explicit and implicit memory. Finally, we critically analyze some questions and controversies surrounding this literature, such...

  3. Young people living with unemployed parents during a labour market-crisis: How do Portugal and Scotland compare?

    Frasquilho, Diana; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Currie, Candace; Neville, Fergus G.; Whitehead, Ross; Gaspar, Tânia; Almeida, José Miguel Caldas de
    In Europe the rate of unemployment increased due to the 2008–2009 economic recession. The negative effect of unemployment on adult well-being has been demonstrated and there are strong reasons to believe that young people living in unemployed households may be also affected. Unemployment protection policies and family support programmes might help buffer such effects. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between parental unemployment and youth mental well-being outcomes, and to examine possible heterogeneity between two countries with different labourmarket policies and parental support programme availability (Portugal and Scotland). Data were collected in 2014 by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study in Scotland and...

  4. Work engagement among rescue workers: Psychometric properties of the portuguese UWES

    Sinval, Jorge; Pinto, Alexandra Marques; Queirós, Cristina; Maroco, João
    Rescue workers have a stressful and risky occupation where being engaged is crucial to face physical and emotional risks in order to help other persons. This study aims to estimate work engagement levels of rescue workers (namely comparing nurses, firefighters, and police officers) and to assess the validity evidence related to the internal structure of the Portuguese versions of the UWES-17 and UWES-9, namely, dimensionality, measurement invariance between occupational groups, and reliability of the scores. To evaluate the dimensionality, we compared the fit of the three-factor model with the fit of a second-order model. A Portuguese version of the instrument...

  5. The effects of emotional visual context on the encoding and retrieval of body odor information

    Parma, Valentina; Macedo, Stephanie; Rocha, Marta; Alho, Laura; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Soares, Sandra Cristina de Oliveira
    Conditions during information encoding and retrieval are known to influence the sensory material stored and its recapitulation. However, little is known about such processes in olfaction. Here, we capitalized on the uniqueness of body odors (BOs) which, similar to fingerprints, allow for the identification of a specific person, by associating their presentation to a negative or a neutral emotional context. One hundred twenty-five receivers (68 F) were exposed to a male BO while watching either criminal or neutral videos (encoding phase) and were subsequently asked to recognize the target BO within either a congruent or an incongruent visual context (retrieval phase)....

  6. Subjective sleep quality, unstimulated sexual arousal, and sexual frequency

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Costa, David; Pestana, José Antonio Melo
    Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women) reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only) and International Index of...

  7. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: Are there sex differences in the organization of secure base behavior during early childhood

    Fernandes, Carla; Veríssimo, Manuela; Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Antunes, Marta Justino Ferrúcio; Vaughn, Brian E.; Santos, António José
    Recent empirical studies reporting sex differences in attachment relationships have prompted investigators to consider why and under what conditions such results might be observed. This study was designed to explore possibilities of identifying sex differences in the organization of attachment-relevant behavior during early childhood. Observations of 119 children (59 boys) with their mothers and (separately) with their fathers were completed and children were described using the AQS. Results indicated that girls and boys did not differ with respect to global attachment security but at more specific level analyses revealed differences between parents that reflected differences in the behaviors of girls vs. boys with mothers and fathers. Our...

  8. Children's representations of attachment and positive teacher–child relationships

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Torres, Nuno; Silva, Filipa; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.; Santos, António José
    This study was designed to explore whether children's representations of attachment contribute to the co-construction of positive teacher-child relationships. An assessment of verbal intelligence was included as a predictor on the assumption that teachers might perceive themselves as having better relationships with more verbally competent children. Participants were 52 children from two pre-schools, in the district of Lisbon. The Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT) was used to assess children's attachment security. The PCV-P (a scale developed in portuguese language) was used to describe teacher-child relationships through teachers' ratings of child secure base behavior and emotion regulation and the Wechsler Preschool...

  9. Father’s involvement and parenting styles in Portuguese families. The role of education and working hours

    Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Fernandes, Marília; Torres, Nuno; Santos, Carolina
    Early studies on fathers focused mainly on their presence in or absence from children’s lives, and the amount of time they spent with them. More recently, several authors have stated the importance of understanding the quality of father involvement to comprehend fully its impact on child development. However, studies have also reported that socio-demographic variables, namely, father educational levels and employment status affect parenting and children outcomes. The aims of this study were to analyze a sample of 465 Portuguese two-parent families with pre-school age children, looking for associations between father involvement in care/socialization activities and paternal parenting styles while testing for the moderating effect of father...

  10. Adolescent’s subjective perceptions of chronic disease and related psychosocial factors: highlights from an outpatient context study

    Santos, Teresa; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Marques, Adilson; Simões, Celeste; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Machado, Maria do Céu
    Adolescents with chronic disease (CD) can be more vulnerable to adverse psychosocial outcomes. This study aims: 1) to identify differences in psychosocial variables (health-related quality of life, psychosomatic complaints, resilience, self-regulation and social support) among adolescents who feel that CD affects or does not affect school/peers connectedness (measured by self-reported participation in school and social activities); and 2) to assess the extent to which psychosocial variables are associated with connectedness in school and peer domains.

  11. Adolescent’s subjective perceptions of chronic disease and related psychosocial factors: highlights from an outpatient context study

    Santos, Teresa; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Marques, Adilson; Simões, Celeste; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Machado, Maria do Céu
    Adolescents with chronic disease (CD) can be more vulnerable to adverse psychosocial outcomes. This study aims: 1) to identify differences in psychosocial variables (health-related quality of life, psychosomatic complaints, resilience, self-regulation and social support) among adolescents who feel that CD affects or does not affect school/peers connectedness (measured by self-reported participation in school and social activities); and 2) to assess the extent to which psychosocial variables are associated with connectedness in school and peer domains.

  12. Perception accuracy of affiliative relationships in elementary school children and young adolescents

    Daniel, João Rodrigo; Silva, Rita Rocha da; Santos, António José; Cardoso, Jordana Pinto; Coelho, Leandra Marques; Freitas, Miguel da Costa Nunes de; Ribeiro, Olívia
    There has been a rapid growth of studies focused on selection and socialization processes of peer groups, mostly due to the development of stochastic actor-based models to analyze longitudinal social network data. One of the core assumptions of these models is that individuals have an accurate knowledge of the dyadic relationships within their network (i.e., who is and is not connected to whom). Recent cross-sectional findings suggest that elementary school children are very inaccurate in perceiving their classmates' dyadic relationships. These findings question the validity of stochastic actor-based models to study the developmental dynamics of children and carry implications for...

  13. Adolescent’s subjective perceptions of chronic disease and related psychosocial factors: highlights from an outpatient context study

    Santos, Teresa; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Marques, Adilson; Simões, Celeste; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Machado, Maria do Céu
    Adolescents with chronic disease (CD) can be more vulnerable to adverse psychosocial outcomes. This study aims: 1) to identify differences in psychosocial variables (health-related quality of life, psychosomatic complaints, resilience, self-regulation and social support) among adolescents who feel that CD affects or does not affect school/peers connectedness (measured by self-reported participation in school and social activities); and 2) to assess the extent to which psychosocial variables are associated with connectedness in school and peer domains.

  14. Sufficiency before efficiency: Consumers' profiling and barriers/facilitators of energy efficient behaviours

    Gaspar, Rui; Antunes, Dalila; Faria, Ana; Meiszner, Andreas
    Even if consumers have positive attitudes towards the environment and household energy conservation measures, and are seemingly motivated to implement them, there are factors that function as barriers to such behaviours. The literature is still insufficient in exploring variables with such negative influence and in identifying ways of shielding consumers against it. A first step towards the latter can be achieved through energy consumers' psychosocial profiles identification, i.e. configurations of consumer characteristics based on a set of psychosocial factors. To contribute in this regard, a nationwide survey of Portuguese householders aimed to identify: 1) psychosocial factors that may function as barriers or facilitators to energy conservation measures...

  15. Sufficiency before efficiency: Consumers' profiling and barriers/facilitators of energy efficient behaviours

    Gaspar, Rui; Antunes, Dalila; Faria, Ana; Meiszner, Andreas
    Even if consumers have positive attitudes towards the environment and household energy conservation measures, and are seemingly motivated to implement them, there are factors that function as barriers to such behaviours. The literature is still insufficient in exploring variables with such negative influence and in identifying ways of shielding consumers against it. A first step towards the latter can be achieved through energy consumers' psychosocial profiles identification, i.e. configurations of consumer characteristics based on a set of psychosocial factors. To contribute in this regard, a nationwide survey of Portuguese householders aimed to identify: 1) psychosocial factors that may function as barriers or facilitators to energy conservation measures...

  16. Sufficiency before efficiency: Consumers' profiling and barriers/facilitators of energy efficient behaviours

    Gaspar, Rui; Antunes, Dalila; Faria, Ana; Meiszner, Andreas
    Even if consumers have positive attitudes towards the environment and household energy conservation measures, and are seemingly motivated to implement them, there are factors that function as barriers to such behaviours. The literature is still insufficient in exploring variables with such negative influence and in identifying ways of shielding consumers against it. A first step towards the latter can be achieved through energy consumers' psychosocial profiles identification, i.e. configurations of consumer characteristics based on a set of psychosocial factors. To contribute in this regard, a nationwide survey of Portuguese householders aimed to identify: 1) psychosocial factors that may function as barriers or facilitators to energy conservation measures...

  17. Interspecies transmission of emotional information via chemosignals: From humans to dogs (canis lupus familiaris)

    D’Aniello, Biagio; Semin, Gün R.; Alterisio, Alessandra; Aria, Massimo; Scandurra, Anna
    We report a study examining interspecies emotion transfer via body odors (chemosignals). Do human body odors (chemosignals) produced under emotional conditions of happiness and fear provide information that is detectable by pet dogs (Labrador and Golden retrievers)? The odor samples were collected from the axilla of male donors not involved in the main experiment. The experimental setup involved the co-presence of the dog's owner, a stranger and the odor dispenser in a space where the dogs could move freely. There were three odor conditions [fear, happiness, and control (no sweat)] to which the dogs were assigned randomly. The dependent variables...

  18. The vomeronasal organ: A neglected organ

    D’Aniello, Biagio; Semin, Gün R.; Scandurra, Anna; Pinelli, Claudia
    This Document is Protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. It is reproduced with permission.

  19. Análise fatorial confirmatória da versão portuguesa da escala preschool play behaviour scale para educadoras

    Monteiro, Lígia Maria Santos; Fernandes, Marília; Sousa, Tânia Lobo; Torres, Nuno; Rosado, António Fernando; Santos, António José
    A Preschool Play Behavior Scale é um instrumento constituído por 18 itens que expressam diferentes tipos de comportamentos das crianças, em contexto de brincadeira livre com os pares, procurando diferenciar, em particular, tipos de comportamentos não-sociais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo traduzir e analisar a estrutura fatorial do instrumento e as suas características psicométricas. Sessenta educadoras descreveram os comportamentos de 369 crianças (166 raparigas), com idades compreendidas entre os 36 e os 60 meses, e a frequentar escolas de Ensino Particular com fins lucrativos e Instituições Particulares de Solidariedade Social, do Distrito de Lisboa/Portugal. O modelo final de 4 fatores - Comportamento Reticente, Solitário-Passivo, Solitário-Ativo e...

  20. Infant massage improves attitudes toward childbearing, maternal satisfaction and pleasure in parenting

    Bárcia, Sónia Cristina da Silva Vicente Cascão; Veríssimo, Manuela; Diniz, Eva
    The first year of motherhood is a period of growth and adaptation in women's lives with several challenges such as identifying the baby's needs and giving appropriate answers, so that mother and baby get to know each other and form a strong bond. Infant massage is one of the approaches that make an important contribution to the psychological and physiological wellbeing of both baby and mother, helping to form a harmonious relationship. This longitudinal study assessed the benefits of infant massage in the relationship between mother and baby, from birth to 12 months old. Comprising 194 dyads of mothers and...

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