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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (10.591 recursos)

No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

WJCR - William James Center for Research

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 138

  1. General oral health assessment index: A new evaluation proposal

    Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; Zucoloto, Miriane Lucindo; Bonafé, Fernanda Salloumé Sampaio; Maroco, João
    Objectives: To validity the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) among adults who sought dental care and to present a new proposal for calculating scores on self-perception of oral health. Background: There is no study that presents a GOHAI scores using weight of the items. Materials and Methods: The one-factor model, the three-factor model (physical function, psychosocial/psychological function and pain/discomfort) and the second-order hierarchical model (SOHM) were evaluated from confirmatory factor analysis (λ, χ2/df, CFI,GFI and RMSEA). The reliability (CR,α) was estimated. Concurrent validity was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The invariance of the models was estimated in independent samples. The calculation of an overall score using the factor scores was proposed...

  2. Relationships between diurnal adrenocortical activity, children’s attachment security and mothers’ attachment representations

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Oliveira, Tânia Sofia Ferreira de; Fernandes, Marília; Rebelo, Ana Sofia Garcia; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
    This study investigated the relationship between diurnal adrenocortical activity and attachment quality (children’s secure base behaviours and mothers’ attachment representations). Forty-two children ranging in age from 18 to 26 months of age and their mothers participated in this study. Children and mothers’ saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days (Saturday and Sunday), three times per day: awakening; 20m after awakening; bedtime. No significant relationships were found involving mothers’ attachment representations. However, significant negative correlations between children and mothers’ bedtime cortisol levels and children’s attachment security were found.

  3. Validation of the PANAS: A measure of positive and negative affect for use with cross-national older adults

    Humboldt, Sofia von; Monteiro, Ana; Leal, Isabel Pereira
    Objectives: Positive and negative affect is a relevant facet of well-being for community-dwelling older adults. This article reports the validation of the Positive And Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), by means of confirmatory analysis. Methods: A community-dwelling cross-national sample of 1291 older adults aged 75 years-old and older voluntarily completed the PANAS. The relations between variables in the model were evaluated using structural equation based on maximum likelihood estimation. The distributional properties, cross-sample stability, internal reliability, and convergent, external and criterion-related validities of the PANAS were analyzed and found to be psychometrically acceptable. Results: Our results outcomes support for the hypothesis that the PANAS is valid and reliable in...

  4. Are older adults well sexually? Sexual well-being among a cross-national sample of older adults

    von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Monteiro, Ana
    Objectives: To analyze sexual well-being (SWB) in older adults’ perspective, to investigate the latent constructs that can work as major determinants in SWB and to examine the potential explanatory mechanisms of a SWB overall model, in an older cross-national sample. Method: Measures were completed, using a variety of appropriate methods, including demographics and interviews. Complete data were available for 163 older adults aged between 65-97 years (M=74.2; SD = 4.743). Data were subjected to content analysis. Representation of the associations and latent constructs were analyzed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Results: The most prevalent response of the interviewed participants for SWB was “affection and care”...

  5. Portuguese version of the swedish occupational fatigue inventory (SOFI) among assembly workers: cultural adaptation, reliability and validity

    Santos, Joana; Carvalhais, Carlos; Ramos, Catarina; Coelho, Tiago; Monteiro, Pedro Rocha; Vaz, Mário
    Objectives: Reliable and valid instruments are essential for understanding fatigue in occupational settings. This study analyzed the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI). Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 218 workers from an automotive industry involved in assembly tasks for fabrication of mechanical cables. Convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results: Results showed adequate fit to data, yielding a 20-item, 5-factor structure (all intercorrelated): Chi2/df (ratio Chi2 and degrees of freedom) = 2.530, confirmatory fit index (CFI) = 0.919, goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.845, root mean square...

  6. Body awareness and bodily dissociation among those with and without sexual difficulties: Differentiation using the scale of body connection

    Carvalheira, Ana Alexandra; Price, Cynthia; Neves, Cide Filipe Branco de Campos
    The goal of this study was to explore potential body awareness and bodily dissociation differences between men and women with and without sexual difficulties, using the Scale of Body Connection in a sample of 909 participants. In women, bodily dissociation scores were significantly higher across all reported sexual difficulties, except in sexual pain. Women with lack of sexual interest and sexual arousal had significantly lower body awareness when compared to women without these difficulties. These findings suggest the importance of targeting body awareness and bodily dissociation in the treatment of women's sexual difficulties.

  7. Discerning the impact of personal and situational variables in risk perception of coronary heart disease

    Figueiras, Maria João; Maroco, João; Monteiro, Rita; Caeiro, Raúl; Neto, David Dias
    Research into how people perceive risk has highlighted the interaction between the available information and personal variables and their impact on judgement. This study sought to identify demographic and health variables that influenced risk and the influence of individual risk assessment, dispositional optimism and negative affect on judgement. A total of 476 participants were asked to make risks judgements of 24 vignettes depicting hypothetical risk scenarios. The findings showed that while people are able to correctly recognise, in others, relevant risk factors for coronary heart disease, risk perception is likely to imply a personal consideration of the same risk factors...

  8. Occupational characteristics and burnout syndrome in brazilian correctional staff

    Oliveira, Raquel Lara Velez; Schneider, Valéria; Bonafé, Fernanda Salloumé Sampaio; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
    Background: In the correctional context, occupational characteristics may contribute to the development of burnout. Objective: To compare the scores of Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Cynicism (CY) and Professional Efficacy (PE) of staff members according to occupational variables in two correctional facilities (CF1 and CF2). Methods: 339 Brazilian employees from two correctional facilities completed a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). The comparison between the scores obtained on each MBI-GS factor, according to variables of interest vs. correctional facilities, was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA-two way: p < 0.05). Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between the levels...

  9. Moderation of the familiarity-stereotyping effect: The role of stereotype fit

    Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mackie, Diane M.; Maitner, Angela T.; Claypool, Heather M.
    Research has shown that familiarity induced by prior exposure can decrease analytic processing and increase reliance on heuristic processing, including the use of stereotypes (the familiarity-stereotyping effect). We hypothesize that the familiarity-stereotyping effect will occur only when a stereotype provides information that fits with the judgmental context. When a stereotype and other encountered information are inconsistent with one another, heuristic processing will be disrupted and the familiarity-stereotyping effect will be eliminated. To test this hypothesis, we replicated two experiments from Garcia-Marques and Mackie (2007), manipulating the level of familiarity of information and the stereotypic fit of a suspect’s occupation to a crime context. Prior exposure to both categorical information (Study 1)...

  10. Women’s finger pressure sensitivity at rest and recalled body awareness during partnered sexual activity

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Pestana, José Antonio Melo; Costa, David; Wittmann, Marc
    Greater vibrotactile sensitivity has been related to better erectile function in men, and vibrotactile and pressure tactile sensitivity have been related to better sexual function in women. Our previous study found that, for both sexes, greater recalled body awareness during last sexual relation correlated with greater recalled desire and arousal. Using the same sample of that study (68 women and 48 men, recruited in the Lisbon area, Portugal), we tested if greater recalled body awareness during last sexual relation correlates with tactile pressure sensitivity, as assessed by von Frey microfilaments. In simple and partial correlations controlling for social desirability and...

  11. A Brief Measure of narcissism among female juvenile delinquents and community youths

    Pechorro, Pedro Fernandes dos Santos; Maroco, João; Ray, James V.; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Nunes, Maria Cristina de Oliveira Salgado
    Research on narcissism has a long tradition, but there is limited knowledge regarding its application among female youth, especially for forensic samples of incarcerated female youth. Drawing on 377 female adolescents (103 selected from forensic settings and 274 selected from school settings) from Portugal, the current study is the first to examine simultaneously the psychometric properties of a brief version of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-13) among females drawn from incarcerated and community settings. The results support the three-factor structure model of narcissism after the removal of one item due to its low factor loading. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and...

  12. Dispositional beliefs regarding “affect as information” determine the perception of persuasive self-efficacy

    Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Loureiro, Filipe Pereira
    In this paper, we approach the relationship between believing that affect informs about the validity of a claim and believing that one persuasive strategy will be more or less efficient in changing one’s own attitude. In one study, participants were asked to select from a set of features of a persuasive context those they perceived to have more persuasive power. Results showed that these selections were clearly clustered in two groups, suggesting that individuals tend to select either more cognitive features or more experiential affective features. Individual measures regarding participants’ need for cognition and faith in intuition did not explain the tendency to select more one...

  13. Fast detector/ first responder: Interactions between the superior colliculus-pulvinar pathway and stimuli relevant to primates

    Soares, Sandra Cristina de Oliveira; Maior, Rafael S.; Isbell, Lynne A.; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao
    This Document is Protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. it is reproduced with permission.

  14. Correlates of adjustment to aging among the young-old and the oldest-old: A comparative analysis

    von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel Pereira
    This study aims to compare the correlates of adjustment to aging (AtA) reported by young-old and oldest-old adults and to build two structural models to explore the correlates of AtA for these two age groups. A crossnational study encompassing a community-dwelling sample of 823 older adults aged 65 years and older was undertaken. Several measures were employed to assess AtA, subjective well-being, and sense of coherence. A questionnaire to determine socio-demographic (sex, age, professional and marital status, education, household, adult children, family’s annual income, living setting, and self-reported spirituality), lifestyle and health-related characteristics (perceived health, recent disease, medication, and leisure) was also used. Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate...

  15. Advice conditionals about tips and warnings: Interpretations and inferences

    Couto, Marta Barley de La Cueva; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.
    Two experiments examine how people interpret and reason about advice conditionals, such as tips, for example, “if you study more your grades will improve”, and warnings, for example, “if you stop exercising you will gain weight”. Experiment 1 showed that when participants reason about whether a tip or warning could be true in different situations, their judgments correspond to a biconditional or conditional interpretation on about half of all trials, but to an enabling or tautology interpretation on many others. Experiment 2 showed that participants make few modus ponens and tollens inferences from tips and warnings, and more modus ponens inferences from tips than warnings. The implications for...

  16. Advice conditionals about tips and warnings: Interpretations and inferences

    Couto, Marta Barley de La Cueva; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.
    Two experiments examine how people interpret and reason about advice conditionals, such as tips, for example, “if you study more your grades will improve”, and warnings, for example, “if you stop exercising you will gain weight”. Experiment 1 showed that when participants reason about whether a tip or warning could be true in different situations, their judgments correspond to a biconditional or conditional interpretation on about half of all trials, but to an enabling or tautology interpretation on many others. Experiment 2 showed that participants make few modus ponens and tollens inferences from tips and warnings, and more modus ponens inferences from tips than warnings. The implications for...

  17. How children with autism reason about other's intentions: False-belief and counterfactual inferences

    Rasga, Célia Maria Batalha Silva; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.
    We examine false belief and counterfactual reasoning in children with autism with a new change-of-intentions task. Children listened to stories, for example, Anne is picking up toys and John hears her say she wants to find her ball. John goes away and the reason for Anne's action changes-Anne's mother tells her to tidy her bedroom. We asked, 'What will John believe is the reason that Anne is picking up toys?' which requires a false-belief inference, and 'If Anne's mother hadn't asked Anne to tidy her room, what would have been the reason she was picking up toys?' which requires a...

  18. Sexuality in older adults (65+) — An overview of the literature, part 1: Sexual function and its difficulties

    Traeen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A.; Enzlin, Paul; Janssen, Erick; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Carvalheira, Ana Alexandra; Stulhofer, Aleksandar
    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Sexual Healthon 14 Sep 2016, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/19317611.2016.1224286.

  19. The free and cued selective reminding test for predicting progression to alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: A prospective longitudinal study

    Lemos, Raquel; Maroco, João; Simões, Mário R.; Santiago, Beatriz; Tomás, José; Santana, Isabel
    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients carry a greater risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the International Working Group (IWG) on AD aims to consider some cases of aMCI as symptomatic prodromal AD. The core diagnostic marker of AD is a significant and progressive memory deficit, and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) was recommended by the IWG to test memory in cases of possible prodromal AD. This study aims to investigate whether the performance on the FCSRT would enhance the ability to predict conversion to AD in an aMCI group. A longitudinal study was conducted...

  20. The informative value of type of repetition: Perceptual and conceptual fluency influences on judgments of truth

    Silva, Rita Rocha da; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Reber, Rolf
    We contrast the effects of conceptual and perceptual fluency resulting from repetition in the truth effect. In Experiment 1, participants judged either verbatim or paraphrased repetitions, which reduce perceptual similarity to original statements. Judgments were made either immediately after the first exposure to the statements or after one week. Illusions of truth emerged for both types of repetition, with delay reducing both effects. In Experiment 2, participants judged verbatim and paraphrased repetitions with either the same or a contradictory meaning of original statements. In immediate judgments, illusions of truth emerged for repetitions with the same meaning and illusions of falseness...

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