Traeen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A.; Enzlin, Paul; Janssen, Erick; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Carvalheira, Ana Alexandra; Stulhofer, Aleksandar
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Sexual Healthon 14 Sep 2016, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/19317611.2016.1224286.
Lemos, Raquel; Maroco, João; Simões, Mário R.; Santiago, Beatriz; Tomás, José; Santana, Isabel
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients carry a greater risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the International Working Group (IWG) on AD aims to consider some cases of aMCI as symptomatic prodromal AD. The core diagnostic marker of AD is a significant and progressive memory deficit, and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) was recommended by the IWG to test memory in cases of possible prodromal AD. This study aims to investigate whether the performance on the FCSRT would enhance the ability to predict conversion to AD in an aMCI group. A longitudinal study was conducted...
Silva, Rita Rocha da; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Reber, Rolf
We contrast the effects of conceptual and perceptual fluency resulting from repetition in the truth effect. In Experiment 1, participants judged either verbatim or paraphrased repetitions, which reduce perceptual similarity to original statements. Judgments were made either immediately after the first exposure to the statements or after one week. Illusions of truth emerged for both types of repetition, with delay reducing both effects. In Experiment 2, participants judged verbatim and paraphrased repetitions with either the same or a contradictory meaning of original statements. In immediate judgments, illusions of truth emerged for repetitions with the same meaning and illusions of falseness...
Soares, Sandra Cristina de Oliveira; Kessel, Dominique; Lorca, María Hernández; Rubio, María J. García; Rodrigues, Paulo; Gomes, Nuno; Carretié, Luis
Research has consistently shown that threat stimuli automatically attract attention in order to activate the defensive response systems. Recent findings have provided evidence that snakes tuned the visual system of evolving primates for their astute detection, particularly under challenging perceptual conditions. The goal of the present study was to measure behavioral and electrophysiological indices of exogenous attention to snakes, compared with spiders - matched for rated fear levels but for which sources of natural selection are less well grounded, and to innocuous animals (birds), which were presented as distracters, while participants were engaged in a letter discrimination task. Duration of...
Gomes, Nuno; Silva, Samuel; Silva, Carlos Fernandes da; Soares, Sandra Cristina de Oliveira
Snakes and spiders constitute fear-relevant stimuli for humans, as many species have deleterious and even fatal effects. However, snakes provoked an older and thus stronger evolutionary pressure than spiders, shaping the vision of earliest primates toward preferential visual processing, mainly in the most complex perceptual conditions. To the best of our knowledge, no study has yet directly assessed the role of ecologically-relevant stimuli in preferentially accessing visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS), the present study assessed the role of evolutionary pressure in gaining a preferential access to visual awareness. For this purpose, we measured the time needed for three...
Rubini, Monica; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ravenna, Marcella; Albarello, Flavia; Moscatelli, Silvia; Semin, Gün R.
This study examines the negative stereotypes of the category of women and their subcategories through the language of insults. Participants produced a list of epithets induced by the same hypothetical scenario in which the protagonist was presented either as a 'prostitute' or as a 'girl' (i.e., nonprostitute). Findings showed that the prostitute was addressed with taboo-related insults exaggerating sexual behavior, whereas the girl was mainly given warnings and intellectual insults. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the underlying processes.
Carvalheira, Ana Alexandra; Godinho, Leonor Figueiredo; Costa, Pedro Alexandre
Research has demonstrated a negative impact of cognitive distraction on sexual activity, and body dissatisfaction has been associated with less satisfying and fewer sexual activities. In the current study we examined the extent to which cognitive distraction, based on body appearance and sexual performance, mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction on sexual difficulties among women and men. A sample of 493 women (Mage = 30.61) and 595 men (Mage = 37.90) completed an online survey. Women reported significantly higher levels of distressing sexual difficulties, significantly more body dissatisfaction, and greater cognitive distraction based on appearance than men. In contrast, men reported higher cognitive distraction...
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Bidell, Markus
The aim of this study was to examine parenting desire, intention, and experience among a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N = 568) from Portugal between the ages of 18 and 76 years. Approximately 7% (n = 38) reported having children, with the majority stating a biological kinship with their children primarily from previous heterosexual relationships. The central focus of the current study includes participants without children (n = 530), on average 12 years younger than those with children. Among this group, 65% stated a desire to have children and 56% stated the intention to have children in...
Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Camacho, Inês; Reis, Marta; Costa, Diogo; Galvão, Diana
The aim of this study was to understand adolescents’ worries and
the strategies used to face them, and what makes them feel good.
In this study, 3869 adolescents participated, of which 46.8% boys,
attending grades 8 and 10, mean age 14.7 years, SD = 1.18,
included in the Portuguese Health Behaviour in School-Aged
Children survey 2014. In the first quantitative study, simple
descriptive analyses and chi-squares were carried out and a regression
model associated the intensity and frequency of worries with
a decrease in perceived well-being; in a second qualitative study,
content analysis was carried out regarding open questions about
types of worries and ways to cope with worries and...
Sousa, Rossana Guerra de; Paulo, Edilson; Maroco, João
The way public policies are managed in Brazil has changed since the 1988
Federal Constitution. This study aimed to identify how changes in the structure of public
expenditure composition at Brazilian federal states influenced local human development in
these states. The states’ public expenditures were categorized according to their nature as
spending indices whereas human development was measured through a human development
index (HD). To verify the relationships between these variables, an accounting-social
theoretical model was created and estimated through latent growth modeling (LGM). The
LGM measurement period comprised five administration cycles of the Brazilian states
(1988–2011). Variables were measured on data of the second year of state...
Costa, Joana; Maroco, João; Pinto-Gouveia, José
Background The cognitive fusion questionnaire (CFQ) is a self‐report questionnaire that
assesses the extent to which individuals are psychologically entangled with, and dominated by
the form–content of their thoughts. The aim of this study was to replicate the factor structure
of CFQ in osteoarticular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, depressive disorder, and normative
population. It further examined the factorial invariance of the CFQ across these 5 groups.
Method Data from 299 participants (N General Population = 67, N Osteoarticular Disease = 73,
N Diabetes Mellitus = 47, N Depressive Disorder = 45, and N Obesity = 60) were subjected to confirmatory
factorial analysis (CFA) to replicate the structural...
Marques, Marta Moreira; de Gucht, Véronique; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Maes, Stan
Dados suplementares referentes a este artigo podem ser encontrados online em: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.12.012.
Mata, André; Ferreira, Mário Augusto Boto; Voss, Andreas; Kollei, Tanja
In judgment and reasoning, intuition and deliberation
can agree on the same responses, or they can be in conflict
and suggest different responses. Incorrect responses to conflict
problems have traditionally been interpreted as a sign of faulty
problem-solving—an inability to solve the conflict. However,
such errors might emerge earlier, from insufficient attention to
the conflict. To test this attentional hypothesis, we manipulated
the conflict in reasoning problems and used eye-tracking to
measure attention. Across several measures, correct responders
paid more attention than incorrect responders to conflict
problems, and they discriminated between conflict and
no-conflict problems better than incorrect responders. These
results are consistent with a two-stage account of reasoning,
whereby sound problem solving...
Frasquilho, Diana; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Marques, Adilson; Gaspar, Tânia; Almeida, José Miguel Caldas de
Objectives: Using a national representative sample of adolescents with unemployed parents,
this study examined which factors (sociodemographic and of satisfaction with family
life and peers) are related to the negative effect of parents' unemployment on emotional
Study design: Cross-sectional survey study.
Methods: Data on adolescents (14.1 ± 1.7 years old), with at least one parent unemployed
(n ¼ 1311, 53.2% girls), was provided by the Portuguese Health Behaviour in School-aged
Children study. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed.
Results: A high proportion of adolescents reported being emotionally affected by father's
unemployment but not by their mother's. Older boys and older girls were more likely to
Costa, Rui Miguel; Peres, Luís
Background. Previous research shows that smoking
status is unrelated to female sexual difficulties. However,
degree of nicotine dependence has not been measured,
and the assessment of sexual functioning has not
specified penile–vaginal intercourse (henceforth, intercourse),
which is more clearly impaired by sexual difficulties
than other sexual behaviors. Objectives. To test
if smoking status is associated with poorer female sexual
function during intercourse, and if nicotine dependence
rather than smoking status is related to poorer
female sexual function. Methods. During 2012, 129
Portuguese community women reported their smoking
status, and completed the Fagerstr¨om Test for Nicotine
Dependence, the Female Sexual Function Index
(FSFI), and an adaptation of the FSFI to assess sexual
functioning specifically during intercourse,...
Pechorro, Pedro Fernandes dos Santos; Barroso, Ricardo; Silva, Irene; Maroco, João; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa
O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu em analisar as propriedades psicométricas da Escala de Respostas Socialmente Desejáveis - 5 (SDRS-5) em uma amostra de jovens institucionalizados. Com base nesta amostra (N = 221), a versão portuguesa da SDRS-5 demonstrou boas propriedades psicométricas, nomeadamente em termos de estrutura fatorial, consistência interna, validade convergente e validade discriminante que de uma forma geral justificam a sua utilização. Em termos de validade de critério, foram encontradas correlações negativas entre a SDRS-5 e consumo de álcool, de cannabis, de cocaína/heroína e sexo sem preservativo.
Feminist scholars, as well as community psychologists, have advocated the role of reflexive engagement in the research process in order to challenge power relations. Moreover, the liberating potential of storytelling, especially when working with issues of diversity and marginalization, has been stressed. The purpose of this article is to reflect on an ethnographic work underway in the Identification and Expulsion Center-CIE of Ponte Galeria, Rome. How the researcher's identities, values, and experiences, alongside power and privilege, have influenced her positioning in the research setting and the relationships formed with the different setting members is the subject of discussion. In sharing...
Stevanovic, Dejan; Atilola, Olayinka; Vostanis, Panos; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Avicenna, Mohamad; Kandemir, Hasan; Knez, Rajna; Franic, Tomislav; Petrov, Petar; Maroco, João; Supic, Zorica Terzic; Bagheri, Zahra
This study evaluated the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0
(PedsQLTM) among adolescents sampled from Bulgaria, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Serbia, and Turkey. The multiple-indicator
multiple-cause (MIMIC) model was used, which allowed controlling of demographic variables (i.e., age,
gender, and socioeconomic status). Significant effects of country on scores within the PedsQLTM domains were
observed, with up to 17 items showing differential item functioning (DIF) across the countries. We did not find support
for cross-cultural measurement invariance hypotheses for scores on the PedsQLTM adolescent self-report in this study.
Researchers should use caution in making cross-cultural quality of life comparisons while using...
Curral, Luís A.; Silva, Pedro Marques-Quinteiro Fernandes da; Gomes, Catarina; Lind, Pedro G.
Recent theoretical contributions have suggested a theory of leadership that is grounded in complexity theory, hence regarding leadership as a complex process (i.e., nonlinear; emergent). This article tests if complexity leadership theory promotes efficiency in work groups. 40 groups of five participants each had to complete four decision making tasks using the city simulation game SimCity4. Before engaging in the four decision making tasks, participants received information regarding what sort of leadership behaviors were more adequate to help them perform better. Results suggest that if complexity leadership theory is applied, groups can achieve higher efficiency over time, when compared with...
Pechorro, Pedro Fernandes dos Santos; Maroco, João; Vieira, Rui Xavier; Oliveira, João Pedro; Goncalves, Rui Abrunhosa
A presente investigação teve como objetivo analisar o papel
desempenhado na delinquência juvenil pelos constructos de traços psicopáticos,
problemas de comportamento, comportamentos delinquentes e autoestima.
Recorrendo a uma amostra total de 543 jovens do sexo masculino, subdividida em
amostra forense (n = 221; M = 15.86 anos; DP = 1.31 anos; amplitude = 13-20 anos)
e em amostra escolar (n = 322; M = 16.03 anos; DP = 1.62 anos; amplitude = 12-
20 anos), os resultados indicaram que os jovens da amostra forense apresentam
valores significativamente mais elevados em traços psicopáticos, problemas de
comportamento, comportamentos delinquentes, além de valores mais baixos
em autoestima. Um modelo de regressão logística...