Recursos de colección

The KnowledgeBank at OSU (79.989 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

29th Hayes Graduate Research Forum (February, 2015)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 37

  1. The Development of a Tomato-Soy-Arugula Seed Beverage for Prostate Cancer Clinical Trial

    Lee, Michelle C.
    The relationship between tomato, soy, and cruciferous vegetables with lower risk of prostate cancer has been investigated in several prospective epidemiological studies. It is hypothesized that the combination of these foods reduces the risk of prostate cancer to a greater extent than any single food alone. Cruciferous vegetables such as arugula are rich in a group of compounds called glucosinolates. Upon chewing or tearing of the plant, the endogenous plant enzyme myrosinase is released and hydrolyzes the glucosinolates to isothiocyanates (ITCs). ITCs are bioactive, and have been shown to be chemoprotective in animal and human studies. However, ITCs are not...

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Al-La and Cu-Zr Glass Formation from Liquid

    Riegner, David
    Metallic glasses, a metal lacking any long-range atomic ordering, represent an opportunity to usher in the next generation of engineering materials. Metallic glasses have a unique property set, filling a niche not accessible by any existing materials class: high strength, low modulus, low density, corrosion resistance and net-shape processing techniques. Current theoretical understanding consists of a handful of empirical rules, and the absence of universal predictive criteria for the formation of metallic glass has been a standing issue since their discovery in 1960. The lack of mechanisms understood to compel certain metallic liquids to form amorphous structures and not others,...

  3. Ibrutinib enhances IL-17 response by modulating the function of bone marrow derived dendritic cells

    Natarajan, Gayathri
    Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is an irreversible dual Btk/Itk inhibitor shown to be effective in treating several B cell malignancies. However, limited studies have been conducted to study the effect of this drug on myeloid cell function. Hence, we studied the effect of ibrutinib treatment on TLR-4 mediated activation of bone marrow derived dendritic cell culture (DCs). Upon ibrutinib treatment, LPS-treated DCs displayed lower synthesis of TNF-α and nitric oxide and higher induction of IL-6, TGF-β and IL-18. While ibrutinib dampened MHC-II and CD86 expression on DCs, CD80 expression was upregulated. Further, ibrutinib-treated DCs promoted T cell proliferation and enhanced IL-17 production...

  4. Investigating the Academic and Social Experiences of Black Male Collegians Formerly in Foster Care

    Henderson, Trevion
    The purpose of this study was to explore the educational backgrounds and experiences of Black male collegians formerly in foster care. Interviews were conducted with 11 Black male foster care alumni who were current students or recent graduates of degree-granting postsecondary institutions. During this qualitative study, Black male collegians formerly in foster care (BMFCCs) were interviewed via one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. Themes surrounding (a) college-going motivations, (b) college-going and transition processes, and (c) collegiate experiences of Black male collegians formerly in foster care emerged after analysis of interview data. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.

  5. A Worksite Translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program among Employees with Prediabetes

    Weinhold, Kellie
    INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious medical condition affecting over 12% of Americans and is associated with $58 billion in work-related annual costs. Prediabetes increases risk for T2DM, and is estimated to affect over one third of U.S. adults. There is an evident need to prevent the development of T2DM in at-risk individuals. Adults spend a significant portion of their time at the workplace, suggesting its utility for efforts at health promotion and disease prevention. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a lifestyle intervention program that has demonstrated efficacy in preventing or delaying T2DM in at-risk adults,...

  6. Capitalism is Here to Stay: An Appraisal of the Complicated Relationship Between Art, Art-Making, and the Marketplace

    Levitt, Sarah
    This paper examines the relationship between art and capitalism in America from the 1960s to the present, and questions whether art practices, specifically dance, can offer a form of resistance to dominant economic systems. During the 1960s, postmodern artists’ emphasis on decoupling process and product in an attempt to severe the relationship between art and consumerism led to the development of an anti-labor, pro-institution, pro-business culture in the arts which persists today. As artists experiment with form, content, and style on the fringes of culture with little to no economic benefit, their ideas are appropriated by mainstream interests, like institutions...

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation of Sunlight Transport through Solar Trees – a New Paradigm for Improving Sunlight Capture Efficiency

    Verma, Navni
    Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells arranged in complex 3D leaf-like configurations—referred to as a solar tree—can potentially collect more sunlight than traditionally used flat configurations. It is hypothesized that this could be because of two reasons. First, the 3D space can be utilized to increase the overall surface area over which the sunlight may be captured. Second, as opposed to traditional flat panel configurations where the capture efficiency decreases dramatically for shallow angles of incidence, the capture efficiency of a solar tree is hampered little by shallow angles of incidence due to the 3D orientation of the solar leaves. In this...

  8. Repeated Social Defeat Stress Induces Neuroinflammation and Impairs Hippocampal Neurogenesis That Differentially Regulate Mood and Cognition

    Niraula, Anzela
    Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine stressor that models several key physiological, immunological, and behavioral alterations observed in humans exposed to psychosocial stress. RSD induces prolonged anxiety-like behavior associated with myeloid cell trafficking into the brain, including the hippocampus. Because the hippocampus (HPC) is a key area involved in neuroplasticity, behavior, and cognition, the goal of this study was to investigate if the stress-induced monocyte trafficking affected hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Here, we show that RSD increased inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6), enhanced microglia activation and monocyte trafficking (CD45hi) specifically in the caudal hippocampus. RSD also impaired...

  9. The Role of Elaboration in Self-Control

    Belding, Jennifer
    People can exert self-control in effortful and non-effortful ways. While some research suggests that low thinking hinders self-control, other research indicates that cognitive resources are not necessary for self-control. Unfortunately, only very few theories articulate the conditions under which careful deliberation is helpful or harmful for effective self-control. To answer this question, we draw on research from the attitudes and persuasion literature and suggest that both the direction and amount of thinking are important for understanding when people will exert self-control. We argue that the experience of a self-control conflict can be conceptualized as an exercise in self-persuasion in that...

  10. Time-resolved measurement of single pulse femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation

    Kafka, Kyle
    Time-resolved diffraction microscopy technique has been used to observe the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) from the interaction of a single femtosecond laser pulse (pump) with a nano-scale groove mechanically formed on a single-crystal Cu substrate. The interaction dynamics (0-1200 ps) was captured by diffracting a time-delayed, frequency-doubled pulse from nascent LIPSS formation induced by the pump with an infinity-conjugate microscopy setup. The LIPSS ripples are observed to form sequentially outward from the groove edge, with the first one forming after 50 ps. A 1-D analytical model of electron heating and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation induced by the interaction...

  11. Social expectations reverse the effects of acetaminophen on economic decision-making

    Roberts, Ian
    On an average week, 23% of the US population takes acetaminophen (i.e. paracetamol; active ingredient in Tylenol; Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002). Originally viewed as just a physical pain killer, acetaminophen has been shown to affect other psychological processes (DeWall et al., 2010; DeWall, Chester, & White, 2015; Durso, Luttrell, & Way, 2015; Randles, Heine, & Santos, 2013). With such a large proportion of the population routinely taking acetaminophen, it is critical to know how it might affect social and economic outcomes. Here we used a battery of economic games to demonstrate that acetaminophen has consistent effects on...

  12. Oxidative stress-mediated inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation by silver nanoparticles

    McCracken, Christie
    Use of silver nanoparticles (NP) is of interest in the food and food packaging industries for their antimicrobial properties. In order to investigate potential consequences of Ag NP ingestion, this study was performed in the intestinal epithelial cell line C2BBe1. Ag NP were synthesized and characterized prior to biological experiments. The Ag NP had an average diameter of 23 nm as determined by TEM analysis. Treatment of proliferating cells (< 10,000 cells/cm2) with low doses of Ag NP (0.25 µg/cm2 or 1.25 µg/mL) for 24 hours induced 20% necrotic cell death and an 80% reduction in metabolic activity. Ag NP...

  13. HIV-1 Primer Binding Site:Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Interaction Affinity Diminishes Upon tRNA Primer Annealing and Extension

    Olson, Erik D.
    The retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), possesses a positive sense RNA genome (gRNA) that is reverse transcribed into proviral DNA upon infection. In order for reverse transcription to occur, HIV-1 co-opts cellular tRNALys3, whose 3 ́ 18 nucleotides are perfectly complimentary to a region with the gRNA, to serve as the primer. tRNALys3 is selectively packaged into virions through its interaction with the cellular enzyme lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS), which in turn interacts with the viral protein responsible for orchestrating virus assembly, Gag. However, the mechanism of tRNALys3 transfer from the packaged LysRS to the primer-binding site (PBS) remains...

  14. Minimal intestinal epithelial cell toxicity in response to short- and long-term food-relevant inorganic nanoparticle exposure

    McCracken, Christie
    Toxicity of commercial nanoparticles of titania, silica and zinc oxides is being investigated in this in vitro study. Particles of these compositions are found in many food items and thus this study is directed towards particle behavior in simulated digestion media and their interaction with intestinal epithelial cell line C2BBe1, a clone of Caco-2 cells, originally isolated from a human colon cancer. Even though the primary particle size of all three particles was below 50 nm, the particles appeared as aggregates in culture media with a negatively charged surface. In the presence of pepsin (~pH 2), the charge on the...

  15. Family Expressivity: Caregiver Differences and Child Emotional Reactivity

    Hooper, Emma
    This study considered the process by which children emotionally develop within the context of the child’s environment, as families and especially caregivers play an important role in socializing emotional understanding and expression. We investigated how maternal characteristics, including depression and sensitivity, influenced child emotional reactivity over time, while also considering how overall family expressivity, both maternal and paternal, mediated this association. Data were drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. The current sample included data from grades three, four, five and six; and includes 710 children with mothers and fathers or mother’s partners (MP). Mothers’ depression...


    Wang, Feifei
    Background: The dNTPase SAMHD1 functions as an HIV-1 restriction factor in non-dividing cells by limiting intracellular dNTP levels required to complete viral reverse transcription. Phosphorylation of human SAMHD1 (hSAMHD1) at residue threonine (T) 592 by cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and CDK2 impairs its restriction of HIV-1 infection. Mouse SAMHD1 (mSAMHD1) shares 72-74% protein sequence identity with hSAMHD1, and also restricts HIV-1 infection in non-dividing cells. However, it is unknown whether phosphorylation of mSAMHD1 regulates its restriction of retroviral infection. Results: We identified and confirmed that T634 is a phosphosite of mSAMHD1 in dividing cells by mass spectrometry and using a...

  17. Ethnophytopathology and Survey of Tomato Diseases in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Testen, Anna
    Purpose of Study Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop in the Morogoro Region of Tanzania, providing both income and nutrients to smallholder farmers. Tomato production is constrained by many diseases, but the distribution and severity of key diseases was unknown in the Morogoro Region. Better knowledge of regional tomato disease occurrence leads to improved disease management recommendations for farmers, which can ultimately reduce their reliance on chemical pesticides. To enhance knowledge of tomato diseases in the Morogoro Region, we conducted an ethnophytopathology study to ascertain local plant disease knowledge and a physical survey of tomato diseases in the region. Research...

  18. Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging: Rapid Characterization of Semiconductors

    Deitz, Julia
    In recent years, solar power has begun to approach cost-competitiveness with conventional power sources due to improvements in efficiency, manufacturing, and economies of scale. However, much of this advancement is reaching a saturation point; the sustainability of current and near-term costs is at risk. It is the next generation of PV technologies, with inherently higher conversion efficiencies and lower costs, that will lead the way to grid parity and greater adoption. For these emerging technologies, achievement of their ultimate potential depends greatly upon the ability to fully harness and exploit their advanced properties, which in turn depends on understanding these...

  19. Attitudinal Ambivalence: How Consumers Manage it?

    Singh, Amit S.
    Ambivalence often has been viewed as an attitude that has both positive and negative components to it. Ambivalence also is viewed as causing discomfort, thus motivating individuals to reduce it. In this research, we investigate the possibility that individuals choose to be ambivalent or not. Initial results tend to show that ambivalence is something that can be controlled by consumers strategically.

  20. Two-dimensional NMR Measurement and Point Dipole Model Prediction of Paramagnetic Shift Tensors in Solids

    Walder, Brennan
    A new two-dimensional NMR experiment to separate and correlate the first-order quadrupolar and chemical/paramagnetic shift interactions is described. This experiment, which we call the shifting-d echo experiment, allows a more precise determination of tensor principal components values and their relative orientation. It is designed using the recently introduced symmetry pathway concept. A comparison of the shifting-d experiment with earlier proposed methods is presented and experimentally illustrated in the case of 2H (I = 1) paramagnetic shift and quadrupolar tensors of CuCl2 · 2D2O. The benefits of the shifting-d echo experiment over other methods are a factor of two improvement in sensitivity...

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