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Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard (38.935 recursos)

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Berkman Center for Internet & Society Scholarly Articles

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 37

  1. Cross-Border Data Access Reform: A Primer on the Proposed U.S.-U.K. Agreement

    Lin, Tiffany C; Fidler, Mailyn Joy Rogge

  2. Partisanship, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Online Media and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election

    Benkler, Yochai; Roberts, Hal; Faris, Robert M.; Etling, Bruce; Zuckerman, Ethan; Bourassa, Nikki
    In this study, we analyze both mainstream and social media coverage of the 2016 United States presidential election. We document that the majority of mainstream media coverage was negative for both candidates, but largely followed Donald Trump’s agenda: when reporting on Hillary Clinton, coverage primarily focused on the various scandals related to the Clinton Foundation and emails. When focused on Trump, major substantive issues, primarily immigration, were prominent. Indeed, immigration emerged as a central issue in the campaign and served as a defining issue for the Trump campaign. We find that the structure and composition of media on the right and...

  3. On the Biomedical Elite: Inequality and Stasis in Scientific Knowledge Production

    Katz, Yarden; Matter, Ulrich Bernhard
    Researchers and research institutes are increasingly being evaluated using metrics (from bibliometrics to patent counts), which are core instruments of a longstanding effort to quantify scientific productivity and worth. Here, we examine the relationship between commonly used metrics and funding levels for investigators funded by the National Institutes of Health, the largest public funder of biomedical research in the United States, in the years 1985-2015. We find that funding inequality has been rising since 1985, with a small segment of investigators and institutes getting an increasing proportion of funds, and that investigators who start in the top funding ranks tend...

  4. The Shifting Landscape of Global Internet Censorship

    Clark, Justin D.; Faris, Robert M.; Morrison-Westphal, Ryan J.; Noman, Helmi; Tilton, Casey B.; Zittrain, Jonathan L.

  5. Perspectives on Harmful Speech Online

    Gasser, Urs; Reventlow, Nani Jansen; Penney, Jonathan; Johnson, Amy Elizabeth; Junco, Reynol; Tilton, Casey B.; Coyer, Kate; Dad, Nighat; Chaudhri, Adnan; Mutung'u, Grace; Benesch, Susan; Lombana-Bermudez, Andres; Noman, Helmi; Albert, Kendra; Sterzing, Anke; Oberholzer-Gee, Felix; Melas, Holger; Zuleta, Lumi; Kargar, Simindokht; Bourassa, Nikki; Matias, Jorge
    This collection of essays includes perspectives on and approaches to harmful speech online from a wide range of voices within the Berkman Klein Center community. Recognizing that harmful speech online is an increasingly prevalent issue within society, we intend for the collection to highlight diverse views and strands of thought and to make them available to a wide range of audiences. We issued an open call to our community for short pieces that respond to issues related to harmful speech online. Through this collection, we sought to highlight ongoing research and thinking within our extended community that would be available to...

  6. Content & Control: Assessing the Impact of Policy Choices on Potential Online Businesses in the Music and Film Industries

    Fisher, William W.
    The online environment and new digital technologies threaten the viability of the music and film industries' traditional business models. The industries have responded by seeking government intervention, among other means, to protect their traditional models as well as by developing new models specifically adapted to the online market. Industry activity and public debate have focused on three key policy areas related to copyright holders' control of content: technical interference with and potential liability of P2P services; copyright infringers' civil and criminal liability; and legal reinforcement of digital rights management technologies (DRM). This paper seeks to support policymakers' decision making by...

  7. iTunes: How Copyright, Contract, and Technology Shape the Business of Digital Media

    Fisher, William W.
    In this paper, the Berkman Center's Digital Media Project has conducted an exploratory case study on Apple's iTunes Online Music Store from a legal and business perspective. The objective of this analysis is twofold: First, it seeks to gain advanced knowledge of the relationships among copyright law, contract law, digital rights management schemes and business modeling processes in the Post-Napster world. Understanding such interactions is crucial when attempting to balance the divergent interests of consumers, artists, the entertainment industry, and technology manufacturers through regulatory mechanisms such as law, code market mechanisms, and adjustment of social norms. Second, the paper is...

  8. Analyzing Accessibility of Wikipedia Projects Around the World

    Clark, Justin D.; Faris, Robert M.; Jones, Rebekah
    This study, conducted by the Internet Monitor project at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, analyzes the scope of government-sponsored censorship of Wikimedia sites around the world. The study finds that, as of June 2016, China was likely censoring the Chinese language Wikipedia project, and Thailand and Uzbekistan were likely interfering intermittently with specific language projects of Wikipedia as well. However, considering the widespread use of filtering technologies and the vast coverage of Wikipedia, our study finds that, as of June 2016, there was relatively little censorship of Wikipedia globally. In fact, our study finds there was less censorship...

  9. Challenges & Opportunities Concerning Corporate Formation, Nonprofit Status, & Governance for Open Source Projects

    Ritvo, Dalia Topelson; Hessekiel, Kira H.; Bavitz, Christopher T.

  10. Open Data Privacy

    Green, Ben Z; Cunningham, Gabe; Ekblaw, Ariel; Linzer, Andrew; Kominers, Paul M; Crawford, Susan Patricia
    Cities today collect and store a wide range of data that may contain sensitive information about residents. As cities embrace open data initiatives, more of this information is released to the public. While opening data has many important benefits, sharing data comes with inherent risks to individual privacy: released data can reveal information about individuals that would otherwise not be public knowledge. The goal of this document is to take a first step toward codifying responsible privacy-protective approaches and processes that could be adopted by cities and other groups that are publicly releasing data.

  11. Smart Grid Paybacks: The Chattanooga Example

    Talbot, David A.; Paz-Canales, Maria
    After building a fiber optic network throughout its service territory, the city-owned electric utility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, became the first U.S. company to offer Internet access speeds of 1 gigabit per second to customers. The fiber also serves as the backbone for a sophisticated smart grid. Data show that the savings produced by the smart grid, plus revenue from access fees paid by the utility’s Internet access business, more than cover the capital and operating costs of the smart grid. What’s more, we estimate this would still be true even if the utility hadn’t received a $111.6 million federal stimulus...

  12. Citizens Take Charge: Concord, Massachusetts, Builds a Fiber Network

    Talbot, David A.; Warner, Waide; Crawford, Susan Patricia; White, Jacob
    This report describes a multi-year effort by the town of Concord, Massachusetts, to establish a robust and versatile communications infrastructure to better serve its citizens. The town’s municipal utility, Concord Municipal Light Plant, or CMLP, built a 100-mile fiber optic network as a backbone for a smart grid, and then used the network to deliver high-speed Internet access to homes and businesses, competing with Comcast. With the fiber installed, the town realized significant savings on municipal communications costs and generated new fiber-leasing revenue. CMLP recently launched a strategic planning effort to use the smart grid network and the data it...

  13. The Transparency Reporting Toolkit: Reporting Guide and Template for Reporting U.S. Government Requests for User Information

    Woolery, Liz; Budish, Ryan Hal; Bankston, Kevin
    The Transparency Reporting Toolkit is a joint project by New America’s Open Technology Institute and Harvard University’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society. The purpose of the Toolkit is to make it easier for companies to create better transparency reports about government requests for user data. Similarly, by providing a template and best practices, the Toolkit aims to make it easier for new companies to begin transparency reporting. By following the recommendations in this guide, which are grounded in existing best practices, transparency reports can become more consistent, easier to understand, and more effective.

  14. Holyoke: A Massachusetts Municipal Light Plant Seizes Internet Access Business Opportunities

    Talbot, David A.; Warner, Waide; Anderson, Carolyn; Hessekiel, Kira H.; Jones, Daniel
    This case study documents the success of a municipally-owned electric utility in providing Internet access services. Massachusetts has 41 such “munis” –- serving more than 900,000 people and thousands of businesses -– but only 10 are in the Internet access business as allowed by state law. The Holyoke Gas & Electric Department’s telecom division competes with Comcast and Charter and serves 300 business customers and numerous public buildings. It has shown steady growth in revenues, and $500,000 in net earnings over the past decade. It also saves the city at least $300,000 a year on various Internet access and networking...

  15. Cloudy with a Conflict of Laws

    Krishnamurthy, Vivek H.
    As more and more of our lives are lived online, so too are those who live lives of crime. Like everyone else, criminals of all stripes are increasingly using online services of all kinds to plan and commit their wrongful acts. Evidence of crime that not so long ago was on-the-ground and physical is now increasingly in-the-cloud and digital. All this has thrown the law parcelling the authority to search and seize among different jurisdictions into confusion, as clouds of data — like those in the sky — are everywhere and nowhere at once. Unless some clarity is brought to...

  16. Maximizing K-12 Fiber Connectivity Through E-Rate: An Overview

    Thompson, James R; Talbot, David A.; Krueger, Keith
    The federal E-rate program provides up to $3.9 billion annually to subsidize the provision of high-speed Internet access to schools and libraries. Recent revisions to the program greatly expand the options for how such service can be provisioned. Notably, school districts can now seek reimbursement for the costs of building their own fiber optic networks. What’s more, municipalities and counties can inexpensively add more fiber to such networks to serve wider community needs. This new toolkit released by the Berkman Center in partnership with CoSN (the Consortium for School Networking), provides school system leaders the guidance to understand and leverage this...

  17. Privacy and Open Data Research Briefing

    Wood, Alexandra B; O'Brien, David; Gasser, Urs

  18. Student Privacy and Ed Tech (K-12) Research Briefing

    Plunkett, Leah Ariana; Gasser, Urs
    Foundational changes at the intersection of technology, society, law, and behavior are disrupting and energizing large institutions, impacting the educational technologies and student privacy landscape at lightning speed. Greater levels of connectivity and participation are raising questions about how best to navigate new types of learning environments, how best to engage in data-driven decision-making, and how best to ensure channels for positive collaboration in decision-making. This research briefing builds upon student privacy research and activities, and aims to translate these into practical take-aways. The briefing provides a map of the current digital learning ecosystem in the U.S. primary and secondary...

  19. Privacy and Cybersecurity Research Briefing

    O'Brien, David; Budish, Ryan Hal; Faris, Robert M; Gasser, Urs; Lin, Tiffany C

  20. Networked Policymaking Avenues: Assessing the Role of Academics in Digital Policy

    Ashar, Amar J; Faris, Robert M; Gasser, Urs

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