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Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard (41.157 recursos)

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Berkman Center for Internet & Society Scholarly Articles

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 46

  1. Community-Owned Fiber Networks: Value Leaders in America

    Talbot, David A.; Hessekiel, Kira Hope; Kehl, Danielle Leah
    We collected advertised prices for residential data plans offered by 40 community-owned (typically municipally owned) Internet service providers (ISPs) that offer fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) service. We then identified the least-expensive service that meets the federal definition of broadband—at least 25 Mbps download and 3 Mbps upload—and compared advertised prices to those of private competitors in the same markets. We found that most community-owned FTTH networks charged less and offered prices that were clear and unchanging, whereas private ISPs typically charged initial low promotional or “teaser” rates that later sharply rose, usually after 12 months. We were able to make comparisons in...

  2. A Layered Model for AI Governance

    Gasser, Urs; Almeida, Virgilio A.F.
    AI-based systems are “black boxes,” resulting in massive information asymmetries between the developers of such systems and consumers and policymakers. In order to bridge this information gap, this article proposes a conceptual framework for thinking about governance for AI.

  3. Accountability of AI Under the Law: The Role of Explaination

    Doshi-Velez, Finale; Kortz, Mason A.

  4. Accountability of AI Under the Law: The Role of Explanation

    Doshi-Velez, Finale; Kortz, Mason A.

  5. An Open Letter to the Members of the Massachusetts Legislature Regarding the Adoption of Actuarial Risk Assessment Tools in the Criminal Justice System

    Barabas, Chelsea; Bavitz, Christopher T.; Budish, Ryan Hal; Dinakar, Karthik; Dwork, Cynthia; Gasser, Urs; Hessekiel, Kira H.; Ito, Joichi; Rivest, Ronald L.; Virza, Madars; Zittrain, Jonathan L.

  6. Zero Rating & Internet Adoption: The Role of Telcos, ISPs, & Technology Companies in Expanding Global Internet Access

    Bates, Samantha L; Bavitz, Christopher T.; Hessekiel, Kira H.

  7. Zero Rating & Internet Adoption: The Role of Telcos, ISPs, & Technology Companies in Expanding Global Internet Access

    Bates, Samantha L; Bavitz, Christopher T.; Hessekiel, Kira H.
    Zero rating, which allows users to access select Internet services and content without incurring mobile data charges, is not a new concept. But it has become an object of debate as mobile carriers and major app providers have used it in the developing world to attract customers, with the goal of increasing Internet access and adoption. While some feel these programs violate net neutrality and create the potential for a two-tiered Internet, others argue that zero rating programs bring the developing world online and could be modified to uphold, rather than violate, net neutrality principles. At the same time, little...

  8. Enabling Competition & Innovation on a City Fiber Network

    Leerssen, Paddy James; Talbot, David A.
    This report describes how the municipally owned fiber-optic network in Ammon, Idaho, uses a technology known as network virtualization to inexpensively allow retail service providers to compete for users and provide innovative services over a public network without any requirement for new hardware at the customer’s home or business. Among other novelties, Ammon allows users to instantly switch between services, receive more than one service at a time, and inexpensively create private sub-networks. Under network virtualization, functions previously performed by specialized hardware devices are instead performed by software. In the United States, such technology is most often used by private...

  9. Cross-Border Data Access Reform: A Primer on the Proposed U.S.-U.K. Agreement

    Lin, Tiffany C; Fidler, Mailyn Joy Rogge

  10. Cross-Border Data Access Reform: A Primer on the Proposed U.S.-U.K. Agreement

    Lin, Tiffany C; Fidler, Mailyn Joy Rogge

  11. Partisanship, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Online Media and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election

    Benkler, Yochai; Roberts, Hal; Faris, Robert M.; Etling, Bruce; Zuckerman, Ethan; Bourassa, Nikki
    In this study, we analyze both mainstream and social media coverage of the 2016 United States presidential election. We document that the majority of mainstream media coverage was negative for both candidates, but largely followed Donald Trump’s agenda: when reporting on Hillary Clinton, coverage primarily focused on the various scandals related to the Clinton Foundation and emails. When focused on Trump, major substantive issues, primarily immigration, were prominent. Indeed, immigration emerged as a central issue in the campaign and served as a defining issue for the Trump campaign. We find that the structure and composition of media on the right and...

  12. On the Biomedical Elite: Inequality and Stasis in Scientific Knowledge Production

    Katz, Yarden; Matter, Ulrich Bernhard
    Researchers and research institutes are increasingly being evaluated using metrics (from bibliometrics to patent counts), which are core instruments of a longstanding effort to quantify scientific productivity and worth. Here, we examine the relationship between commonly used metrics and funding levels for investigators funded by the National Institutes of Health, the largest public funder of biomedical research in the United States, in the years 1985-2015. We find that funding inequality has been rising since 1985, with a small segment of investigators and institutes getting an increasing proportion of funds, and that investigators who start in the top funding ranks tend...

  13. The Shifting Landscape of Global Internet Censorship

    Clark, Justin D.; Faris, Robert M.; Morrison-Westphal, Ryan J.; Noman, Helmi; Tilton, Casey B.; Zittrain, Jonathan L.

  14. Perspectives on Harmful Speech Online

    Gasser, Urs; Reventlow, Nani Jansen; Penney, Jonathan; Johnson, Amy Elizabeth; Junco, Reynol; Tilton, Casey B.; Coyer, Kate; Dad, Nighat; Chaudhri, Adnan; Mutung'u, Grace; Benesch, Susan; Lombana-Bermudez, Andres; Noman, Helmi; Albert, Kendra; Sterzing, Anke; Oberholzer-Gee, Felix; Melas, Holger; Zuleta, Lumi; Kargar, Simindokht; Bourassa, Nikki; Matias, Jorge
    This collection of essays includes perspectives on and approaches to harmful speech online from a wide range of voices within the Berkman Klein Center community. Recognizing that harmful speech online is an increasingly prevalent issue within society, we intend for the collection to highlight diverse views and strands of thought and to make them available to a wide range of audiences. We issued an open call to our community for short pieces that respond to issues related to harmful speech online. Through this collection, we sought to highlight ongoing research and thinking within our extended community that would be available to...

  15. Content & Control: Assessing the Impact of Policy Choices on Potential Online Businesses in the Music and Film Industries

    Fisher, William W.
    The online environment and new digital technologies threaten the viability of the music and film industries' traditional business models. The industries have responded by seeking government intervention, among other means, to protect their traditional models as well as by developing new models specifically adapted to the online market. Industry activity and public debate have focused on three key policy areas related to copyright holders' control of content: technical interference with and potential liability of P2P services; copyright infringers' civil and criminal liability; and legal reinforcement of digital rights management technologies (DRM). This paper seeks to support policymakers' decision making by...

  16. iTunes: How Copyright, Contract, and Technology Shape the Business of Digital Media

    Fisher, William W.
    In this paper, the Berkman Center's Digital Media Project has conducted an exploratory case study on Apple's iTunes Online Music Store from a legal and business perspective. The objective of this analysis is twofold: First, it seeks to gain advanced knowledge of the relationships among copyright law, contract law, digital rights management schemes and business modeling processes in the Post-Napster world. Understanding such interactions is crucial when attempting to balance the divergent interests of consumers, artists, the entertainment industry, and technology manufacturers through regulatory mechanisms such as law, code market mechanisms, and adjustment of social norms. Second, the paper is...

  17. Analyzing Accessibility of Wikipedia Projects Around the World

    Clark, Justin D.; Faris, Robert M.; Jones, Rebekah
    This study, conducted by the Internet Monitor project at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, analyzes the scope of government-sponsored censorship of Wikimedia sites around the world. The study finds that, as of June 2016, China was likely censoring the Chinese language Wikipedia project, and Thailand and Uzbekistan were likely interfering intermittently with specific language projects of Wikipedia as well. However, considering the widespread use of filtering technologies and the vast coverage of Wikipedia, our study finds that, as of June 2016, there was relatively little censorship of Wikipedia globally. In fact, our study finds there was less censorship...

  18. Challenges & Opportunities Concerning Corporate Formation, Nonprofit Status, & Governance for Open Source Projects

    Ritvo, Dalia Topelson; Hessekiel, Kira H.; Bavitz, Christopher T.

  19. Open Data Privacy

    Green, Ben Z; Cunningham, Gabe; Ekblaw, Ariel; Linzer, Andrew; Kominers, Paul M; Crawford, Susan Patricia
    Cities today collect and store a wide range of data that may contain sensitive information about residents. As cities embrace open data initiatives, more of this information is released to the public. While opening data has many important benefits, sharing data comes with inherent risks to individual privacy: released data can reveal information about individuals that would otherwise not be public knowledge. The goal of this document is to take a first step toward codifying responsible privacy-protective approaches and processes that could be adopted by cities and other groups that are publicly releasing data.

  20. Smart Grid Paybacks: The Chattanooga Example

    Talbot, David A.; Paz-Canales, Maria
    After building a fiber optic network throughout its service territory, the city-owned electric utility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, became the first U.S. company to offer Internet access speeds of 1 gigabit per second to customers. The fiber also serves as the backbone for a sophisticated smart grid. Data show that the savings produced by the smart grid, plus revenue from access fees paid by the utility’s Internet access business, more than cover the capital and operating costs of the smart grid. What’s more, we estimate this would still be true even if the utility hadn’t received a $111.6 million federal stimulus...

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