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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (76.052 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

20th Denman Undergraduate Research Forum (2015)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 141

  1. Construction of a Thermococcus kodakarensis Deletion-Strain Library

    Lin, Jean; Staikoff, Jenna; Angelotti, Austin
    The biological world is divided into three primary Domains, two prokaryotic Domains, the Archaea and Bacteria, and the Eukaryotes. The Archaea were only first recognized late in the 20th century and, at first, proved difficult to investigate due to the lack of genetic systems. This barrier was removed by the discovery in 2003 that Thermococcus kodakarensis, a hyperthermophilic Archaeon, is naturally competent for DNA uptake and genetic recombination. Since then, to take advantage of this discovery, many genetic tools have been developed and we are now constructing a T. kodakarensis deletion–strain library. The genome is predicted to contain 2,306 protein-encoding...

  2. Construction of a Thermococcus kodakarensis Deletion-Strain Library

    Lin, Jean; Staikoff, Jenna; Angelotti, Austin
    The biological world is divided into three primary Domains, two prokaryotic Domains, the Archaea and Bacteria, and the Eukaryotes. The Archaea were only first recognized late in the 20th century and, at first, proved difficult to investigate due to the lack of genetic systems. This barrier was removed by the discovery in 2003 that Thermococcus kodakarensis, a hyperthermophilic Archaeon, is naturally competent for DNA uptake and genetic recombination. Since then, to take advantage of this discovery, many genetic tools have been developed and we are now constructing a T. kodakarensis deletion–strain library. The genome is predicted to contain 2,306 protein-encoding...

  3. Stability of Total Phenolics and Anthocyanins of Three Types of Black Raspberry Confections During Storage

    Guo, Aina
    Berries are recognized for their health-promoting properties and roles in disease prevention. The major components in black raspberries that have been linked to chronic disease prevention are phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins. Of these, anthocyanins are present in the highest quantity and have been studied for their role in prevention of heart disease, cancer and obesity. These phenolic compounds, however, are unstable during storage and can be easily degraded by factors such as temperature, sunlight, oxygen, and enzymes. Moreover, during long-term storage, the anthocyanins can undergo polymerization and form pigments, influencing the color of the products and...

  4. Stability of Total Phenolics and Anthocyanins of Three Types of Black Raspberry Confections During Storage

    Guo, Aina
    Berries are recognized for their health-promoting properties and roles in disease prevention. The major components in black raspberries that have been linked to chronic disease prevention are phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins. Of these, anthocyanins are present in the highest quantity and have been studied for their role in prevention of heart disease, cancer and obesity. These phenolic compounds, however, are unstable during storage and can be easily degraded by factors such as temperature, sunlight, oxygen, and enzymes. Moreover, during long-term storage, the anthocyanins can undergo polymerization and form pigments, influencing the color of the products and...

  5. Comparison of the storage stability of starch and pectin black raspberry confections

    Shi, Menghan
    Black raspberries (BRB) are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals and nutrients, such as anthocyanins and ellagitannins. The phenolic compounds in BRB have drawn much attention recently due to their promising anticancer effect. Physicochemical properties such as texture and water content/activity may influence the phenolic compound stability and sensory acceptance during storage. Therefore, finding suitable food matrix with extended shelf life, higher physicochemical stability and production consistency is important in delivering the bioactive compound from BRB in clinical trials. The objective of this study is to assess the physicochemical stability of two different BRB matrices: Starch and pectin based gummies,...

  6. Comparison of the storage stability of starch and pectin black raspberry confections

    Shi, Menghan
    Black raspberries (BRB) are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals and nutrients, such as anthocyanins and ellagitannins. The phenolic compounds in BRB have drawn much attention recently due to their promising anticancer effect. Physicochemical properties such as texture and water content/activity may influence the phenolic compound stability and sensory acceptance during storage. Therefore, finding suitable food matrix with extended shelf life, higher physicochemical stability and production consistency is important in delivering the bioactive compound from BRB in clinical trials. The objective of this study is to assess the physicochemical stability of two different BRB matrices: Starch and pectin based gummies,...

  7. Quick to be selfish or quick to be kind? Response time asymmetries in social decision making

    Butler, Alison
    Dual-process theories classify a fast, automatic “System I” and a deliberative, controlled “System 2” as distinct mechanisms driving human behavior. Several recent studies have used a classic experimental economics scenario, the public goods game (PGG), to link these systems with participants’ tendency to act cooperatively. This research attempts to measure patterns of intuition and reflection by tracking an individual’s decision time when donating to a common pool. These donations are multiplied by the experimenter and then redistributed equally among the group. Some authors find that cooperative participants make fast decisions, arguing that cooperation is thus intuitive. Meanwhile, other authors find...

  8. Quick to be selfish or quick to be kind? Response time asymmetries in social decision making

    Butler, Alison
    Dual-process theories classify a fast, automatic “System I” and a deliberative, controlled “System 2” as distinct mechanisms driving human behavior. Several recent studies have used a classic experimental economics scenario, the public goods game (PGG), to link these systems with participants’ tendency to act cooperatively. This research attempts to measure patterns of intuition and reflection by tracking an individual’s decision time when donating to a common pool. These donations are multiplied by the experimenter and then redistributed equally among the group. Some authors find that cooperative participants make fast decisions, arguing that cooperation is thus intuitive. Meanwhile, other authors find...

  9. Synthesis of pyridine and pyridinium quinone methide precursors: studies towards the realkylation of aged acetylcholinesterase

    Dicken, Rachel
    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme in the human body, which hydrolyzes acetylcholine into choline for biochemical processes. Organophosphorus (OP) nerve-agents such as Sarin, Soman and Tabun are covalent inhibitors of AChE. Following exposure to OPs, inhibited AChE undergoes a subsequent irreversible aging process in which the OP-AChE adduct is de-alkylated (aged) resulting in the accumulation of excess acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Current oxime based pharmaceuticals can only be used to treat the inhibited AChE and are ineffective on the aged AChE. Our research focuses on the design of small molecules that can be used to re-alkylate aged...

  10. Synthesis of pyridine and pyridinium quinone methide precursors: studies towards the realkylation of aged acetylcholinesterase

    Dicken, Rachel
    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme in the human body, which hydrolyzes acetylcholine into choline for biochemical processes. Organophosphorus (OP) nerve-agents such as Sarin, Soman and Tabun are covalent inhibitors of AChE. Following exposure to OPs, inhibited AChE undergoes a subsequent irreversible aging process in which the OP-AChE adduct is de-alkylated (aged) resulting in the accumulation of excess acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Current oxime based pharmaceuticals can only be used to treat the inhibited AChE and are ineffective on the aged AChE. Our research focuses on the design of small molecules that can be used to re-alkylate aged...

  11. Mindfulness and Mind-Wandering in Older Adults: Implications for Behavioral Performance

    Londerée, Allison; Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie
    Mind-wandering (MW) is an attentional shift from the task at hand to internally generated thoughts. Although common, MW is associated with decreased performance on tasks requiring sustained attention and executive control. In juxtaposition to MW, mindfulness is attending to the present moment nonjudgmentally. Recent studies of both mindfulness disposition and mindfulness training provide evidence for associations between higher levels of mindfulness and both decreased MW and improved cognitive performance. Interestingly, researchers have found that our tendency to mind wander decreases and mindfulness disposition increases with age. Our study further examines the association between mindfulness and MW in an ageing population....

  12. Mindfulness and Mind-Wandering in Older Adults: Implications for Behavioral Performance

    Londerée, Allison; Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie
    Mind-wandering (MW) is an attentional shift from the task at hand to internally generated thoughts. Although common, MW is associated with decreased performance on tasks requiring sustained attention and executive control. In juxtaposition to MW, mindfulness is attending to the present moment nonjudgmentally. Recent studies of both mindfulness disposition and mindfulness training provide evidence for associations between higher levels of mindfulness and both decreased MW and improved cognitive performance. Interestingly, researchers have found that our tendency to mind wander decreases and mindfulness disposition increases with age. Our study further examines the association between mindfulness and MW in an ageing population....

  13. Influence of a Maternal Dietary Yeast Supplement on Immunoglobulin Concentrations in Foals from Birth to Four Months of Age

    Reddish, John Mark; Cole, Kimberly; Leimbach, Rachel
    Previous studies in multiple species have shown that maternal diet can affect immunoglobulin concentrations in their resulting offspring. To our knowledge, the effect of maternal dietary yeast supplementation on immunoglobulin levels in foals has not been studied. In this study eight Quarter Horse mares (14.5 ± 7.5 yr) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Yeast or Control. All mares received a control diet of 0.5% BW of a 16% CP pelleted concentrate with water and mixed grass hay ad libitum. Mares in the yeast treatment group also received 1g/45.4 kg of BW/d of a live culture of Saccharomyces...

  14. Influence of a Maternal Dietary Yeast Supplement on Immunoglobulin Concentrations in Foals from Birth to Four Months of Age

    Reddish, John Mark; Cole, Kimberly; Leimbach, Rachel
    Previous studies in multiple species have shown that maternal diet can affect immunoglobulin concentrations in their resulting offspring. To our knowledge, the effect of maternal dietary yeast supplementation on immunoglobulin levels in foals has not been studied. In this study eight Quarter Horse mares (14.5 ± 7.5 yr) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Yeast or Control. All mares received a control diet of 0.5% BW of a 16% CP pelleted concentrate with water and mixed grass hay ad libitum. Mares in the yeast treatment group also received 1g/45.4 kg of BW/d of a live culture of Saccharomyces...

  15. Social capital and high-risk sexual behaviors in agricultural plantation residents in Tanzania

    Wiles, Melissa
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in many countries of the world. The practice of having concurrent sexual partners is an important risk factor for STI transmission. Social capital is a target area for improving sexual health. Social capital describes the ways in which individuals are connected to resources that can influence their behaviors, and provides methods of coping with stressors. Previous studies have yielded contradicting findings about the effects social capital has on sexual health behaviors and STI prevalence. Our study aims to investigate social factors, namely social...

  16. Social capital and high-risk sexual behaviors in agricultural plantation residents in Tanzania

    Wiles, Melissa
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in many countries of the world. The practice of having concurrent sexual partners is an important risk factor for STI transmission. Social capital is a target area for improving sexual health. Social capital describes the ways in which individuals are connected to resources that can influence their behaviors, and provides methods of coping with stressors. Previous studies have yielded contradicting findings about the effects social capital has on sexual health behaviors and STI prevalence. Our study aims to investigate social factors, namely social...

  17. The Churches of Kythera

    Crum, Matthew
    This study focuses on the geographic significance of churches constructed on the Greek island of Kythera between the 10th century and mid-16th century. Close analysis of the churches in the northern half of the island shows that these structures, along with their spiritual functions, were often used in tandem with defensive structures or as defensive structures themselves. These religious buildings performed the role of watchtowers, or viglae. This conclusion is based on the geographic relationships between the churches and the villages, roads, and coasts, as well as by the architectural features of several of these sites. This thesis also argues...

  18. The Churches of Kythera

    Crum, Matthew
    This study focuses on the geographic significance of churches constructed on the Greek island of Kythera between the 10th century and mid-16th century. Close analysis of the churches in the northern half of the island shows that these structures, along with their spiritual functions, were often used in tandem with defensive structures or as defensive structures themselves. These religious buildings performed the role of watchtowers, or viglae. This conclusion is based on the geographic relationships between the churches and the villages, roads, and coasts, as well as by the architectural features of several of these sites. This thesis also argues...

  19. The Effects of EPA+DHA Supplements on CRP Levels in Patients with Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers: A Pilot Study in Older Adults

    Sawyer, Jacqueline
    Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) affect approximately 1% of the U.S. population and nearly 4% of people over age 65 years. The healthcare costs (> 1 billion USD annually) associated with CVLUs and their increasing prevalence support the need for new interventions to facilitate healing. CVLU pathogenesis involves unremitting inflammation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have inflammation resolving effects. This study’s purpose was to compare plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammation biomarker, over an 8-week period between CVLU participants in an Active Group receiving EPA+DHA supplements and those in a Placebo Group....

  20. The Effects of EPA+DHA Supplements on CRP Levels in Patients with Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers: A Pilot Study in Older Adults

    Sawyer, Jacqueline
    Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) affect approximately 1% of the U.S. population and nearly 4% of people over age 65 years. The healthcare costs (> 1 billion USD annually) associated with CVLUs and their increasing prevalence support the need for new interventions to facilitate healing. CVLU pathogenesis involves unremitting inflammation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have inflammation resolving effects. This study’s purpose was to compare plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammation biomarker, over an 8-week period between CVLU participants in an Active Group receiving EPA+DHA supplements and those in a Placebo Group....

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