Faustino, Ana Isabel Soares; Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe
In fluctuating environments, organisms require mechanisms enabling the rapid
expression of context-dependent behaviors. Here, we approach behavioral flexibility from
a perspective rooted in appraisal theory, aiming to provide a better understanding on
how animals adjust their internal state to environmental context. Appraisal has been
defined as a multi-component and interactive process between the individual and the
environment, in which the individual must evaluate the significance of a stimulus to
generate an adaptive response. Within this framework, we review and reframe the
existing evidence for the appraisal components in animal literature, in an attempt to reveal
the common ground of appraisal mechanisms between species. Furthermore, cognitive
biases may occur in...
Cardoso, Sónia C.; Grutter, Alexandra S.; Paula, José R.; André, Gonçalo I.; Messias, João P.; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Soares, Marta C.
Animals establish privileged relationships with specific partners, which are treated differently from other conspecifics, and contribute to behavioral variation. However, there is limited information on the underlying physiological mechanisms involved in the establishment of these privileged ties and their relationship to individual cooperation levels. The Indo-Pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus often forages in mixed-sex pairs when cleaning fish clients. Intra-couple conflicts often arise during a joint client inspection, which may alter the overall quality of cleaning service provided. Here we tested two hypotheses: a) whether intra-pair association (i.e. association index), measured with joint interspecific cleaning and intraspecific behavior, is...
Cardoso, Sónia C.; Bshary, Redouan; Mazzei, Renata; Paitio, José R.; Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Soares, Marta C.
Social environmental complexity induces structural
and biochemical changes in animals’ brains, which are linked
to the improvement of animals’ learning abilities. The
nonapeptides from the arginine vasopressin (AVP) family
(arginine vasotocin, AVT, in non-mammals) play a significant
role in the regulation of social behavior, particularly in the
formation of social memories and individual recognition.
Moreover, the role of AVT in the regulation of interspecific
interactions has only recently started to be addressed in the
context of cleaner fish mutualisms and learning. Variance in
the distribution of AVP receptor expression, which is linked to
distinct neural systems (related to the dorsolateral and the
dorsomedial telencephalon), is known to be implicated in differences
Gonçalves, Ana R.; Silva, Matheus Augusto Farias da; Vendrell, Catarina L.; Almada, Vítor Carvalho
Behavioural observations of juvenile
Diplodus sargus in natural habitats were conducted to
test whether agonistic interactions occur in natural circumstances
and, if they do, in which context they happen.
The level of aggression and the shoals composition
were also compared between distinct natural habitats.
Behavioural observations were also conducted in captivity,
and the level of aggression was comparedwith the
level recorded in natural conditions to investigate which
factors may promote aggressive behaviours. The observations
were performed at two sites in the Atlantic
Portuguese shore: São Pedro do Estoril (38°41′N,
9°22′W) and Cabo Raso (38°42′N, 9°29′W) from early
July to late August 2010 and from late July to early
October 2011, respectively. In nature agonistic...
Simões, José Miguel; Barata, Eduardo Nuno; Harris, Rayna M.; O'Connell, Lauren A.; Hofmann, Hans A.
Background: Social plasticity is a pervasive feature of animal behavior. Animals adjust the expression of their social
behavior to the daily changes in social life and to transitions between life-history stages, and this ability has an
impact in their Darwinian fitness. This behavioral plasticity may be achieved either by rewiring or by biochemically
switching nodes of the neural network underlying social behavior in response to perceived social information.
Independent of the proximate mechanisms, at the neuromolecular level social plasticity relies on the regulation of
gene expression, such that different neurogenomic states emerge in response to different social stimuli and the
switches between states are orchestrated by...