Marjanovic, Zdravko; Greenglass, Esther R.; Fiksenbaum, Lisa; Witte, Hans De; Santos, Francisco Garcia; Buchwald, Petra; Peiró, José María; Mañas, Miguel A.
The Financial Threat Scale (FTS) was designed to assess levels of fear, uncertainty, and preoccupation about the
stability and security of one’s finances. In previous research with Canadian university students, it was shown
that the FTS was a psychometrically sound measure, associated with failing personal financial conditions,
threat-related personality characteristics, and depreciated psychological health. The present investigation
further examines the FTS in a diverse set of non-student European samples. Data were collected in four
countries using a self-report questionnaire which included measures of ones’ financial situation, personality,
and psychological health. Results were highly similar to the findings of the previous study. The FTS is unidimensional,
Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel
Research on intertemporal judgments and choices between a smaller-sooner and a larger-later
outcome has revealed many anomalies to the discounted-utility model. Attempts to account
for these anomalies within the discounting paradigm have resulted in convoluted and
psychologically opaque models. We therefore develop a new model of intertemporal choice,
the tradeoff model, in which choice results from a tradeoff between the perceived time
difference (interval) and the perceived outcome difference (compensation). This model is both
more parsimonious and more intuitive than any rival discounting model of comparable scope.
Moreover, it accurately describes archival data as well as data from a new experiment.
Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel
Markowitz hypothesized a fourfold pattern of risk preferences, with risk aversion for large gains and small losses, but risk seeking for small gains and large losses. We test his hypothesis, and obtain two major results. One is the dispersion effect: A majority exhibits risk seeking and risk aversion for small and large gains, but disperses into five preference groups for small and large losses. There are the „Markowitzians‟ (risk aversion and risk seeking), the „non-Markowitzians‟ (risk seeking and risk aversion), the „Cautious‟ (global risk aversion), the „Audacious‟ (global risk seeking), and the „Wavering‟ (who exhibit no definite preference pattern). The...
Research on behavioral decision making has demonstrated that preferences are affected by
the set of options under consideration. Formal models offer an account of such choice-set
effects on the basis of principles according to which the similarity of the options in the choice
set has an effect on choice probabilities. Behavioral formulations are Tversky’s (1972) elimination-
by-aspects (EBA) model, based on the principle of sequential elimination, and Tversky
and Simonson’s (1993) componential context (CC) model, based on the principle of pairwise
comparisons subject to loss aversion. While these principles are assumed to determine choice
behavior, the conflict induced by the set of options under consideration is assumed...
The objective of this study is to formulate a general framework for advertising
research. The article provides a brief review of the hierarchy-of-effects
para&gm, Petty and Cacioppo's (1983) elaboration-likelihood model
(ELM), and McGuire's (1978) information-processing model (IPM). It is
argued that the usefulness of the ELM for advertising research derives from
its heuristic rather than integrative merits. It is further argued that the
IMP, if appropriately revised on a number of critical aspects, incorporates
rival proposals in the hierarchy-of-effects paradwn as well as the ELM
and provides a sufficiently general framework for research on advertising