Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 74

  1. Alternative codends to reduce bycatch in Chilean crustacean trawl fisheries

    Queirolo, Dante; Erzini, Karim; Hurtado, Carlos F.; Ahumada, Mauricio; Soriguer, M. C.
    This study was conducted to determine the reduction in bycatch and the loss of target catch in trawl hauls for three commercial crustacean species (yellow squat lobster, Cervimunida johni, nylon shrimp, Heterocarpus reedi, and red squat lobster, Pleuroncodes monodon) in central Chile. Two experiments were carried out using the covered codend method; the first used different mesh sizes (56 and 70 mm, knot-centre to knot-centre) and shapes (diamond and square), and the second tested different reduction devices (escape panel and sorting grid). We analysed the escape proportions of the species caught and the size frequency distributions of the target species...

  2. Length-weight relationships of six syngnathid species from Ria Formosa, SW Iberian coast

    Vieira, R. P.; Monteiro, P.; Ribeiro, J.; Bentes, L.; Oliveira, F.; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, J. M. S.
    In this study, the length-weight (LWR) parameters were estimated for six syngnathid species, including 2 seahorses and 4 pipefishes, from Ria Formosa, a temperate lagoon from the south coast of Portugal. A total of 5070 fishes were used to determine the LWR. The estimated b value ranged from 2.95 (Nerophis ophidion) to 3.36 (Syngnathus abaster). To the authors' best knowledge, LWR parameters were estimated for the first time for Nerophis ophidion and Syngnathus typhle for the Atlantic waters. Data here present are essential for management and conservation of these flagship species.

  3. Assessment of sea cucumber populations from the Aegean Sea (Turkey): first insights to sustainable management of new fisheries

    Gonzalez-Wangueemert, Mercedes; Aydin, Mehmet; Conand, Chantal
    Sea cucumber stocks have been overfished in many countries. As a consequence, several species (Holothuria polii, Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria mammata) are now caught in Turkish waters without adequate knowledge on their biology and ecology. Here, we address their morphometry, relationships among gutted length and weight, population dynamics, temporal evolution of catches, and we provide the first insights about technical aspects of their fisheries. The largest size classes of H. polii are missing from our sampling collection, possibly due to the heavy fishery pressure on this species. Significant differences in the eviscerated length and weight were found among the Turkish sampled localities for H. polii and H....

  4. Supercritical fluid extracts with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) leaves. Response surface optimization

    Pereira, Paula; Bernardo-Gil, Maria Gabriela; Cebola, M. João; Mauricio, Elisabete; Romano, Anabela
    Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) was used to obtain myrtle leaf extracts, and to study the antioxidant capacity (AOC) and in vitro antimicrobial activity of those extracts. To optimize the SFE operational conditions, the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted. The parameters studied were: pressure (P), within the range 10 to 30 MPa; temperature (T), between 35 C and 60 C and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) flow rate (Q) within the range 0.15 to 0.45 kg h-1. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained (23 MPa, 45 C, and SCCO 2 flow rate...

  5. Sapwood of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) as a potential source of bioactive compounds

    Custódio, Luísa Margarida Batista; Escapa, Ana Luísa; Patarra, João; Aligué, Rosa; Alberício, Fernando; Neng, Nuno Rosa; Nogueira, José Manuel F.; Romano, Anabela
    Methanol (ME) and hot water extracts (WE) of carob tree sapwood (Ceratonia siliqua L.) exhibited high antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds, with the main compounds identified by HPLC/DAD as gentisic acid and (-)-epicatechin. The ME displayed a high in vitro antitumor activity against human tumoural cell lines and reduced intracellular ROS production by HeLa cells after treatment with H2O2. (-)-Epicatechin was shown to contribute to the cytotoxic activity of the ME. This is the first report on the biological activity of carob tree sapwood.

  6. Allelopathic effects of extracts from several plant species on seed germination and seedlings growth of Lactuca sativa L

    Goncalves, S; Franco, J; Romano, Anabela

  7. Allelopathic effects of extracts from several plant species on seed germination and seedlings growth of Lactuca sativa L

    Gonçalves, Sandra; Franco, J.; Romano, Anabela
    The ability of a plant species to inhibit germination of other plants is an untapped resource for weed control in crops that could revolutionize organic crop production. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of aqueous (5 and 10%, w/v) and methanolic (50mg ml-1) extracts from several plant species (Arbustus unedo L., Ericaceae; Daphne gnidium L., Thymeleaceae; Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae; Olea europea L., Oleaceae; Pistacia lentiscus L., Anacardiacceae; Quercus suber L., Fagaceae; Ruscus aculeatus L., Liliaceae, Rhododendron ponticum subsp baeticum (Boissier & Reuter) Handel-Mazzetti, Ericaceae) on seed germination and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa....

  8. Antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibition of tumor cell growth by leaf extracts from the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua)

    Custódio, Luísa; Fernandes, Eliana; Escapa, Ana Luísa; López-Avilés, Sandra; Fajardo, Alba; Aligué, Rosa; Alberício, Fernando; Romano, Anabela
    The methanol leaf extracts of female cultivars of the carob tree [Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae)] and of hermaphrodite and male trees were investigated for their contents of phenolic compounds, their in vitro antioxidant activity, measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and linoleic acid system assays, and their in vitro tumor growth inhibition on HeLa cells. The different cultivars and trees showed high levels of phenols, and considerable variations in the amount of these compounds. The extracts showed significant radical scavenging activity (RSA), which was not significantly affected by the gender of the tree. From the female cultivars tested, Galhosa exhibited the...

  9. Photosynthesis, energy partitioning, and metabolic adjustments of the endangered Cistaceae species Tuberaria major under high temperature and drought

    Osório, Maria Leonor; Osório, Júlio; Romano, Anabela
    In view of predicted climatic changes for the Mediterranean region, study of high temperature and drought impacts on physiological responses of endangered species regains relevance. In this context, micropropagated plants of Tuberaria major, a critically endangered species, endemic of Algarve, were transferred to a controlled-environment cabinet with day/night temperatures set at 25/18A degrees C (Reference) or 32/21A degrees C (HT). After 15 days of HT acclimation, some plants were subjected to progressive drought followed by rewatering. The enhancement of temperature alone did not affect water relations and photosynthetic rates (P (N)) but the stomatal conductance (g (s)) exhibited a 3-fold...

  10. Sex and developmental stage of carob flowers affects composition of volatiles

    Custódio, Luísa Margarida Batista; Nogueira, José Manuel F.; Romano, Anabela
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the volatiles composition in the scent emitted in vivo by the three types of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flowers, during the different developmental stages. Additionally, an overview of some morphological aspects of carob flowers was also done. Carob trees may be male, female, hermaphrodite or exhibit polygamous inflorescences. The androecium of male flowers consists of a group of 5-7 stamens, inserted peripherically around the receptacle. The gynoecium of female flowers is apocarpous. Hermaphrodite flowers are a combination of male and female types. During the flower development six stages were identified. The...

  11. Protective effects of Lavandula viridis L'Hér extracts and rosmarinic acid against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in A172 human astrocyte cell line

    Costa, Patrícia; Sarmento, Bruno; Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela
    We investigated the neuroprotective effect of Lavandula viridis extracts (infusion, water:ethanol and methanol) and rosmarinic acid, the major compound present in the extracts, against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in A172 human astrocyte cell line regarding the neurotoxic effect, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). We found that L. viridis extracts and rosmarinic acid protected A172 astrocytes against H2O2 and reduced intracellular ROS accumulation. Furthermore, the protection effect was not caused by modulation of CAT suggesting that other intracellular mechanisms are involved in the neuroprotective effect. Our results highlight...

  12. Extracts from Quercus sp acorns exhibit in vitro neuroprotective features through inhibition of cholinesterase and protection of the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity

    Custódio, Luísa Margarida Batista; Patarra, João; Alberício, Fernando; Neng, Nuno Rosa; Nogueira, José Manuel F.; Romano, Anabela
    In this work non polar (hexane) and polar (methanol and hot water) extracts of cork oak (Quercus suber) and holm oak (Quercus ilex) acorns were evaluated for the first time for in vitro neuroprotective properties, by determining their in vitro inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and their capacity to attenuate hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y. Total content of phenolics, tannins and flavonoids, HPLC profile of the main phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were also determined. The methanol extracts showed inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE. The best results toward AChE were obtained...

  13. Chemical investigation of Pinguicula lusitanica by HPLC-MS and HPLC-SPE-NMR

    Grevenstuk, T; Van, DHJJJ; Vervoort, J; Romano, Anabela

  14. Microsporogenesis and anther culture in carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

    Custódio, Luísa Margarida Batista; Carneiro, M. F.; Romano, Anabela
    An in vivo study was made on male flowers of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.), in order to establish a correlation between the flower and anther development, and microsporogenesis. In addition studies were conducted to find which phase is more appropriate for anther culture and haploid production. During the development of male flowers, six stages were identified. The male gametophytic cycle begins when flowers are in developmental phase 0, with the formation of the epidermis, endothecium, primary sporogencous tissue, primary parietal cells and pollen mother cells. During developmental phase I we observed the formation of pollen mother cells, the microspore...

  15. How to monitor the acclimatization of micropropagated plants - From in vitro to the field?

    Osorio, ML; Goncalves, S; Coelho, N; Romano, Anabela; Osório, Júlio
    The high mortality experienced by plants during ex vitro transplantation stage is the major bottleneck in large scale application of micropropagation. The abnormal physiological and anatomical characteristics of micropropagated plantlets require that they should be gradually acclimatized to the environment of the greenhouse or field. Environmental factors, especially relative humidity and irradiance, play a critical role in both physiological and biochemical functions, namely water relations, gas exchange, photosynthetic efficiency and water oxidation, during transition from in vitro to ex vitro conditions. Throughout this period of transition and acclimatization substantial changes in those characteristics are necessary to achieve a successful micropropagation....

  16. Cellulose dissolution in an alkali based solvent: influence of additives and pretreatments

    Kihlman, Martin; Medronho, B.; Romano, Anabela; Germgard, Ulf; Lindman, B.
    The distinction between thermodynamic and kinetics in cellulose dissolution is seldom considered in the literature. Therefore, herein an attempt to discuss this topic and illustrate our hypotheses on the basis of simple experiments was made. It is well-known that cellulose can be dissolved in a aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH/H2O) solvent at low temperature but it is here shown that such an alkaline solvent can be considerably improved regarding solubility, stability and rheological properties as a whole if different additives (salts and amphiphilic molecules) are used in the dissolution stage. This work probes new aqueous routes to dissolve cellulose, thereby improving...

  17. Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of extracts of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

    Custodio, L; Marques, L; Mayor, A; Alonso, P; Albericio, F; Romano, Anabela

  18. Influence of growth-regulators on shoot proliferation in Quercus-Suber L

    Romano, Anabela; Noronha, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.
    Procedures have been developed to standardize the multiplication stage during mature cork-oak (Quercus suber L.) micropropagation. Axillary and terminal buds were established on Gresshoff and Doy basal medium containing 1 mg I−1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Initiation of cultures was possible all over the year. The effects of BAP, Z, IBA, 1AA and NAA and various nutrient formulae on shoot growth and proliferation was investigated. BAP was more suitable than zeatin. Shoot proliferation and elongation were strongly improved by the combination BAP/IAA in the presence of low salt media, like Gresshoff and Doy or Woody Plant medium. Both rates were significantly...

  19. Micropropagation for the production of high quality phytochemicals

    Grevenstuk, T; Romano, Anabela
    Plants area source of many valuable secondary metabolites that find a broad field of applications, ranging from the agrochemical to the pharmaceutical industries. Establishing a suitable source for extraction of phytochemicals is, however, not always straightforward. In many instances the production by chemical synthesis is not economically viable due to their complex structures and conservation issues may arise when they are harvested from natural sources. In vitro culture techniques offer an attractive alternative to these issues. Natural grown plants can be replaced by in vitro produced biomass with the advantage that several strategies can be implemented to increase production yields,...

  20. Micropropagation for the production of high quality phytochemicals

    Grevenstuk, T.; Romano, Anabela
    Plants area source of many valuable secondary metabolites that find a broad field of applications, ranging from the agrochemical to the pharmaceutical industries. Establishing a suitable source for extraction of phytochemicals is, however, not always straightforward. In many instances the production by chemical synthesis is not economically viable due to their complex structures and conservation issues may arise when they are harvested from natural sources. In vitro culture techniques offer an attractive alternative to these issues. Natural grown plants can be replaced by in vitro produced biomass with the advantage that several strategies can be implemented to increase production yields,...

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