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RiuNet. Repositorio institucional de la Universitat de Valencia (72.956 recursos)

RiuNet es el Repositorio Institucional de la Universitat Politècnica de València, gestionado por la Biblioteca, cuyo objetivo es ofrecer acceso en Internet a la producción científica, académica y corporativa de la comunidad universitaria con la finalidad de aumentar su visibilidad y hacerla accesible y preservable.

Ingeniería del Agua

Mostrando recursos 1 - 16 de 16

  1. Una nueva aproximación para la evaluación del golpe de ariete incluyendo la condición inicial de presurización de la instalación y del fluido

    Kaless, G.
    [EN] The water hammer phenomenon is well known since the 19th century, while its mathematical formulation, by means of differential equations, is due to works of researchers such us Allievi (1903) and others from the beginning of the 20th century. The equations found in the technical publications produce a strange water hammer when the initial condition is defined assuming an incompressible fluid and a rigid pipe. The correct solution requires solving the water hammer equations for the initial state. When the finite difference method is applied, the initial state is solved by means of a set of non-linear equations. A...

  2. Sistema de detección de fugas en tiempo real en presas de materiales sueltos mediante sensores distribuidos en fibra óptica

    Muñoz, O.; Gómez, R.; Russo, B.; Sánchez, J.C.
    [EN] The present paper examines the use of optic fiber as a distributed temperature sensor to leakage detection on earth dams. This technique allows complement the current auscultation systems improving the way of monitoring of this kind of critical infrastructures. This type of real time monitoring system has been implemented on two real cases (Soto-Terroba and Yesa earth dams). The aim of this work is to provide a practical vision about this novel and promising technique, and particularly on the criteria to select the adequate materials and the precautions to be taken into account in order to deploy correctly the...

  3. Previsão consumo diário de água: um estudo de caso de Nobres (Brasil)

    Silva, W. T. P.; Campos, M. M.; Santos, A. A.
    [EN] In order to move operational efficiency from the water system supply (Waterworks, i.e. a combined water purification plant and pumping station) forecast water consumption values 24 h ahead are required. The objective of this paper is to develop mathematical model forecast water consumption 24 h ahead for Nobres city, Mato Grosso State, in Brazil. The methodology developed comprises the following steps: (1) literature review; (2) gathering and data analysis (water consumption and climatic); (3) proposal of a model forecast water consumption; (4) calibration and verification of the proposed model; and, (5) application of model. The mathematical modelling techniques employed...

  4. Estimación de algunas propiedades geohidrológicas en un conjunto de pozos de monitoreo en el Valle de Mexicali, B.C., México.

    Fuentes-Arreazola, Mario Alberto; Vázquez-González, R.
    [EN] With the aim of studying the response of the water level related to variations in barometric pressure and the action of theoretical Earth tide, in a set of monitoring wells in the Mexicali Valley; are propose and implement analysis techniques in the time and frequency domain to obtain as result from the calculation of transfer functions and harmonic analysis, values of barometric efficiency and sensitivity to Earth tide, with which under conditions of theoretical static-confined response, was possible to obtain estimates of some geohydrological and geophysical properties as: porosity, specific storage, and compressibility. In five wells considered in this...

  5. La explotación intensa de los acuíferos en la cuenca baja del Segura y en la cuenca del Vinalopó

    Sahuquillo, Andrés
    [EN] The carbonate aquifers of the Lower Segura Basin and the Vinalopó basin, along with some other granular aquifers are being exploited well above its average recharge for almost half a century. That causes a continuous decline of groundwater levels in most of the region, up to 5m/year in some cases and more than 300m from their initial situation in some areas, thus increasing the cost of groundwater pumping. The drop in levels produced the drying of springs and wetlands and increased salinity in some areas caused by the presence of saline formations. Against these problems is the increase in...

  6. Estabilidad de personas en flujos de agua

    Martínez-Gomariz, E.; Gómez, M.; Russo, B.
    [EN] Our cities are formed by several elements which are exposed to floods of a magnitude according to the importance of the rainfall event and the design of the urban drainage system. The most important components in the cities are the pedestrians who develop various activities during rain events. Focusing on pedestrians, the research on their stability when they are exposed to water flows provides the necessary knowledge to understand and manage the associated hazard for them. In this research, several experiments with humans were carried out in order to determine the stability limits to pedestrians crossing through a water...

  7. Dissipação de energia do escoamento deslizante sobre turbilhões em vertedouros em degraus de declividade 1V:1H

    Dai Prá, M.; Priebe, P.S.; Sanagiotto, D.G.; Marques, M.G.
    [EN] The energy dissipation along the chute is the stepped spillway’s main function. With those structures the reduction of residual energy at the dam’s toe is sought, allowing lower cost with the construction of dissipation structures downstream the spillway. The study characterizes energy dissipation on sliding flow in skimming flow on stepped spillways with slope of 45° (1V:1H), through experimental analysis in 4 physical models, one with flat chute and three stepped chutes with steps of 30mm, 60mm and 90mm. Aspects related to flow’s energy dissipation were evaluated, especially those related to mean levels of water on aerated and non-aerated...

  8. Análisis regional de frecuencia de precipitaciones extremas en el Norte de Mozambique

    Álvarez, M.; Puertas, J.; Peña, E.
    [EN] Extreme precipitation events that occur over internal basins of Cabo Delgado (Northern Mozambique) often result in the occurrence of flood events with associated loss of life and infrastructure. This paper presents a study of regional frequency analysis of maximum daily precipitations based on the index flood procedure with estimated parameters by L-moments approach. Observed annual maximum daily precipitation series of 12 stations with records of more than 20 years were analyzed. The discordancy and heterogeneity measures based on the L-moments suggest that the region can be considered as homogeneous. Among the candidate distributions analyzed Monte Carlo simulations identified the...

  9. Un sistema de detección de peces para escala de hendidura vertical utilizando tecnología láser y técnicas de visión artificial

    Rico Díaz, A. J.; Rabuñal, J.R.; Puertas, J.; Pena, L.; Rodríguez, A.
    [EN] Vertical slot fishway are hydraulic structures which are widely used to allow the upstream migration of fish through obstructions in rivers. Learning about the frequency of fish’s movement through these systems can help determine the efficiency of a vertical slot fishway, as well as migratory patterns of species, determine if waterways are healthy or whether we can continue to fish with guaranteed conservation and improve wildlife. This paper presents a noninvasive method for fish detection. A laser sensor is used to detect fish and data collected by the sensor is analyzed automatically, using computer vision techniques.

  10. Previsão de secas na primavera em Portugal Continental com base em indicadores climáticos de larga escala

    Santos, J.F; Portela, M.M.; Pulido-Calvo, I.
    [EN] The success of a strategy of mitigation of the effects of the droughts requires the implementation of an effective monitoring and forecasting system, able to identify drought events and follow their spatiotemporal evolution. This article demonstrates the capability of the artificial neural networks in predicting the spring standardized precipitation index, SPI, for Portugal. The validation of the models used the hindcasting, which is a technique by which a given model is tested through its application to historical data followed by the comparison of the results thus achieved with the data. The SPI index was calculated at the timescale of...

  11. Influência da sazonalidade em lagoas de estabilização

    D'Alessandro, E.B.; Saavedra, N.K.; Santiago, M. F.; D'Alessandro, N.C.O.
    [EN] The study evaluated the influence of seasonality in efficiency of Trindade Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), during six months, that had dry and rainy seasons. The following variables were analyzed: flow rate, wastewater temperature, depth, HDT, pH, DO, CND, Chla,TP, PO4-3, NH4+, NO3-, BOD520°C, COD, TSS, FSS, VSS and also climatic variables. There was no removal of COD and TSS during the rainy season. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that there were groupings of raw affluent and the anaerobic lagoon, and between facultative pond and maturation, in other words, there was spatial variation. ACP also indicated that raw affluent...

  12. El impacto del riego en la calidad del agua de drenaje en una nueva zona regable

    Villar Mir, J.M.; Pascual, M.; Rufat, J.; Villar, P.
    [EN] The water quality of two agricultural drainage systems was monitored over two irrigation seasons in order to determine the sustainability of a new area of irrigated land (the Algerri-Balager irrigation district) located in the northeast of Spain. The average electrical conductivity of the drainage water was around 4dS·m-1, and the waters were enriched with boron, phosphorous and nitrate. Drainage represented 17% of total applied irrigation water (measured leached fraction) and is considered necessary to minimize the risk of soil salinization in semiarid environments. The most common ions in the drainage waters were magnesium, sulphate, and calcium and others related...

  13. Reducción del número de estabilidad de diseño en elementos premoldeados monocapa para condiciones singulares de proyecto en obras de abrigo de talud tendido

    Donini, Hugo Juan; del Valle, Ricardo Horacio
    [ES] El cálculo de las obras de abrigo con elementos de hormigón monocapa se basa en la aplicación de coeficientes de diseño obtenidos en ensayos de laboratorio, primordialmente bidimensionales y bajo condiciones controladas. Con la experiencia de más de 30 años obtenida en el mundo, es importante contrastar los valores de los números de estabilidad usados en el diseño con aquellos que resultan en las obras de abrigo ya construidas. En la presente publicación, se actualizan e incrementan los datos recabados respecto de publicaciones anteriores, desarrollándose un análisis de situaciones particulares en las que se reducen los coeficientes de estabilidad...

  14. FishPath: aplicación informática de diseño de escalas de peces de hendidura vertical

    Bermúdez, María; Rico, Ángel; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Pena, Luís; Rabuñal, Juan R.; Puertas, Jerónimo; Balairón, Luis; Lara, Ángel; Aramburu, Enrique; Morcillo, Felipe; Castillo, Miriam
    [ES] Las escalas de peces de hendidura vertical son estructuras hidráulicas diseñadas para permitir la migración de las especies piscícolas a través de obstáculos en ríos. El diseño adecuado de estos dispositivos depende de la interacción entre variables hidráulicas y biológicas, dado que las propiedades hidrodinámicas de la escala deben ajustarse a los requisitos de las especies objetivo. En este artículo se presenta una aplicación informática que analiza la eficiencia de un modelo de escala de acuerdo con criterios biológicos. El modelo propuesto aplica restricciones referidas a la capacidad de natación de los peces, a sus necesidades de calado y...

  15. Comparación de la recarga natural estimada con el balance de agua en el suelo y con el balance de la deposición atmosférica de cloruro en un sistema carbonatado en el área semiárida del Baix Ebre, Cataluña, España.

    Espinosa-Martínez, Sara; Custodio, Emilio; Loaso-Vierbücher, Carlos
    [ES] Se realiza la estimación de la recarga media multianual con el método de balance de la deposición atmosférica de cloruro (BCl) y con el balance de agua en el suelo (BaS) en el área del Baix Ebre (Sur de Cataluña). Es un sistema acuífero complejo formado por una cordillera carbonatada moderadamente lluviosa (los Ports) que transfiere agua a un llano semiárido (Plana de La Galera), según un modelo hidrogeológico conceptual de funcionamiento apoyado en técnicas hidrogeoquímicas e isotópicas ambientales y que considera la escorrentía superficial en la zona montañosa. Según el BCl la tasa media de recarga en los...

  16. Calibración y simulación de un sistema regulado de suministro de agua a través de técnicas de Monte Carlo

    Lacasta Soto, Asier; Morales-Hernández, M.; Tejero-Juste, M.; Burguete, J.; Brufau, P.; García-Navarro, P.
    [ES] El flujo en canales se caracteriza por cubrir largas distancias y obedecer a patrones temporales variables. Suele estar regulado por elementos hidráulicos, como compuertas laterales, para asegurar un correcto abastecimiento de agua. La dinámica de este flujo viene gobernada por un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales en derivadas parciales llamado de aguas poco profundas. Junto a ellas es necesario establecer una formulación simplificada del funcionamiento de las compuertas. El conjunto forma un sistema no lineal que sólo se puede resolver numéricamente. Aquí se propone un esquema descentrado explícito de volúmenes finitos con el fin de resolver todo tipo de regímenes....

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