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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (74.520 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

9th Fall Undergraduate Research Student Poster Forum (2015)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 18 de 18

  1. Effect of Transmission Electron Microscopy Sample Preparation Methods on Nano Structure and Properties of Metallic Glasses

    Park, Gyuchul
    Metallic glasses (MGs) are new metallic alloys with excellent mechanical properties. However, practical applications of MGs are still limited due to the lack of understanding on their atomic structure. Since MGs have disordered atomic structure, it is difficult to obtain the structural information that directly connects to their important properties. Recently developed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, such as fluctuation microscopy, opened new possibility in understanding the structure-property relationships in disordered materials. However, it is important to understand the effect of the TEM sample preparation methods to the structure and the quality of the samples. In the present work, we...

  2. Consequences of an NFU1 Mutation in the Fe-­S Cluster Biosynthetic Pathway

    Wesley, Nathaniel; Wachnowsky, Christine; Fidai, Insiya
    A three-year embargo was granted for this item.

  3. Synthetic Approach to Realkyation of Aged Acetylcholinesterase Using Quinone Methide Precursors

    Rao, Harsha
    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents are a class of toxic compounds that inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetylcholine to choline at neurosynaptic junctions. OP inhibits AChE by binding to the active site and this undergoes a subsequent irreversible process called aging, where the OP-AChE adduct is dealkylated. This results in the accumulation of excess acetylcholine in the central nervous system that causes significant nerve damage. Current oxime-based pharmaceutical agents, such as 2-PAM, used to treat inhibited AChE are ineffective on aged AChE. Previous studies have shown that quinone methides (QM) are alkylating agents and these could...

  4. Developing an in vitro myobundle model system for pathophysiological studies of human skeletal muscle

    Sherry, Aubrey
    Existing in vitro models for liver, lung, and cardiac tissue have made recent notable progress, however a predictive model of human skeletal muscle does not exist. While, two-dimensional cultures of myoblasts are well known, these cultures lack the organization and function of a native muscle. Therefore, the usefulness of these existing models in pharmacological studies and disease modeling is limited. The purpose of this study is to adapt a novel three-dimensional skeletal muscle model and confirm that it is usable in future studies. This will be done by creating custom silicone molds and teflon frames in which various myoblast cell...

  5. Eddy Current Microscopy for Detection of Solid Tumors

    Javor, Josh
    Optical microscopy is commonly used to investigate observable characteristics in biological tissue. A method will be presented to image electrical properties of tissue using known engineering techniques that will complement conventional histopathology. Eddy current detection involves measuring the electrical properties of a conductive sample in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field. Biological tissue has a small but nonzero conductivity and so a precise signal filter is needed to detect small changes in the shape and size of tiny current paths (eddy currents) in the sample. Characteristics of abnormal tissue such as morphology, macromolecule concentration and ion transport contribute to...

  6. Probabilistic Evaluation of Carbonation Induced Deterioration in Prestressed Concrete Structures

    Loos, Sabine
    Reinforced concrete is one of the most universally used building materials, since it has a high capacity under compression, handles tensile stresses through steel reinforcement, and provides lasting durability. This durability, however, is reduced by a form of deterioration, called carbonation, caused by the reaction of carbon dioxide with the constituents inside concrete. This form of deterioration alters concrete’s material properties by increasing the compressive strength, but reducing its deformation ability. Moreover, when carbonation is coupled with chloride penetration, it destroys the natural concrete protection surrounding reinforcing steel. These alterations decrease the structural capacity of concrete members by increasing the...

  7. The Petrologist’s Guide to the Galaxy: A method for modeling terrestrial exoplanets using the MELTS algorithm

    Hull, Scott
    Recent technological advances in exoplanet detection have led to planetary findings on an unprecedented scale and opened the doors to a new area of geophysical inquiry. This inquiry includes both the hunt for Earth-like exoplanets and how planetary chemistry and physical properties vary from star to star. We are currently restricted to considering little more than the planet’s density and the distance from its star, which gives us only a vague insight into these new questions. This study has produced a method for creating a more detailed model of exoplanets using thermodynamic phase-equilibrium computer code and stellar compositions as representatives...

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Non-Isothermal Gas-Assisted Injection Molding For Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Kolliopoulos, Panayiotis K.
    Current gas-assisted injection molding simulations do not accurately predict coating thickness of the frozen layer created by the polymer melt in non-isothermal systems. This project will present a hybrid control-volume finite element/finite-difference method to obtain a numerical simulation of gas-assisted injection molding for non-isothermal systems. In previous studies, a number of simplifying assumptions were made in order to make the simulation model simpler, however, those assumptions contributed to a significant error in predicting the coating thickness. The previous models will be improved upon by taking into account the temperature gradient during the penetration and the effect of forced convection heat...

  9. Building a Framework for Professional Commitment: Stories of Professional Growth in an Undergraduate Introduction to Pharmacy Course

    Williams, Victoria
    With admissions to PharmD programs becoming increasingly competitive, sophisticated pre-pharmacy preparation is becoming increasingly important. Admissions committees are now looking at measures beyond academic merit to assess potential for success within a PharmD program and the profession. Factors such as motivation to become a pharmacist and attitudes regarding patient-centered care are being evaluated in application reviews and interviews of candidates. Applicants to PharmD programs are expected to exhibit commitment to the profession before entering pharmacy school. Little research has been done to analyze how students develop this commitment. This study attempts to determine how an undergraduate introductory course helps pre-professional...

  10. Associations between teachers’ personality, psychological well-being, and the quality of their cocaring relationships

    Maras, Elly
    Recent research has explored the conceptual similarities between coparenting relationships and parent-teacher, or cocaring relationships, in infant and toddler classrooms (Lang, 2015). Cocaring is defined as the relationship between a parent and his or her child’s early childhood educator. Due to the novelty of this cocaring concept, this study aims to fill the gaps by including an observational understanding of how cocaring dimensions are enacted in daily exchanges between parents and teachers. This study will also examine how anxiety, depression, and personality traits impact the quality of the cocaring relationship. Parents and teachers of approximately 30 infants and toddlers, between...

  11. The Progression of the Development of Antibody pY26: Recognizing Phosphorylated Troponin I at the Tyrosine-26 Amino Acid Residue

    Gualtieri, Nicholas; Salhi, Hussam
    Antibodies are used in the western blot technique to identify or quantify a specific protein in a sample. These antibodies cannot be synthesized in a laboratory and must be developed within an animal. It can take months for the antibody to fully mature, and the antibody must be periodically tested to document its progression. The antibody of interest in this study identifies phosphorylated troponin I (TnI) at the Tyrosine-26 (Tyr-26) amino acid residue. The antibody was tested by using four known samples: human phosphorylated TnI, human non-phosphorylated TnI, rat phosphorylated TnI, and rat non-phosphorylated TnI. The antibody was tested at...

  12. How individual variation in activity influences the transmission of novel information

    Troyer, Emily
    Novel information, such as the location of a food source, can be transmitted throughout a group via social learning, as opposed to direct sampling of the environment. Other information transmission models via social learning have not accounted for the fact that individuals will vary which may influence the rate at which information is transmitted throughout a group. Individuals may vary on personality traits, such as exploration, or the propensity to move around in their environment. The purpose of our model was to determine if individual variation in movement propensity, or activity level, influenced how quickly a novel piece of information...

  13. Prolonged Circulation of Peptide Amphiphiles for Cancer Imaging

    Manos, Aaron
    There has been an emerging interest in designing smart, self-assembling, biocompatible materials that can selectively undergo morphological transitions to accumulate at a disease site in response to specific stimuli. One such stimulus is the acidic extracellular pH (6.6-7.0) of tumor tissue. Developing a contrast agent that can self-assemble into a larger, more slowly diffusing entity only in an acidic extracellular pH would enable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) across all cancers. However, in vivo studies have shown that peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are rapidly cleared by the kidneys and uptaken by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Here, we have characterized the self-assembly of...

  14. Identifying an animal model to study the extracellular role of the bacterial toxin listeriolysin O

    Yan, Shirui
    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a cholesterol- dependent cytolysin (CDC) secreted by the foodborne, facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. This toxin is released in the extracellular and intracellular environments, from where it binds to cholesterol on host cell membranes to form pores, facilitating disease development. Among the numerous members of the CDC family, LLO displays unique properties, such as temperature and pH sensitivity. At neutral pH and temperatures above 30°C, LLO undergoes denaturation. The kinetic of LLO inactivation at 37°C (PH 7.4) has not been established. Additionally, a recent study proposed that in comparison to human serum, murine serum highly inactivates...

  15. Liver inflammation exacerbates intraspinal tissue loss after spinal cord injury

    Alfredo, Anthony N.; Sauerbeck, Andrew D.; Goodus, Matthew; Bruno, Richard S.; McTigue, Dana M.
    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that impedes a patient’s motor and sensory function as well as physiological well-being. Epidemiologic research has shown that 10 to 40 people per million in the developed world are affected by SCI. Because the spinal cord innervates all the organs of the body, this terrible injury causes detrimental impairments of the peripheral organs and their regulation. Recent studies have established that the liver is a primary organ to immunologically respond to CNS injury. Prior work from our lab showed that immune system cells called Kupffer Cells (KCs), which are macrophages of the...

  16. Do Dogs Use Their Noses? Investigating Olfactory Perception in the Domestic Dog

    Wilson, Sally
    The nasal tissue lining the domestic dogs’ (Canis familiaris) nasal cavity can have over 200 million sensory receptor sites all dedicated to receiving smell molecules to be processed in the brain’s olfactory bulb. But how dedicated are dogs to their extraordinary olfactory abilities? It has generally been assumed that dogs depend more on olfaction than vision and audition to investigate, problem solve, and overall perceive the world. However recent research has shown evidence that contradicts this assumption (Horowitz 2013), making it unclear under what conditions dogs actually utilize olfaction. The goal of the present research is to further investigate the...

  17. Strategic Trade Theory in the Brazil-Canada WTO Dispute

    Giblin, Peter
    The market for regional jets is an excellent example of imperfect competition as only two firms, Canada’s Bombardier and Embraer of Brazil, compete for market share. In a market with non-cooperative rivalries and imperfect competition, there is an incentive for governments to subsidize the domestic firm and thus increase its profits at the expense of the foreign firm. In the strategic rivalry between Bombardier and Embraer the stakes were so high that both governments filed complaints at the WTO. Although there have been a number of strategic trade studies conducted on competition in the civil aircraft market, no studies have...

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Short-Range Signaling Protein Influence On Biofilm Phenotypic Expression

    Mack, Lydia
    Bacterial biofilms are communities of bacteria which grow on various surfaces. They are composed of the bacteria themselves and an extracellular polymeric slime (EPS) matrix which they encase themselves within. Biofilms can be found in any environment where there is persistent water, such as oceans, pipes, and the human body. Biofilms are formed when free-floating, planktonic bacteria attach to a surface and grow. Cells in a biofilm use communication via cell signaling bacteria to coordinate the behavior of the whole biofilm population for a diverse array of functions, including expression of virulence factors, proliferation and dispersal. In cell signaling, diffusible chemicals are released by...

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