Multi-antenna wireless systems have become very popular due to their theoretically predicted higher spectral efficiencies and improved performance compared to single-antenna systems. Large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems refer to wireless systems where communication terminals employ tens to hundreds of antennas to achieve in-creased spectral efficiencies/sum rates, reliability, and power efficiency. Large-scale multi-antenna systems are attractive to meet the increasing wireless data rate requirements, without compromising on the bandwidth. This thesis addresses key signal processing issues in large-scale MIMO systems. Specifically, the thesis investigates efficient algorithms for signal detection and channel estimation in large-scale MIMO systems. It also investigates ‘spatial modulation,’...
Over the last decade advances in multineuron simultaneous recording techniques have produced huge amounts of data. This has led to the investigation of probable temporal relationships between spike times of neurons as manifestations of the underlying network structure. But the huge dimensionality of data makes the search for patterns difficult. Although this difficulty may be surpassed by employing massive computing resources, understanding the significance and relation of these temporal patterns to the underlying network structure and the causative activity is still difficult. To find such relationships in networks of excitatory neurons, a simplified network structure of feedforward chains called "Synfire...
Naveen, K P
Advances in wireless communication and microelectronics have led to the development of low-power compact sensor nodes (popularly called motes) that are capable of sensing, computing, and communication. A large number of these nodes can be deployed over some area of interest to form a multi-hop network, commonly referred to as a wireless sensor network (WSN). Typical applications of WSNs include, environment and process monitoring in industrial installations, forest ﬁre detection, structural health monitoring, etc. In such applications where the variables to be measured are slowly varying, or the events to be monitored are rare, continuous sensing is unnecessary. Instead, the...
In recent years, the wireless industry has witnessed tremendous development for the defense and commercial segments. The explosive growth in the modern radio frequency and microwave systems leads to an increased interest in the research of miniaturized microwave circuits with superior performance. Broadband components, in particular band pass filters (BPFs) and couplers are some of the widely used components in the modern communication systems, software defined radios, cognitive radios, imaging systems and positioning radars. In order to meet these requirements, the use of innovative geometries, a thorough understanding of their behavior by appropriate analytical techniques and the use of appropriate...
Natarajan, Lakshmi Prasad
Space-Time Block Coding is an efficient communication technique used in multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems. The complexity with which a Space-Time Block Code (STBC) can be decoded is important from an implementation point of view since it directly affects the receiver complexity and speed. In this thesis, we address the problem of designing low complexity decoding techniques for STBCs, and constructing STBCs that achieve high rate and full-diversity with these decoders. This thesis is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with the optimal decoder, viz. the maximum-likelihood (ML) decoder, and the second with non-ML decoders.
An STBC is said...
Rajendra, Talak Rajat
Opportunistic selection is a practically appealing technique that is often used in multi-node wireless systems such as scheduling and rate adaptation in cellular systems and opportunistic wireless local area networks, wireless sensor networks, cooperative communications, and vehicular networks. In it, each node maintains a local preference number called metric that is function of its channel gains, and the best node with the highest metric is selected. Identifying the best node is challenging as the information about a node's metric is available only locally at each node.
In our work, we focus on the popular, simple, and low feedback timer scheme...
Bharath, B N
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) communication using multiple antennas has received significant attention in recent years, both in the academia and industry, as they offer additional spatial dimensions for high-rate and reliable communication, without expending valuable bandwidth. However, exploiting these promised benefits of MIMO systems critically depends on fast and accurate acquisition of Channel State Information (CSI) at the Receiver (CSIR) and the Transmitter (CSIT). In Time Division Duplex (TDD) MIMO systems, where the forward channel and the reverse channel are the same, it is possible to exploit this reciprocity to reduce the overhead involved in acquiring CSI, both in terms of...
Network on Chips are critical elements of modern System on Chip(SoC) as well as Chip Multiprocessor(CMP)designs. Network on Chips (NoCs) help manage high complexity of designing large chips by decoupling computation from communication. SoCs and CMPs have a multiplicity of communicating entities like programmable processing elements, hardware acceleration engines, memory blocks as well as off-chip interfaces. With power having become a serious design constraint, there is a great need for designing NoC which meets the target communication requirements, while minimizing power using all the tricks available at the architecture, microarchitecture and circuit levels of the de-sign. This thesis presents a...
Relay-based cooperation promises significant gains in a wireless network as it provides an inde-pendent path between a source and a destination. Using simple single antenna nodes, it exploits the spatial diversity provided by the geographically separated nodes in a network to improve the robustness of the communication system against fading. Among the cooperative commu¬nication schemes, the amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying scheme is considered to be easy to implement since the relay does not need to decode its received signal. Instead, it just forwards to the destination the signal it receives from the source.
We analyze the performance of fixed-gain AF relaying...
Jithin, K S
Cognitive Radios are emerging communication systems which efficiently utilize the unused licensed radio spectrum called spectral holes. They run Spectrum sensing algorithms to identify these spectral holes. These holes need to be identified at very low SNR (<=-20 dB) under multipath fading, unknown channel gains and noise power. Cooperative spectrum sensing which exploits spatial diversity has been found to be particularly effective in this rather daunting endeavor. However despite many recent studies, several open issues need to be addressed for such algorithms. In this thesis we provide some novel cooperative distributed algorithms and study their performance.
We develop an energy...
Akhil, P T
Network utility maximization has emerged as a powerful tool in studying flow control, resource allocation and other cross-layer optimization problems. In this work, we study a flow control problem in the optimization framework. The objective is to maximize the sum utility of the users subject to the flow constraints of the network. The utility maximization is solved in a distributed setting; the network operator does not know the user utility functions and the users know neither the rate choices of other users nor the flow constraints of the network.
We build upon a popular decomposition technique proposed by Kelly [Eur....
Multiple users compete for a common resource like bandwidth to communicate
data in interference networks. Existing approaches in dealing with interference
limit the rate of communication due to paucity of shared resources. This limitation
in the rate gets more glaring as the number of users in the network increases.
For example, existing wireless systems either choose to orthogonalize the users
(for example, Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) systems or Code Division
Multiple Access (CDMA) systems) or treat interference as Gaussian noise at
the receivers. It is well known that these approaches are sub-optimal in general.
Orthogonalization of users limit the number of available interference-free channels
(known as degrees of...
Raghvendra, Potnis Varada
Peer to peer networks are becoming increasingly popular among Internet users as the downloading peers share the storage and upload bandwidth load of the system. This makes it possible for a large number of users to share a data file available at a server without the server upload bandwidth becoming a bottleneck. The P2P technology is being widely used not only for file sharing but also for video on demand, live streaming and IPTV. The delay deadlines are more stringent in live streaming and IPTV than those in file sharing as the traffic is real time. The performance perceived by...
Integrated Silicon Photonics has emerged as a powerful platform in the last
two decades amongst high-bandwidth technologies, particularly since the adop-
tion of CMOS compatible silicon-on-insulator(SOI) substrates. Microring res-
onators are one of the fundamental blocks on a photonic integrated circuit chip o ering versatility in varied applications like sensing, optical bu ering, ltering, loss measurements, lasing, nonlinear e ects, understanding cavity optomechanics etc.
This thesis covers the design and modeling of microring resonators for biosensing applications. The two applications considered are : homogeneous biosensing and wrist pulse pressure monitoring. Also, the designs have been used to fabricate ring resonator device using three different...
Chronic recording of neural signals is indispensable in designing efficient brain machine interfaces and to elucidate human neurophysiology. The advent of multi-channel micro-electrode arrays has driven the need for electronic store cord neural signals from many neurons. The continuous increase in demand of data from more number of neurons is challenging for the design of an efficient neural recording frontend(NRFE). Power consumption per channel and data rate minimization are two key problems which need to be addressed by next generation of neural recording systems. Area consumption per channel must be low for small implant size. Dynamic range in NRFE can...
With online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter becoming globally popular, there is renewed interest in understanding the structural and dynamical properties of social networks. In this thesis we study several stochastic models arising in the context of the spread of inﬂuence or information in social networks. Our objective is to provide compact and accurate quantitative descriptions of the spread processes, to understand the eﬀects of various system parameters, and to design policies for the control of such diﬀusions.
One of the well established models for inﬂuence spread in social networks is the threshold model. An individual’s threshold indicates...
In this thesis, we address the problem of minimizing the average delay of data pack-ets served by a transmitter on a static, point-to-point link. The transmitter dynamically chooses state-dependent admission and transmission rates, while adhering to average throughput and transmission power constraints. The transmitter is modelled as an inﬁnite buffer Markov queue with adjustable arrival and service rates. Data packets arrive at the system according to a Poisson process with rate, Λ, and are admitted at a rate, λnwith 0≤ λn ≤ Λ, depending on the number, n, of data packets present in the system. The packet size is assumed...
Pramod, R T
Dissimilarity plays a very important role in object recognition. But, finding perceptual dissimilarity between objects is non-trivial as it is not equivalent to the pixel dissimilarity between the objects (For example, two white noise images appear very similar even when they have different intensity values at every corresponding pixel). However, visual search allows us to reliably measure perceptual dissimilarity between a pair of objects. When the target object is dissimilar to the distracter, visual search becomes easy and it will be difficult otherwise. Even though we can measure perceptual dissimilarity between objects, we still do not understand either the underlying...
Current day VLSI systems have started seeing increasing percentages of multiple energy domain components being integrated into the mainstream. Energy domains such as mechanical, optical, fluidic etc. have become all pervasive into VLSI systems and such systems are being manufactured routinely. The framework required to design such an integrated system with diverse energy domains needs to be evolved as a part of conventional VLSI design methodology. This is because manufacturing and design of these integrated energy domains although based on semiconductor processing, is still very ad-hoc, with each device requiring its dedicated design tools and process integration.
In this thesis...
There is an ever increasing demand for higher spectral usage in wireless communication, radar and imaging systems. Higher spectral eﬃciency can be achieved using components that are aware of system environment and adapt suitably to the operating conditions. In this regard, radio frequency (RF) signal analysis is of paramount interest. Emergence of dispersive delay networks (DDN) has led to the significant development of microwave analogue-signal processing (ASP) and analysis. DDN causes displacement of spectral components in time domain, relative to the frequency dependant group delay response. The main challenge in the design of DDN in this context is in achieving...