Recursos de colección

ETD at Indian Institute of Science (2.878 recursos)

Repository of Theses and Dissertations of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The repository has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve research theses of Indian Institute of Science.

Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics (mrdg)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 44

  1. Deciphering the Mechanisms of AMPK Activation upon Anchorage- Deprivation

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis in cells. It has been implicated as a therapeutic target for various metabolic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity. However, its role in cancer is context-dependent and therefore warrants further studies to explore its possible use as a therapeutic target. AMPK can either promote or retard the growth of cancer cells depending on other cues and stresses in the milieu of the cancer cells. This study aims to understand AMPK signalling in response to extracellular cues of matrix deprivation and matrix stiffness that are important determinants of metastasis....

  2. Deciphering the Mechanisms of AMPK Activation upon Anchorage- Deprivation

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis in cells. It has been implicated as a therapeutic target for various metabolic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity. However, its role in cancer is context-dependent and therefore warrants further studies to explore its possible use as a therapeutic target. AMPK can either promote or retard the growth of cancer cells depending on other cues and stresses in the milieu of the cancer cells. This study aims to understand AMPK signalling in response to extracellular cues of matrix deprivation and matrix stiffness that are important determinants of metastasis....

  3. Role of Areca Nut Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction and Involvement of JNK/ATF2/Jun/TGF-beta axis in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Etiopathology

    Pant, Ila
    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a debilitating irreversible fibrotic condition of the oral cavity. It is characterized by inflammation and ultimately results in trismus. Patients face difficulty in speaking, swallowing and chewing due to restricted mouth opening (trismus). This disease is also categorized as an oral premalignant disorder (OPMD). Recent reports cite a conversion rate of 10% from OSF to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Epidemiological studies and case reports over the years have correlated the habit of chewing areca nut (Areca catechu) to the manifestation of OSF. It is a major cause of concern in the South and South...

  4. Role of Areca Nut Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction and Involvement of JNK/ATF2/Jun/TGF-beta axis in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Etiopathology

    Pant, Ila
    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a debilitating irreversible fibrotic condition of the oral cavity. It is characterized by inflammation and ultimately results in trismus. Patients face difficulty in speaking, swallowing and chewing due to restricted mouth opening (trismus). This disease is also categorized as an oral premalignant disorder (OPMD). Recent reports cite a conversion rate of 10% from OSF to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Epidemiological studies and case reports over the years have correlated the habit of chewing areca nut (Areca catechu) to the manifestation of OSF. It is a major cause of concern in the South and South...

  5. Elucidation of 17β-Estradiol (E2) Role in the Regulation of Corpus Luteum Function in Mammals : Analysis of IGFBP5 Expression during Ea-mediated Actions

    Tripathy, Sudeshna
    Corpus luteum is a transient endocrine structure formed from the ruptured ovarian follicle. Its main function is to secrete P4, a pro-gestational hormone, essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The modulators of CL structure and function are classified as trophic and lytic factors. The luteotrophic factors include pituitary hormones, growth factors, intra luteal factors and cytokines, while luteolytic factors include PGF2α and oxytocin. The interplay between luteotrophic and luteolytic factors regulates luteal steroidogenesis. The precise timing of expression of various enzymes/proteins required for synthesis and metabolism of P4 constitutes an important process in the overall regulation of...

  6. Elucidation of 17β-Estradiol (E2) Role in the Regulation of Corpus Luteum Function in Mammals : Analysis of IGFBP5 Expression during Ea-mediated Actions

    Tripathy, Sudeshna
    Corpus luteum is a transient endocrine structure formed from the ruptured ovarian follicle. Its main function is to secrete P4, a pro-gestational hormone, essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The modulators of CL structure and function are classified as trophic and lytic factors. The luteotrophic factors include pituitary hormones, growth factors, intra luteal factors and cytokines, while luteolytic factors include PGF2α and oxytocin. The interplay between luteotrophic and luteolytic factors regulates luteal steroidogenesis. The precise timing of expression of various enzymes/proteins required for synthesis and metabolism of P4 constitutes an important process in the overall regulation of...

  7. Insights into Differentiation of Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells to Neural Lineage

    Verma, Isha
    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs: ESCs and iPSCs) provide an excellent model system for studying neural development and function. These cells also serve as a reliable source of cell replacement for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. In view of these applications of PSCs, multiple protocols have been developed to direct their differentiation into neural lineage. However, many of these protocols are limiting in terms of (a) low efficiency of generation of neural cells after long-term culture, (b) requirement of exogenous factors to induce and enhance neural differentiation and (c) supplementation of PSC culture medium with serum. Therefore, in the...

  8. Insights into Differentiation of Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells to Neural Lineage

    Verma, Isha
    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs: ESCs and iPSCs) provide an excellent model system for studying neural development and function. These cells also serve as a reliable source of cell replacement for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. In view of these applications of PSCs, multiple protocols have been developed to direct their differentiation into neural lineage. However, many of these protocols are limiting in terms of (a) low efficiency of generation of neural cells after long-term culture, (b) requirement of exogenous factors to induce and enhance neural differentiation and (c) supplementation of PSC culture medium with serum. Therefore, in the...

  9. Studies on the Evolution of Aromatic Beta-Glucoside Catabolic Systems under Different Stress Conditions in Escherichia coli

    Zangoui Nejad Chahkootahi, Parisa
    The genetic systems involved in the utilisation of aromatic β-glucosides in E. coli consist of the bgl, asc, and chb operons and the locus bglA encoding phospho-β-glucosidase A. The bgl and asc operons are known as cryptic or silent systems since their expression is not sufficient for utilisation of these sugars in wild type strains of E. coli. Their transcriptional activation by different classes of mutations confers a Bgl+ phenotype to the mutant. The maintenance of cryptic genes without accumulating deleterious mutation in spite of being silent is an evolutionary puzzle. Several observations have suggested the possibility that these genes...

  10. Studies on the Evolution of Aromatic Beta-Glucoside Catabolic Systems under Different Stress Conditions in Escherichia coli

    Zangoui Nejad Chahkootahi, Parisa
    The genetic systems involved in the utilisation of aromatic β-glucosides in E. coli consist of the bgl, asc, and chb operons and the locus bglA encoding phospho-β-glucosidase A. The bgl and asc operons are known as cryptic or silent systems since their expression is not sufficient for utilisation of these sugars in wild type strains of E. coli. Their transcriptional activation by different classes of mutations confers a Bgl+ phenotype to the mutant. The maintenance of cryptic genes without accumulating deleterious mutation in spite of being silent is an evolutionary puzzle. Several observations have suggested the possibility that these genes...

  11. Role of Activin A Signaling in Breast Cancer

    Bashir, Mohsin
    Activin-A is a member of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines which includes TGF-βs, Activins, Nodal, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). TGF-β, Activin and Nodal are known to activate SMAD2/3, while BMPs and GDFs are known to activate SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways. Activin-A binds to type II transmembrane serine threonine kinase receptor (ActRIIA or ActRIIB), which in turn activates type I receptor (ActRIB) leading to phosphorylation of SMAD2/SMAD3. Upon phosphorylation, SMAD2/3 forms a complex with SMAD4, which then translocates to nucleus. In the nucleus, SMAD2/3/4 complex, along with other co-factors regulates expression...

  12. Role of Activin A Signaling in Breast Cancer

    Bashir, Mohsin
    Activin-A is a member of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines which includes TGF-βs, Activins, Nodal, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). TGF-β, Activin and Nodal are known to activate SMAD2/3, while BMPs and GDFs are known to activate SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways. Activin-A binds to type II transmembrane serine threonine kinase receptor (ActRIIA or ActRIIB), which in turn activates type I receptor (ActRIB) leading to phosphorylation of SMAD2/SMAD3. Upon phosphorylation, SMAD2/3 forms a complex with SMAD4, which then translocates to nucleus. In the nucleus, SMAD2/3/4 complex, along with other co-factors regulates expression...

  13. Exploring the Evolution of Cellobiose Utilization in Shigella Sonnei And the Conservation of ChbG Orthologs in Eukaryotes

    Joseph, Asha Mary
    The chb operon constitutes the genes essential for utilization of chitooligosaccharides in Escherichia coli and related species. The six genes of the operon code for a transcriptional regulator (ChbR) of the operon, a permease (ChbBCA), a monodeacetylase (ChbG), and a phospho-beta-glucosidase (ChbF). In the absence of the substrate, the operon is maintained in a transcriptionally repressed state, while presence of the substrate leads to transcriptional activation. Regulation of the chb operon is brought about by the concerted action of three proteins, the negative regulator NagC coded by the nag operon, the dual function regulator ChbR coded by the chb operon...

  14. Exploring the Evolution of Cellobiose Utilization in Shigella Sonnei And the Conservation of ChbG Orthologs in Eukaryotes

    Joseph, Asha Mary
    The chb operon constitutes the genes essential for utilization of chitooligosaccharides in Escherichia coli and related species. The six genes of the operon code for a transcriptional regulator (ChbR) of the operon, a permease (ChbBCA), a monodeacetylase (ChbG), and a phospho-beta-glucosidase (ChbF). In the absence of the substrate, the operon is maintained in a transcriptionally repressed state, while presence of the substrate leads to transcriptional activation. Regulation of the chb operon is brought about by the concerted action of three proteins, the negative regulator NagC coded by the nag operon, the dual function regulator ChbR coded by the chb operon...

  15. Role of Chemokine Receptor, CXCR4 Mediated Signaling in Cellular Senescence

    Nair, Raji R
    Cellular senescence has been proposed to be equivalent to organismal aging and is one of the outcomes of the cell fate decision process in response to DNA damage that occurs in cells. When a cell encounters DNA damage, the cell cycle is immediately halted to evaluate which decision to take in response to genomic insult. The choices are between repairing the damage and continue division, or enter a non-replicative but viable state called senescence or to die if damage is severe (Figure 1). The signaling cascade, which detects this damage and regulates the cell fate decision, is collectively called as...

  16. Role of Chemokine Receptor, CXCR4 Mediated Signaling in Cellular Senescence

    Nair, Raji R
    Cellular senescence has been proposed to be equivalent to organismal aging and is one of the outcomes of the cell fate decision process in response to DNA damage that occurs in cells. When a cell encounters DNA damage, the cell cycle is immediately halted to evaluate which decision to take in response to genomic insult. The choices are between repairing the damage and continue division, or enter a non-replicative but viable state called senescence or to die if damage is severe (Figure 1). The signaling cascade, which detects this damage and regulates the cell fate decision, is collectively called as...

  17. Role of CG9650 in Neuronal Development And Function of Drosophila Melanogaster

    Murthy, Smrithi
    The nervous system is the most complex system in an organism. Functioning of the nervous system requires proper formation of neural cells, as well as accurate connectivity and signaling among them. While the major events that occur during these processes are known, the finer details are yet to be understood. Hence, an attempt was made to look for novel genes that could be involved in them. The focus of the present study is on CG9650, a gene that was uncovered in a misexpression screen, as a possible player in neuronal development in Drosophila melanogaster. The first chapter of the thesis...

  18. Role of CG9650 in Neuronal Development And Function of Drosophila Melanogaster

    Murthy, Smrithi
    The nervous system is the most complex system in an organism. Functioning of the nervous system requires proper formation of neural cells, as well as accurate connectivity and signaling among them. While the major events that occur during these processes are known, the finer details are yet to be understood. Hence, an attempt was made to look for novel genes that could be involved in them. The focus of the present study is on CG9650, a gene that was uncovered in a misexpression screen, as a possible player in neuronal development in Drosophila melanogaster. The first chapter of the thesis...

  19. Insights Into Cytostatic Mechanisms Regulated By Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase C

    Basu, Nirmalya
    All cells are equipped to sense changes in their environment and make adaptive responses according to the stimuli. Signal recognition usually occurs at the cell membrane (with the exception of steroid signalling) where the ligand, which can be a small molecule, a peptide or a protein, binds its cognate receptor. This results in a change in the conformation of the receptor which in turn can regulate the production of second messengers. Second messengers can now modulate specific pathways which control gene expression and modify various aspects of cell behaviour. The signalling cascade is terminated by the removal of second messenger...

  20. Insights Into The Mechanism Of Actions Of Luteinizing Hormone And Prostaglandin F2α In The Regulation Of Corpus Luteum Function Of Monoovulatory Species

    Shah, Kunal B
    Corpus luteum (CL), a transient endocrine structure formed from the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation, secretes progesterone (P4) that is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The biosynthesis and secretion of P4 from CL depends, in general, on trophic hormones of the anterior pituitary gland and on hormones or factors originating from ovary, uterus, embryo and placenta. The structure and function of CL tissue is regulated by intricate interplay between two types of factors, namely, the luteotrophic factors, which stimulate CL growth and function, i.e., P4 secretion, and the luteolytic factors, which inhibit CL function and lead...

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