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ETD at Indian Institute of Science (3.216 recursos)

Repository of Theses and Dissertations of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The repository has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve research theses of Indian Institute of Science.

Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics (mrdg)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 52

  1. Regulation of Chitin Oligosaccharides Utilization in Escherichia Coli

    Verma, Subhash Chandra
    The genome of Escherichia coli harbors several catabolic operons involved in the utilization of a wide variety of natural compounds as carbon sources. The chitobiose (chu) operons of E.coli Is involved in the utilization of chitobiose(disaccharide of N-acety1-D-glucosamine) and cellbiose (disaccharide of glucose) derived from the two most abundant naturally occurring carbon sources on earth, chitin and cellulose respectively. The operon consists of the chbBCARFG genes coding for transport, regulation and hydrolysis functions required to utilize these compounds; the chuyBCA genes code for a multi-subuni PTS transporter ; the chuR codes for a dual function repressor/activator of the operon; the...

  2. Identification of Therapeutic Targets for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Avinash, Pradhan Shalmali
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common head and neck cancer, with a worldwide incidence of 275,000 new cases annually (Warnakulasuriya, 2009). Globally, the head and neck carcinoma represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is the sixth most commonly occurring cancer (Warnakulasuriya, 2009). A majority (>90%) of the head and neck cancers are squamous in origin and thus are linguistically referred to as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (Warnakulasuriya, 2009). HNSCC includes cancers of the oral cavity, larynx and pharynx; oral cancer being the most common (Warnakulasuriya, 2009). Although, HNSCC is the sixth most common...

  3. Primary Microcephaly Gene MCPH1 Shows Signatures of Tumor Suppressors and is Regulated by miR-27a in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Thejaswini, V
    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by a reduced occipital-frontal head circumference (OFC) of less than -3 SDs below the population mean for age and sex. It is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in one of the following 10 MCPH genes: MCPH1 (microcephalin 1), WDR62 (WD repeat domain 62), CDK5RAP2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory associated protein 2), CASC5 (cancer susceptibility candidate 5), CEP152 (centrosomal protein 152 kDa), ASPM (asp [abnormal spindle] homolog, microcephaly associated [Drosophila]), CENPJ (centromeric protein J), STIL (SCL/TAL1-interrupting locus), CEP135 (centrosomal protein 135 kDa) and CEP63 (centrosomal protein 135 kDa)....

  4. Investigations on the Possible Role of Aromatic β-Glucoside Metabolism in Self-Defense in Enterobacteriaceae

    Sonowal, Robert
    Bacteria are ubiquitous in all ecosystems and are often challenged by multiple stresses such as extreme temperatures, high salt concentrations, nutrient limitation, pH variations, radiation, predation and the presence of antibiotics/toxins. The most challenging among them is predation pressure which is one of the major causes of their mortality in different niches. Bacteria have evolved different adaptive measures to counter predation. Some of them include change in shape, size, motility, and unpalatable aggregate formation. Aromatic β-glucosides such as salicin, produced by plants as secondary metabolites, play a significant role in protecting them from herbivores. Members of the family Enterobaceriaceae primarily...

  5. Genetic Analysis of Wilson Disease in a South Indian Population and Molecular Characterization of 13 Novel ATP7B Mutations

    Singh, Nivedita
    Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deposition of copper in the body, mainly in the liver and brain. WD patients present with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric problems. The diagnosis of WD is very challenging, and is performed by taking into account both clinical and biochemical parameters. The treatment of WD exists, which aims at initial chelation therapy followed by maintenance therapy. WD is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. Till date, more than 600 mutations in ATP7B have already been described from many countries, including India. However, there are a very few large cohort studies which...

  6. Molecular Phenotyping of Mutations in Guanylyi Cyclase C Associated with Congenital Diarrhea

    Rasool, Insha
    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is a member of particulate guanylyl cyclases, discovered primarily as the target of a family of heat stable enterotoxins (ST), produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). ST is acknowledged as a prime cause of traveller’s diarrhea and the leading cause of child mortality under the age of 5 years in developing nations. The bacterial expression of ST peptides represents molecular mimicry where the pathogen has exploited a gastrointestinal tract-signaling pathway to disperse and propagate. GC-C is primarily expressed on the apical or the brush border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. GC-C agonists elaborated in the gastrointestinal...

  7. Nucleic Acid-binding Adenylyl Cyclases in Mycobacteria : Studies on Evolutionary & Biochemical Aspects

    Zaveri, Anisha
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most successful human pathogens, estimated to have infected close to one-third of the global human population. In order to survive within its host, M. tuberculosis utilises multiple signalling strategies, one of them being synthesis and secretion of universal second messenger cAMP. This process is enabled by the presence of sixteen predicted adenylyl cyclases in the genome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, ten of which have been characterised in vitro. The synthesized cAMP is recognised by ten putative cAMP-binding proteins in which the cyclic AMP-binding domain is associated with a variety of enzymatic domains. The cAMP...

  8. Glucose and Lipid Metabolism during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats : Role of Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin

    Pandey, Aparamita
    Energy homeostasis is an important physiological mechanism essential for balancingenergy flow through the living systems by managing overall metabolism in the body. Thus, energy homeostasis is under a tight control by means of extremely well-regulated energy metabolism. One of the most common metabolic disorders that occur following disruption in energy homeostasis mechanisms is obesity. Obese individuals develop insulin resistance in the peripheral tissues (fat and muscle) and may also include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is the primary factor responsible for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Towards control and management of T2D condition, insulin, drugs that regulate...

  9. Deciphering the Mechanisms of AMPK Activation upon Anchorage- Deprivation

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis in cells. It has been implicated as a therapeutic target for various metabolic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity. However, its role in cancer is context-dependent and therefore warrants further studies to explore its possible use as a therapeutic target. AMPK can either promote or retard the growth of cancer cells depending on other cues and stresses in the milieu of the cancer cells. This study aims to understand AMPK signalling in response to extracellular cues of matrix deprivation and matrix stiffness that are important determinants of metastasis....

  10. Deciphering the Mechanisms of AMPK Activation upon Anchorage- Deprivation

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis in cells. It has been implicated as a therapeutic target for various metabolic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity. However, its role in cancer is context-dependent and therefore warrants further studies to explore its possible use as a therapeutic target. AMPK can either promote or retard the growth of cancer cells depending on other cues and stresses in the milieu of the cancer cells. This study aims to understand AMPK signalling in response to extracellular cues of matrix deprivation and matrix stiffness that are important determinants of metastasis....

  11. Role of Areca Nut Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction and Involvement of JNK/ATF2/Jun/TGF-beta axis in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Etiopathology

    Pant, Ila
    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a debilitating irreversible fibrotic condition of the oral cavity. It is characterized by inflammation and ultimately results in trismus. Patients face difficulty in speaking, swallowing and chewing due to restricted mouth opening (trismus). This disease is also categorized as an oral premalignant disorder (OPMD). Recent reports cite a conversion rate of 10% from OSF to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Epidemiological studies and case reports over the years have correlated the habit of chewing areca nut (Areca catechu) to the manifestation of OSF. It is a major cause of concern in the South and South...

  12. Role of Areca Nut Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction and Involvement of JNK/ATF2/Jun/TGF-beta axis in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Etiopathology

    Pant, Ila
    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a debilitating irreversible fibrotic condition of the oral cavity. It is characterized by inflammation and ultimately results in trismus. Patients face difficulty in speaking, swallowing and chewing due to restricted mouth opening (trismus). This disease is also categorized as an oral premalignant disorder (OPMD). Recent reports cite a conversion rate of 10% from OSF to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Epidemiological studies and case reports over the years have correlated the habit of chewing areca nut (Areca catechu) to the manifestation of OSF. It is a major cause of concern in the South and South...

  13. Elucidation of 17β-Estradiol (E2) Role in the Regulation of Corpus Luteum Function in Mammals : Analysis of IGFBP5 Expression during Ea-mediated Actions

    Tripathy, Sudeshna
    Corpus luteum is a transient endocrine structure formed from the ruptured ovarian follicle. Its main function is to secrete P4, a pro-gestational hormone, essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The modulators of CL structure and function are classified as trophic and lytic factors. The luteotrophic factors include pituitary hormones, growth factors, intra luteal factors and cytokines, while luteolytic factors include PGF2α and oxytocin. The interplay between luteotrophic and luteolytic factors regulates luteal steroidogenesis. The precise timing of expression of various enzymes/proteins required for synthesis and metabolism of P4 constitutes an important process in the overall regulation of...

  14. Elucidation of 17β-Estradiol (E2) Role in the Regulation of Corpus Luteum Function in Mammals : Analysis of IGFBP5 Expression during Ea-mediated Actions

    Tripathy, Sudeshna
    Corpus luteum is a transient endocrine structure formed from the ruptured ovarian follicle. Its main function is to secrete P4, a pro-gestational hormone, essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The modulators of CL structure and function are classified as trophic and lytic factors. The luteotrophic factors include pituitary hormones, growth factors, intra luteal factors and cytokines, while luteolytic factors include PGF2α and oxytocin. The interplay between luteotrophic and luteolytic factors regulates luteal steroidogenesis. The precise timing of expression of various enzymes/proteins required for synthesis and metabolism of P4 constitutes an important process in the overall regulation of...

  15. Insights into Differentiation of Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells to Neural Lineage

    Verma, Isha
    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs: ESCs and iPSCs) provide an excellent model system for studying neural development and function. These cells also serve as a reliable source of cell replacement for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. In view of these applications of PSCs, multiple protocols have been developed to direct their differentiation into neural lineage. However, many of these protocols are limiting in terms of (a) low efficiency of generation of neural cells after long-term culture, (b) requirement of exogenous factors to induce and enhance neural differentiation and (c) supplementation of PSC culture medium with serum. Therefore, in the...

  16. Insights into Differentiation of Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells to Neural Lineage

    Verma, Isha
    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs: ESCs and iPSCs) provide an excellent model system for studying neural development and function. These cells also serve as a reliable source of cell replacement for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. In view of these applications of PSCs, multiple protocols have been developed to direct their differentiation into neural lineage. However, many of these protocols are limiting in terms of (a) low efficiency of generation of neural cells after long-term culture, (b) requirement of exogenous factors to induce and enhance neural differentiation and (c) supplementation of PSC culture medium with serum. Therefore, in the...

  17. Studies on the Evolution of Aromatic Beta-Glucoside Catabolic Systems under Different Stress Conditions in Escherichia coli

    Zangoui Nejad Chahkootahi, Parisa
    The genetic systems involved in the utilisation of aromatic β-glucosides in E. coli consist of the bgl, asc, and chb operons and the locus bglA encoding phospho-β-glucosidase A. The bgl and asc operons are known as cryptic or silent systems since their expression is not sufficient for utilisation of these sugars in wild type strains of E. coli. Their transcriptional activation by different classes of mutations confers a Bgl+ phenotype to the mutant. The maintenance of cryptic genes without accumulating deleterious mutation in spite of being silent is an evolutionary puzzle. Several observations have suggested the possibility that these genes...

  18. Studies on the Evolution of Aromatic Beta-Glucoside Catabolic Systems under Different Stress Conditions in Escherichia coli

    Zangoui Nejad Chahkootahi, Parisa
    The genetic systems involved in the utilisation of aromatic β-glucosides in E. coli consist of the bgl, asc, and chb operons and the locus bglA encoding phospho-β-glucosidase A. The bgl and asc operons are known as cryptic or silent systems since their expression is not sufficient for utilisation of these sugars in wild type strains of E. coli. Their transcriptional activation by different classes of mutations confers a Bgl+ phenotype to the mutant. The maintenance of cryptic genes without accumulating deleterious mutation in spite of being silent is an evolutionary puzzle. Several observations have suggested the possibility that these genes...

  19. Role of Activin A Signaling in Breast Cancer

    Bashir, Mohsin
    Activin-A is a member of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines which includes TGF-βs, Activins, Nodal, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). TGF-β, Activin and Nodal are known to activate SMAD2/3, while BMPs and GDFs are known to activate SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways. Activin-A binds to type II transmembrane serine threonine kinase receptor (ActRIIA or ActRIIB), which in turn activates type I receptor (ActRIB) leading to phosphorylation of SMAD2/SMAD3. Upon phosphorylation, SMAD2/3 forms a complex with SMAD4, which then translocates to nucleus. In the nucleus, SMAD2/3/4 complex, along with other co-factors regulates expression...

  20. Role of Activin A Signaling in Breast Cancer

    Bashir, Mohsin
    Activin-A is a member of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines which includes TGF-βs, Activins, Nodal, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). TGF-β, Activin and Nodal are known to activate SMAD2/3, while BMPs and GDFs are known to activate SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways. Activin-A binds to type II transmembrane serine threonine kinase receptor (ActRIIA or ActRIIB), which in turn activates type I receptor (ActRIB) leading to phosphorylation of SMAD2/SMAD3. Upon phosphorylation, SMAD2/3 forms a complex with SMAD4, which then translocates to nucleus. In the nucleus, SMAD2/3/4 complex, along with other co-factors regulates expression...

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