ETD at Indian Institute of Science
Repository of Theses and Dissertations of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The repository has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve research theses of Indian Institute of Science.
Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics (mrdg)
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 43
Guanylyl Cyclase C Regulation And Pathophysiology - Arshad, Najla
The survival of the any living organism depends on its availability to communicate, and a breakdown of cellular signaling can have dire consequences such as uncontrolled cellular proliferations or even cell death. Environmental cues or ligands are perceived by cognate receptors, expressed primarily on the cell surface, and transmitted to the interior of the cell to elicit a response. This universal phenomenon is termed as signal transduction. During this process, second messengers such as cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, are produced which serve to amplify the signal.
Cyclic GMP is emerging as a universal second messenger, and is found in both...
The Phenomenon Of Blastocyst Hatching : Role Of COX-2 And NF-kB - Roy, Shubhendu Sen
The zona-pellucida (zona, ZP) is an adhesion-refractory, acellular coat enclosing the rapidly growing, free-living mammalian preimplantation embryo which undergoes successive cleavage divisions to form the blastocyst, composed of ICM-cells surrounded by outer TE-cells. For further development, the blastocyst must ‘hatch’ or ‘escape’ out of the zona before it can implant into the endometrium for further development (Fig. 5.1A). Hence, the event of hatching or ‘zona escape’ assumes critical importance for the establishment of a successful pregnancy. The golden-hamster blastocyst offers a very unique paradigm to understand hatching, whereby upon attainment of a fully-expanded state, the blastocyst undergoes a dramatic (and...
Activation Of Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors : Role Of Different Receptor Domains In Hormone Binding And Signaling - Majumdar, Ritankar
The glycoprotein hormones, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are heterodimeric proteins with an identical α-subunit associated non-covalently with the hormone specific β-subunit and play important roles in reproduction and overall physiology of the organism . The receptors of these hormones belong to the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and have a large extracellular domain (ECD) comprising of 9-10 leucine rich repeats (LRR) followed by a flexible hinge region, a seven helical transmembrane domain (TMD) and a C terminal cytoplasmic tail . Despite significant sequence and structural homologies observed...
Metallophosphoesterases In Mycobacteria Enigmatic Roles In Regulating Mycobacterial Physiology - Mattoo, Rohini
Pathogenic bacteria such as M.tuberculosis have evolved several mechanisms to aid their intracellular survival and subvert host defenses. One of the contributing factors is thought to be the production and secretion of large amount of cAMP, Mycobacterial genomes encode a large number of adenylyl cyclases distinct in their structure and regulatory mechanisms. The roles of these enzymes in the physiology and pathogenesis of virulent mycobacteria are only now being elucidated. The roles of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which serve to lower cAMP levels through degradation are, however, relatively unexplored.
The Rv0805 gene was previously shown to code for an active phosphodiesterase from...
Studies On Molecular Analysis Of Capacitation Associated Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation In Hamster Spermatozoa - Dasari, Santosh Kumar
In mammals, freshly ejaculated spermatozoa do not possess the ability to fertilize a mature oocyte. They acquire fertilization competence upon residing for a period of time in the female reproductive tract. The physiological changes that bring about these time-dependent changes in motility pattern and acquisition of fertilizing ability of spermatozoa are collectively referred to as capacitation, culminating in sperm hyperactivation. Capacitation-associated increase in sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PYP), exhibited by mammalian sperm, is one of the major downstream events, regulating hyperactivated motility. However, it is still unclear which are the tyrosine kinases and phosphatases involved in modulating the capacitation-associated increase...
Stress Signaling In Development And Carcinogenesis : Role Of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase - Kumar, Hindupur Sravanth
Rapidly growing tumor cells outgrow their blood supply resulting in a microenvironment with reduced oxygen and nutrients. Using an in vitro transformation model we found that cancer cells expressing the SV40 ST antigen (+ST cells) are more resistant to glucose deprivation-induced cell death than cells lacking the SV40 ST antigen (−ST cells). Mechanistically, we found that the ST antigen mediates this effect by activating a nutrient-sensing kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We further show that AMPK mediates its effects, at least in part, by inhibiting mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), thereby shutting down protein translation, and by inducing autophagy as...
Unravelling The Mechanisms Of Myofibrillogenesis And Human Myopathies Using Drosophila Mutants - Salvi, Sheetal S
Myofibrillogenesis is a complex process, which involves assembly of hundreds of structural proteins in a highly ordered manner to form the contractile structural unit of muscle, the sarcomere. Several myopathic conditions reported in humans are caused due to abnormal myofibrillogenesis owing to mutations in the genes coding for many of these structural proteins. These myopathies have highly variable clinical features and time of onset. Since their aetiology is poorly understood, it becomes imperative to have a model system to study the muscle defects. Present study proposes to employ the Indirect Flight Muscle (IFM) system in Drosophila melanogaster as a model...
Studies On Embryonic Stem Cells From Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Mice : Induction Of Cardiomyocyte Differentiation - Singh, Gurbind
Genesis of life begins with the fusion of female and male haploid gametes through a process of fertilization leading to the formation of a diploid cell, the zygote. This undergoes successive cleavage divisions forming 2-, 4- and 8- cell embryos and their individual cells (blastomeres) are totipotent. As development proceeds, there is a gradual restriction in their totipotency, resulting in the generation of two distinct cell lineages i.e., the differentiated trophectoderm (TE) cells and the undifferentiated, inner cell mass (ICM) during blastocyst morphogenesis (Rossant and Tam 2009). During the course of development, the ICM cells can give rise to all...
Functional Analysis Of Primary Microcephaly Gene Product ASPM - Singhmar, Pooja
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is defined by congenital microcephaly and associated mental retardation with head circumference of the affected individual at least 3 standard deviations below age- and sex-means. It is a disorder of abnormal fetal brain growth which is a consequence of impaired neurogenesis. It is genetically heterogeneous with seven known loci and genes for all the seven loci have been identified: MCPH-1-MCPH1, MCPH2-WDR62, MCPH3-CDK5RAP2, MCPH4-CEP152, MCPH5-ASPM, MCPH6-CENPJ, and MCPH7-STIL. All the seven MCPH proteins localize at the centrosome. Apart from MCPH, many other proteins associated with the phenotype microcephaly have been localized to the centrosome or linked...
Cyclic AMP In Mycobacteria Adenylyl Cyclases And Cyclic AMP Receptor Proteins - Sharma, Ritu
The discovery of cyclic AMP (cAMP), nearly 50 years ago by Sutherland radically altered the appreciation of metabolic regulation. Since then the presence of cAMP and its tremendous physiological impact has been demonstrated in many prokaryotic systems. In fact, virulence mechanisms of several pathogens known today exploit cAMP dependent pathways. Interestingly the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, the causative agent of tuberculosis, encodes as many as 16 adenylyl cyclases (enzymes that convert ATP to 3’, 5’-cAMP) and 10 cyclic-nucleotide binding proteins. Recent reports show that bacterial-derived cAMP manipulates host signaling for bacterial survival, suggesting an important role for cAMP in...
Studies On Intracrine Regulators Of Ovarian Function : Examination Of Progesterone Action On Structure And Function Of Corpus Luteum In The Monkey - Suresh, P S
The control of reproductive cycles in higher primates is largely dependent on negative and positive feedback mechanisms by both steroidal and non-steroidal substances of the ovaries which regulate the function of hypothalamo-pituitary system. To gain insights into the role of INH A, the non steroidal ovarian hormone in the feedback control of pituitary FSH secretion, studies were conducted to examine the interrelationships of hormones throughout the menstrual cycle of the bonnet macaque. The findings of chapter II provide a detailed description of endocrine hormone profile during the menstrual cycle of the bonnet macaques with special attention to the feedback role...
Characterization Of Down Regulated Genes In Astrocytoma - Bhanja, Poulomi
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Astrocytomas have a high frequency of occurrence as compared to the other gliomas and several studies including ours have focused on understanding the etiology, biology and genetics of this disease. Based on the degree of malignancy, astrocytomas have been graded from I to IV. Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas are benign tumors and have limited infiltration. On the contrary, Grade II-IV astrocytomas also referred to as diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (DA, Grade II), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA, Grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, Grade IV), have the tendency...