Srisha Rao, M V
A supersonic ejector is used to pump a secondary gas using a supersonic primary gas flow by augmentation of momentum and energy in a variable area duct. The internal compressible flow through an ejector has many complex gas dynamic features, like compressible shear layers and associated shock interactions. In many practical applications, ejectors are operated in the choked flow regimes where higher operating pressure ratios and mass flow rates are encountered. On the other hand, rather low entrainment and subsonic secondary flow dynamics (referred as the mixed regime of operation) dominate the dilution and purging applications of ejectors. The fundamental...
The interaction of a shock wave and boundary layer often occurs in high speed flows. For sufficiently strong shock strengths the boundary layer separates, generating shock patterns in the contiguous inviscid flow (termed strong interactions); which may also affect the performances of the systems where they occur, demanding control of the interaction to enhance the performances. The case of impinging shock wave boundary layer interaction is of fundamental importance and can throw light on the physics of the interaction in general. Although various aspects of the interaction are studied at supersonic speeds, the complexities involved in the interaction at hypersonic...
Sutrakar, Vijay Kumar
This thesis is an attempt to understand ways to improve thermo-mechanical and structural properties of nano-structured materials. A detailed study on computational design and analysis of metallic nanowires is carried out. Molecular dynamic simulation method is applied. In particular, FCC metallic nanowires, NiAl, and CuZr nanowires are studied. Various bottom-up approaches are suggested with improved structural and thermo¬mechanical properties.
In the first part of the thesis, Cu nanowires are considered. Existence of a novel and stable pentagonal multi-shell nanobridge structure of Cu under high strain rate tensile loading is reported. Such a structure shows enhanced mechanical properties. A three-fold pseudo-elastic-plastic...
Applications such as urban surveillance, search and rescue, agricultural applications, military applications, etc., require miniature air vehicles (MAVs) to fly for a long time. But they have restricted flight duration due to their dependence on battery life, which necessitates optimal path planning. The generated optimal path should obey the curvature limits prescribed by the minimum turn radius/ maximum turn rate of the MAV. Further, in a dynamically changing environment, the final configuration that the MAV has to achieve may change en route, which demands the path to be replanned by an airborne processor in real-time. As MAVs are small in...
This thesis is concerned with the study of parallel mixing of two dissimilar gases under compressible conditions in the confined environment. A number of numerical studies are reported in the literature for the compressible mixing of two streams of gases where (1) both the streams are of similar gases at the same temperatures, (2) both the streams are at different temperatures with similar gases, and (3) dissimilar gases are with nearly equal temperatures. The combination of dissimilar gases at large temperature difference, mixing under compressible conditions, as in the case of scramjet propulsion, has not been adequately addressed numerically. Also...
Plug nozzle, a passive altitude adaptive nozzle, for futuristic SSTO applications, exhibits greater efﬁciency as compared to conventional nozzles over a wide range of altitudes. The plug nozzle comprises of a primary nozzle and a contoured plug; an under–expanded jet exiting the primary nozzle is allowed to further expand over the plug surface for altitude adaptation. At design condition the ﬂow expands correctly to the ambient conditions on the full length plug surface, while at off design conditions the ﬂow adapts to the ambient conditions through wave interactions within the nozzle core jet. Based on thrust to weight considerations, the...
Manu, K V
In canonical boundary layer transition, a uniform laminar flow perturbed by 2-d T-S waves develops downstream into 3-d waves, which eventually break down with turbulent spots appearing. Previous experimental studies have established that this kind of development is absent, is by-passed, in transition induced by free-stream turbulence or surface roughness. However a common, characteristic feature of the late, three-dimensional stage is the prevalence of streamwise vorticity and streaks. Isolated and multiple streamwise vortices are present in both, canonical transition and bypass transition. This thesis de-scribes an experimental study of the late stages of boundary layer transition after a single or...
Shivakanth Chary, P
We develop a physics-based reduced-order model of the aero-acoustic sound sources in reacting mixing layers as a method for fast and accurate predictions of the radiated sound. Instabilities in low-speed mixing layers are known to be dominated by the traditional Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H)-type “central” mode, which is expected to be superseded by the “outer” modes as the chemical-reaction-based heat-release modifies the mean density, yielding new peaks in the density-weighted vorticity profiles. Although, these outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus primarily, when the...
Dynamic behavior of impacting water drops on superhydrophobic solid surfaces provides important details on the stability/durability of such solid surfaces. Multi-scale surface roughness combined with a layer of low energy chemical is an essential surface modification process followed to create superhydrophobic capabilities on solid surfaces. The present work aims at studying the effect of low energy surface coating on droplet impact dynamics by carrying out experiments of water drop impacts on rough solid surfaces with and without chemical modification. A group of six aluminium alloy (Al6061) surfaces (three pairs) are prepared. Roughness, characterized in terms mean surface roughness, Ra, is...
Lattice Boltzmann Method has been quite successful for incompressible
flows. Its extension for compressible (especially supersonic and hypersonic)
flows has attracted lot of attention in recent time. There have been some
successful attempts but nearly all of them have either resulted in complex
or expensive equilibrium function distributions or in extra energy levels.
Thus, an efficient Lattice Boltzmann Method for compressible fluid flows
is still a research idea worth pursuing for. In this thesis, a new Lattice
Boltzmann Method has been developed for compressible flows, by using the concept of a relaxation system, which is traditionally used as semilinear alternative for non-linear hypebolic systems in CFD. In...
Composite structures provide opportunities for weight reduction, material tailoring and integrating control surfaces with embedded transducers, which are not possible in conventional metallic structures. As a result there is a substantial increase in the use of composite materials in aerospace and other major industries, which has necessitated the need for structural health monitoring(SHM) of aerospace structures. In the context of SHM of aircraft structures, there are many areas, which are still not explored and need deep investigation. Among these, one of the major areas is the development of efficient damage models for complex composite structures, like stiffened structures, box-type structures,...
Vijaya Kumar, R L
Adhesive bonding which has been in use for long as a traditional joining method has gained ground in the last couple of decades due to the introduction of advanced composite materials into the aerospace industry. Bonded structures have advantages such as high corrosion and fatigue resistance, ability to join dissimilar materials, reduced stress concentration, uniform stress distribution, good damping characteristics etc. They also have certain limitations like environmental degradation, existence of defects like pores, voids and disbonds, difficulty in maintenance and repair etc. A serious drawback in the use of adhesively bonded structures has been that there are no established...
A partial differential equation in space and time represents the physics of rotating beams. Mostly, the numerical solution of such an equation is an available option as analytical solutions are not feasible even for a uniform rotating beam. Although the numerical solutions can be obtained with a number of combinations (in space and time), one tries to seek for a better alternative. In this work, various numerical techniques are applied to the rotating beam problems: finite element method, meshless methods, and B-spline finite element methods. These methods are applied to the governing differential equations of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam, rotating...
In the flying field of space transportation domain, the increased efforts involving design and development of hypersonic flight for space missions is on toe to provide the optimum aerothermodynamic design data to satisfy mission requirements. Aerothermodynamics is the basis for designing and development of hypersonic space transportation flight vehicles such as X 51 a, and other programmes like planetary probes for Moon and Mars, and Earth re-entry vehicles such as SRE and space shuttle. It enables safe flying of aerospace vehicles, keeping other parameters optimum for structural and materials with thermal protection systems. In this context, the experimental investigations on...
The motivation of this thesis is to propose a robust control technique for a laser beam system with target estimation. The laser beam is meant to track and fall on a particular portion of the target until the operation is accomplished. There are many applications of such a system. For example, laser range finder uses laser beam to determine the distance of the target from the source. Recently, unmanned aerial drones have been developed that run on laser power. Drone batteries can be recharged with power sup-ply from laser source on the ground. Laser is also used in high energy...
Subba Rao, P
The search and research for high performance materials for aerospace applications is a continuous evolving process. Among several fibre reinforced polymers, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is well known for its high specific stiffness and strength. Though high modulus and high strength carbon fibre with structural resin systems have currently been established reasonably well and are catering to a wide variety of aerospace structural applications, these properties are generally directional with very high properties along the fibre direction dominated by fibres and low in other directions depending mainly on the resin properties. Thus, there is a need to enhance the...
In recent times, composite materials have gained mainstay acceptance as a structural material of choice due to their tailorability and improved thermal, speciﬁc strength/stiﬀness and durability performance. Carbon-Carbon (C/C) composites are used for high temperature applications such as exit nozzles for rockets, leading edges for missiles, nose cones, brake pads etc. Mechanical property estimation of C/C composites is challenging due to their highly heterogeneous microstructure. Computed Tomography (CT) images (volumetric imaging) coupled with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) reveal a highly heterogeneous microstructure comprised of woven C-ﬁbers, amorphous C-matrix, irregularly shaped voids, cracks and other inclusions. The images also disclose structural...
Evaluating aerodynamic noise from aircraft engines is a design stage process, so that it conform to regulations at airports. Aerodynamic noise is also a principal source of structural vibration and internal noise in short/vertical take off and landing and rocket launches. Acoustic loads may be critical for the proper functioning of electronic and mechanical components. It is imperative to have tools with capability to predict noise generation from turbulent flows. Understanding the mechanism of noise generation is essential in identifying methods for noise reduction.
Lighthill (1952) and Lighthill (1954) provided the first explanation for the mechanism of aerodynamic noise generation...
Bhat, Abhishek R
This thesis is concerned with experimental and computational studies on pulse detonation engine (PDE) that has been envisioned as a new concept engine. These engines use the high pressure generated by detonation wave for propulsion. The cycle efficiency of PDE is either higher in comparison to conventional jet engines or at least has similar high performance with much greater simplicity in terms of components.
The first part of the work consists of an experimental study of the performance of PDE under choked flame and partial fill conditions. Detonations used in classical PDEs create conditions of Mach numbers of 4-6 and choked...
Rotating and non-rotating beams are widely used to model important engineering struc-tures. Hence, the vibration analyses of these beams are an important problem from a structural dynamics point of view. Depending on the beam dimensions, they are mod-eled using diﬀerent beam theories. In most cases, the governing diﬀerential equations of these types of beams do not yield any simple closed-form solutions; hence we look for the inverse problem approach in determining the beam property variations given certain solutions.
The long and slender beams are generally modeled using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Under the premise of this theory, we study (i)...