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ETD at Indian Institute of Science (3.494 recursos)

Repository of Theses and Dissertations of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The repository has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve research theses of Indian Institute of Science.

Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (caos)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 34

  1. Effects of Arctic Geoengineering on Precipitation in the Tropical Monsoon Regions

    Nalam, Adithya
    Arctic geoengineering wherein sunlight absorption is reduced only in the Arctic has been suggested as a remedial measure to counteract the on-going rapid climate change in the Arctic. Several modelling studies have shown that Arctic geoengineering can minimize Arctic warming but will shift the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) southward, unless offset by comparable geoengineering in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we investigate and quantify the implications of this ITCZ shift due to Arctic geoengineering for the global monsoon regions using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 coupled to a slab ocean model. A doubling of CO2 from pre-industrial levels...

  2. Formation and Maintenance of the Southern Bay of Bengal Cold Pool

    Das, Umasankar
    Around Sri Lanka and to the south of India sea surface temperatures (SST) are cooler compared to the surrounding region during summer monsoon. This region where SSTs are relatively cooler is known as the cold pool. Owing to its possible impact on monsoon variability, some studies have been carried out to understand the evolution of cold pool SST during this period. These studies suggest, coastal upwelling along southern coast of Sri Lanka and eastward advection of cooler water contributes to the decrease in SST during summer monsoon. However, the processes leading to the formation of cold pool, still, remain unknown....

  3. Dynamics of Summer Monsoon Current around Sri Lanka

    Rath, Subham
    Summer monsoon current (SMC) in the north Indian Ocean (NIO) is an open ocean current that flows eastward and enter into Bay of Bengal (BoB) during southwest monsoon (June–September). South of Sri Lanka, the SMC turns north-eastward instead of following eastward course and feeds into the BoB. Understanding the dynamics of SMC is crucial to understanding the interaction between Arabian sea (AS) and BoB. In the year 2009, the current moved north-eastward, meandered and then finally terminated into the southeast BoB. The northward bend of the current southeast of Sri Lanka has been attributed to the interaction of the eastward...

  4. Dynamics and Stability of Multiple Jets in Geophysical Flows

    Sinha, Anirban
    The effect of rotation on the stability of multiple jets in planetary atmospheres is system- atically investigated. Typically in Jovian planetary atmospheres, multiple zonal jets have been observed and their morphology has been systematically studied. The formation of jets has always been viewed as a nonlinear problem where most work has followed from the ideas of potential vorticity (PV) homogenization or turbulent mixing on a β-plane. In our present work, we have aimed to look at the linear stability of multiple jets in a geophysical fluid, and hope to add further insight into the observed jet profiles in β-plane turbulence....

  5. Interannual Variation of Monsoon in a High Resolution AGCM with Climatological SST Forcing

    Ghosh, Rohit
    Interannual variation of Indian summer (June-September: JJAS) monsoon rainfall (ISMR) depends on its relative intensity during early (June-July: JJ; contribution 52%) and late (August-September: AS; contribution 49%) phases. Apart from variations in sea surface temperature (SST), the primary reasons behind the variability during JJ and AS can be very different due to change in climatic conditions on account of post-onset processes. Here, using a high resolution general circulation model with seasonally varying climatological SST, mechanisms those govern the intensity of rainfall during JJ and AS are investigated. There is no significant relation-ship between intensity of precipitation over Indian region in...

  6. Sensitivity of Sea Surface Temperature Intraseasonal Oscillation to Diurnal Atmospheric Forcings in an OGCM

    Venugopal, Thushara
    Abstract The diurnal cycle is a dominant mode of sea surface temperature (SST) variability in trop-ical oceans, that influences air-sea interaction and climate processes. Diurnal variability of SST generally ranges from ~0.1 to 2.0◦C and is controlled by atmospheric fluxes of heat and momentum. In the present study, the response of intraseasonal variability (ISV) of SST in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) to diurnal atmospheric forcings, during the summer monsoon of 2007, has been examined using an Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM). The model is based on the Modular Ocean Model Version 4 (MOM4p0), having a horizontal resolution of 0.25◦ and...

  7. Influence of River Discharge on Climate in A Coupled Model

    Sharif, Jahfer
    River discharge can affect ocean surface temperature by altering stratification within the oceanic mixed layer. A hitherto unexplored aspect of present climate is the feedback of river runoff onto climate. This thesis presents an investigation of the impact of global river runoff on oceans and climate using a fully coupled global climate model, Community Climate System Model (CCSM). Two model simulations for a period of 100 years have been carried out: 1) a reference run (CTRL) that incorporates all the features of a global coupled model with river runoff into the ocean embedded in it, and 2) a sensitivity run...

  8. The Retrieval of Aerosols above Clouds and their Radiative Impact in Tropical Oceans

    Eswaran, Kruthika
    Aerosols affect the global radiation budget which plays an important role in determining the state of the Earth's climate. The heterogeneous distribution of aerosols and the variety in their properties results in high uncertainty in the understanding of aerosols. Aerosols affect the radiation by scattering and absorption (direct effect) or by modifying the cloud properties which in turn affects the radiation (indirect effect). The current work focuses only on the direct radiative effect of aerosols. The change in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflected flux due to the perturbation of aerosols and their properties is called direct aerosol radiative forcing (ARFTOA). Estimation of...

  9. Space-Time Evolution of the Intraseasonal Variability in the Indian Summer Monsoon and its Association with Extreme Rainfall Events : Observations and GCM Simulations

    Karmakar, Nirupam
    In this thesis, we investigated modes of intraseasonal variability (ISV) observed in the Indian monsoon rainfall and how these modes modulate rainfall over India. We identified a decreasing trend in the intensity of low-frequency intraseasonal mode with increasing strength in synoptic variability over India. We also made an attempt to understand the reason for these observed trends using numerical simulations. In the first part of the thesis, satellite rainfall estimates are used to understand the spatiotem-poral structures of convection in the intraseasonal timescale and their intensity during boreal sum-mer over south Asia. Two dominant modes of variability with periodicities of 10–20-days...

  10. Temporal Persistence and Spatial Coherence of Tropical Rainfall

    Ratan, Ram
    The work presented in the thesis focuses on systematically documenting the multi scale nature of the temporal persistence and spatial coherence of tropical rainfall. There are three parts to the thesis: The first two parts utilize satellite-retrieved rainfall at multiple observational resolutions to characterize the space-time organization of rain; the third part assesses the ability of state-of-the-art coupled models to reproduce some of the observed features. In the first part of the study, which focuses on the temporal persistence of rain, we analyze the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite-based observations to compare and contrast wet and dry spell characteristics...

  11. Temporal Persistence and Spatial Coherence of Tropical Rainfall

    Ratan, Ram
    The work presented in the thesis focuses on systematically documenting the multi scale nature of the temporal persistence and spatial coherence of tropical rainfall. There are three parts to the thesis: The first two parts utilize satellite-retrieved rainfall at multiple observational resolutions to characterize the space-time organization of rain; the third part assesses the ability of state-of-the-art coupled models to reproduce some of the observed features. In the first part of the study, which focuses on the temporal persistence of rain, we analyze the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite-based observations to compare and contrast wet and dry spell characteristics...

  12. A Method to Derive an Aerosol Composition from Downward Solar Spectral Fluxes at the Surface

    Rao, Roshan R
    Aerosol properties are highly variable in space and time which makes the aerosol study more complex. The sources and production mechanism of aerosols decide the properties of the aerosols. Aerosol radiative forcing is defined as the perturbation to the radiative fluxes of the earth atmosphere system caused by the aerosols. High uncertainty in the aerosol radiative forcing values exists today due to the lack of the exact chemical composition data of the aerosols everywhere. There are previous studies which have introduced methods to estimate ‘optical equivalent’ composition of aerosols using spectral aerosol optical depth measurements at the surface. The impact...

  13. A Method to Derive an Aerosol Composition from Downward Solar Spectral Fluxes at the Surface

    Rao, Roshan R
    Aerosol properties are highly variable in space and time which makes the aerosol study more complex. The sources and production mechanism of aerosols decide the properties of the aerosols. Aerosol radiative forcing is defined as the perturbation to the radiative fluxes of the earth atmosphere system caused by the aerosols. High uncertainty in the aerosol radiative forcing values exists today due to the lack of the exact chemical composition data of the aerosols everywhere. There are previous studies which have introduced methods to estimate ‘optical equivalent’ composition of aerosols using spectral aerosol optical depth measurements at the surface. The impact...

  14. Role of Aerosols in Modulating the Intraseasonal Oscillations of Indian Summer Monsoon

    Bhattacharya, Anwesa
    In this thesis, we have presented a systematic analysis of the change of cloud properties due to variation in aerosol concentration over Indian region using satellite observations, and Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) based Microwave Imager (TMI) estimates (2A12) have been used to compare and contrast the characteristics of cloud liquid water and ice over the Indian land region and the surrounding oceans, during the pre-monsoon (May) and monsoon (June–September) seasons. Based on the spatial homogeneity of rainfall, we have selected five regions for our study (three over ocean,...

  15. Role of Aerosols in Modulating the Intraseasonal Oscillations of Indian Summer Monsoon

    Bhattacharya, Anwesa
    In this thesis, we have presented a systematic analysis of the change of cloud properties due to variation in aerosol concentration over Indian region using satellite observations, and Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) based Microwave Imager (TMI) estimates (2A12) have been used to compare and contrast the characteristics of cloud liquid water and ice over the Indian land region and the surrounding oceans, during the pre-monsoon (May) and monsoon (June–September) seasons. Based on the spatial homogeneity of rainfall, we have selected five regions for our study (three over ocean,...

  16. A Tale of Two Gradients : Atmospheric Dynamics in an Inhomogeneous Background

    Monteiro, Joy Merwin
    The effects of a non-zero background state on atmospheric dynamics is explored through simple models and observations. Firstly, we examine the effects of moisture gradients on the stability and propagation of Rossby waves in a mid-latitude -plane. We begin by a consistent derivation of the forced quasi-geostrophic equations on a -plane to understand the constraints placed by geostrophy on the time scale of condensation. We see that the presence of meridional gradients of moisture results in a slowdown of the waves. On the introduction of zonal gradients of moisture, the waves become unstable, and for certain parameters which are representative...

  17. A Tale of Two Gradients : Atmospheric Dynamics in an Inhomogeneous Background

    Monteiro, Joy Merwin
    The effects of a non-zero background state on atmospheric dynamics is explored through simple models and observations. Firstly, we examine the effects of moisture gradients on the stability and propagation of Rossby waves in a mid-latitude -plane. We begin by a consistent derivation of the forced quasi-geostrophic equations on a -plane to understand the constraints placed by geostrophy on the time scale of condensation. We see that the presence of meridional gradients of moisture results in a slowdown of the waves. On the introduction of zonal gradients of moisture, the waves become unstable, and for certain parameters which are representative...

  18. Modeling of Solar Radiation Management : A Comparison of Simulations using Reduced Solar Constant and Stratospheric Aerosols

    Sirisha, K
    The climatic effects of Solar Radiation Management (SRM) geoengineering have been often modeled by simply reducing the solar constant. This is most likely valid only for space sunshades and not for atmosphere and surface based SRM methods. In this thesis, a global climate model is used to test if the climate response to SRM by stratospheric aerosols and uniform solar constant reduction are similar. Our analysis shows that when global mean warming from a doubling of CO2 is nearly cancelled by both these methods, they are similar when important surface and tropospheric climate variables are considered. However, a difference of...

  19. Modeling of Solar Radiation Management : A Comparison of Simulations using Reduced Solar Constant and Stratospheric Aerosols

    Sirisha, K
    The climatic effects of Solar Radiation Management (SRM) geoengineering have been often modeled by simply reducing the solar constant. This is most likely valid only for space sunshades and not for atmosphere and surface based SRM methods. In this thesis, a global climate model is used to test if the climate response to SRM by stratospheric aerosols and uniform solar constant reduction are similar. Our analysis shows that when global mean warming from a doubling of CO2 is nearly cancelled by both these methods, they are similar when important surface and tropospheric climate variables are considered. However, a difference of...

  20. Fine-Scale Structure Of The Diurnal Cycle Of Global Tropical Rainfall

    Chattopadhyay, Bodhisattwa
    The fine-scale structure of global (30N-30S) tropical rainfall is characterised using 13 years (1998-2010) of 3-hourly and daily, 0.25-degree Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 rainfall product. At the outset, the dominant timescales present in rainfall are identified. Specifically, the Fourier spectrum (in time) is estimated in two ways (a) spectrum of spatially averaged (SoSA) rainfall; and (b) spatial average of the spectrum (SAoS) of rainfall at each grid point. This procedure is applied on rainfall at the 3-hourly and daily temporal resolutions. Both estimates of the spectrum show the presence of a very strong seasonal cycle. But, at subseasonal...

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