Protein phosphorylation is a key cellular regulatory mechanism. Phosphorylation can either activate or inhibit the function of a particular protein. Activation of protein kinases has been implicated in response to light, pathogen attack, growth regulators, stress and nutrient deficiency in plants. Most of the intracellular signaling pathways use protein phosphorylation to create
signals and conduct them further. Identification of the physiological substrates for the protein kinase enables the understanding of how the signaling networks function and how they are disturbed under adverse conditions. Identification of the physiological substrates for the kinase is
limited by the low stoichiometry of protein phosphorylation inside the...
The lymphoid tissues consist of distinct cell subpopulations of B and T cell lineages and possess complex signaling pathways that are controlled by a myriad of molecular interactions. During the fine-tuned developmental process of the lymphoid system, inappropriate activation of oncogenes and loss of tumor suppressor gene activity can push lymphocytes into uncontrolled clonal expansion, causing several lymphoid malignancies. V(D)J recombination is one such essential process, important for the proper development of the mammalian immune system. However, mistakes in normal V(D)J recombination can lead to deletion of tumor suppressor genes or activation of proto-oncogenes. In the first part of the...
Glycodelin, a homodimeric glycoprotein belonging to the lipocalin superfamily, is synthesised predominantly by the cells of the reproductive system of certain primates including humans. Of the four different known glycoforms of the molecule, glycodelin A (GdA), secreted by the glandular epithelial cells of the endometrium in response to progesterone, is involved in the immunosuppression of the maternal immune response to the semi-allograft fetus. GdA secretion onsets few days after ovulation. In the absence of fertilization, GdA levels drop, but subsequent to a successful fertilization, the concentrations peak till the 12th week of pregnancy and fall steadily to low levels. The...
Cancer has become a major health problem due to its high rate of morbidity and mortality. Severe side effects associated with most of the available anticancer drugs and the development of the drug resistant cells are the major hurdles limiting their application and therapeutic success. Much attention has thus been focused on natural compounds with minimal or no toxicity in humans and having capacity to suppress proliferation and/or induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, it is imperative to discover and develop new anticancer drugs. Endophytic fungi though underexploited have remained a rich source of structurally novel and biologically active secondary...
Ghodke, Indrajeet Laxman
In eukaryotes, the repair of DSBs is accomplished through two broadly defined processes: Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) and Homologous Recombination (HR). The central step of HR is pairing and exchange of strands between two homologous DNA molecules, which is catalyzed by the conserved Rad51/RecA family of proteins. Prior to this step, an essential step in all HR pathways i.e. 5'→3' resection of broken DNA ends to generate 3' single stranded DNA tails. At the molecular level, initiation of DNA end resection is accomplished through the concerted action of MRX complex (Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2) and Sae2 protein.
To elucidate the molecular...
Wani, Saima Masood
Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) proteins are a highly conserved class of proteins required for the maintenance of genome stability and regulate nearly all aspects of chromosome biology. Eukaryotes, such as the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have six Smc proteins that form three SMC complexes in association with non-SMC proteins, i.e., the cohesin complex, the condensin complex and the Smc5/6 complex. The yeast Smc5/6 complex consists of Smc5, Smc6 and six non-Smc elements (Nse1-6) that are all essential for the survival of cells.
Nse1 is the first non-smcelement that was identified associated with the Smc5/6 complex. Nse1 has a C-terminal...
Malaria accounts for 198 million cases worldwide; with a high mortality rate. 584000 deaths were reported in 2013. Malaria is a re-emerging disease globally due to drug resistance, parasite recrudescence and non-availability of a vaccine. Chloroquine, quinine and antifolates served as frontline antimalarial drugs for decades. Development of resistance to chloroquine and antifolates, and the decreased efficacy of mefloquine, and even quinine, in malaria-endemic regions, has led to artemisinin derivatives evolving as frontline drugs. Artemisinin is a potent antimalarial compound and clears around 104 parasites per cycle. Despite being a potent antimalarial, artemisinin derivatives suffer from poor pharmacokinetic properties and...
Valayil, Jinu Mathew
Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of cancer has been unraveled to a great extend, cancer continues to remain a leading cause of death around the world. Clinical efficacy of the existing anticancer drugs are largely compromised by the inherent and acquired resistance of cancer cell types and the severe side effects evoked by chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, the search for novel anticancer drugs with minimum side effects remains an active area of cancer research.
Although molecular targeted drugs are preferred over the conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, the screening of natural compounds with cytotoxic potentialities continues as they can serve...
Thakur, Roshan Singh
Tuberculosis, caused by the infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis remained as a major global health challenge with one third of world population being infected by this pathogen.
M. tuberculosis can persist for decades in infected individuals in the latent state as an asymptomatic disease and can emerge to cause active disease at a later stage. Thus, pathways and the mechanisms that are involved in the maintenance of genome integrity appear to be important for M. tuberculosis survival, persistence and pathogenesis. Helicases are ubiquitous enzymes known to play a key role in DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, role of helicases in...
Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R
H. pylori has a panmictic population structure due to high genetic diversity. The homoplasy
index for H. pylori is 0.85 (where 0 represents a completely clonal organism and 1.0 indicates
a freely recombining organism) which is much higher than homoplasy index for E. coli (0.26) or naturally competent Neisseria meningitides (0.34). It undergoes both inter as well as intra strain transformation. Intergenomic recombination is subject to strain specific restriction in H. pylori. Hence, a high homoplasy index means that competence predominates over restriction in H. pylori. Annotation of the genomes of H. pylori strains 26695 and J99 show
the presence of nearly two...
Mitochondrion is an endosymbiotic organelle synthesizing ~1% of its proteome, while remaining ~99% of the proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and translated on the cytosolic ribosome. Therefore active mitochondrial biogenesis requires efficient protein transport destined for the different sub-compartments. Mitochondrion contains specialized translocation machineries in the outer and in the inner membrane known as TOM40 and TIM23-complex respectively. Import of a majority of mitochondrial proteome is mediated by inner membrane presequence translocase (TIM23 complex). However, the structural organization of Tim23-complex and mechanisms of mitochondrial inner membrane protein translocation is still elusive. Therefore, the present thesis addresses above elusive...
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes viral encephalitis in new born and young adults that is prevalent in different parts of India and other parts of South East Asia with an estimated 6000 deaths per year. JEV is a single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirusgenus of the family Flaviviridae. It is a neurotropic virus which infects the central nervous system (CNS). The virus follows a zoonotic life-cycle involving mosquitoes and vertebrates, chiefly pigs and ardeid birds, as amplifying hosts. Humans are dead end hosts. After entry into the host following a mosquito bite, JEV infection leads to acute...
The present thesis focuses on the elucidation of human mitochondrial inner membrane presequence-translocation machinery with implications on cancer cell proliferation. Mitochondria are the endosymbiotic organelles in an eukaryotic cell performing a vast repertoire of functions and require approximately 1500 proteins. However, the mitochondria genome contains only 13 protein-coding genes primarily transcribing the complexes of the electron transport chain. Therefore, it is evident that most of the mitochondrial proteome is encoded by the nucleus and synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes.
Chapter 1: Mechanism of mitochondrial inner membrane protein translocation and its oncogenic connection. Mitochondria consist of different routes of directing proteins to...
Chandrasekar, Bhagawat S
Interferons are known cytokines that display antiviral, anti-proliferative and immuno-modulatory functions in the host. Interferon-gamma (Ifnγ) is the only type II family interferon that binds to the heterodimeric receptor consisting of two subunits, IfnγR1 and IfnγR2. This specific interaction between Ifnγ and its receptor triggers the activation of Janus Kinase (Jak) – Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat) pathway. This triggers a cascade of events leading to modulation of a wide variety of genes resulting in a plethora of responses including antimicrobial activities, induction of Major Histocompatibility Complex encoded molecules etc. The impact of Ifnγ in regulating host defense...
Sapa, Hima Rani
Lipids are stored in a cell for providing energy. The main advantages of storing lipids over carbohydrates like glycogen is that, lipids yield more energy after oxidation because they represent the highly reduced form of carbon, needs less space and water for storage. Conservation of chemical energy in the form of biologically inert form is by storing molecules like triacylglycerol (TAG) and Steryl esters (SE). Triacylglycerol is the major storage form of energy in all eukaryotic cells. During the periods of nutritional excess and nutritional stress, all organisms like bacteria, yeast, animals, and plants can able to do the critical...
Kumar, Tadi Satish
Maintenance of genomic integrity and stability is of prime importance for the survival of an organism. Upon exposure to different damaging agents, DNA acquires various lesions such as base modifications, single-strand breaks (SSBs), and double-strand breaks (DSBs). Organisms have evolved specific repair pathways in order to efficiently correct such DNA damages. Among various types of DNA damages, DSBs are the most serious when present inside cells. Unrepaired or misrepaired DSBs account for some of the genetic instabilities that lead to secondary chromosomal rearrangements, such as deletions, inversions, and translocations and consequently to cancer predisposition. Nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) is...
Goswami, Arvind Vittal
My research focuses on understanding the importance of human mitochondrial Hsp70 (Grp75) chaperone machinery for the maintenance of protein quality control inside the mitochondrial matrix. The investigations carried out during this study have been addressed towards gaining better insights into the working of Grp75 chaperone folding machinery in association with its diverse set of co-chaperones residing in human mitochondria. Additionally, the research also focuses on explaining the various modes of Grp75 participation leading to multiple disease conditions. The thesis has been divided into the following sections as follows:
Chapter I: An introduction to the mitochondrial import machinery and role of...
Singh, Piyush Kumar
Morbilliviruses belong to the family Paramyxoviridae of the Mononegavirale order of viruses. The Mononegavirale order contains viruses which contain negatively-polar, non-segmented and single stranded RNA genomes. This order contains some of most lethal pathogens known to the humankind. Ebola virus and Marburg virus are perhaps the most lethal human pathogens. Rinderpest virus, declared eradicated in 2011, was known to be the most significant cattle killer. Similarly the Canine distemper virus and Rabies virus, two topmost canine pathogens belong to this order.
The L protein in the viruses of Morbillivirus genus harbours the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that replicates and transcribes...
1) Geminiviruses are a group of plant viruses which contain circular single stranded DNA molecules as their genomes and the capsid consists of two icosahedra fused together to form twinned or geminate particles. The largest genus in the family Geminiviridae is that of begomoviruses which are of two kinds; the monopartite begomoviruses which contain only one circular single stranded DNA molecule as their genome and the bipartite begomoviruses which contain two circular single stranded DNA molecules (designated DNA-A and DNA-B) as their genomes. In bipartite viruses, the two DNA molecules are enclosed in separate geminate capsids.
2) In bipartite begomoviruses,...