Dixit, Ajay Kumar
In plants, calcium is a ubiquitous signaling molecule and changes in cytosolic calcium levels reported in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses like salt stress, drought, pathogen attack and phytohormone signaling. Any calcium- mediated signal transduction process involves the establishment of a signal-specific change in the cytosolic calcium concentration termed as ‗calcium signature‘ which is decoded by the specific group of proteins called ‗calcium sensors‘ (eg: Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca2+ - regulated kinases).
Plants have a novel group of kinases designated as Ca2+- dependent protein kinases (CDPK; EC 126.96.36.199). CDPKs are biochemically distinct from other Ca2+- dependent kinases, such...
Nallani, Vijay Kumar
Pichia pastoris, a methylotrophic yeast is widely used for recombinant protein production. It has a well characterized methanol utilization (MUT) pathway, the enzymes of which are induced when cells are cultured in the presence of methanol. In this study, we have identified an unannotated zinc finger protein, which was subsequently named ROP (repressor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK) and characterized its function. ROP expression is induced in P. pastoris cells cultured in biotin depleted glucose ammonium medium as well as a medium containing methanol as the sole source of carbon. In glucose-abundant, biotin depleted cultures, ROP induces the expression of a...
Rupwate, Sunny Dinkar
Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is involved in Ca2+ mediated signalling events that lead to altered cellular status. PLC activation causes hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and generates two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol. Each has distinct role in depending on the cell type in mammalian cells, IP3 binds to intracellular receptors, stimulating the release of sequestered Ca2+. DAG remains in the membrane, where it can activate members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family. In plant absence of PKC keeps the question open as to what is the role of DAG in plants. The role of IP3 apart...
Type II Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs), commonly known as A/B toxins are heterodimers comprising of a catalytically active A chain, an RNA N-glycosidase which inhibits protein synthesis and a lectin-like B chain required for the binding of the toxin to the cell surface and internalization of the same. Abrin is a type II RIP obtained from the mature seeds of Abrus precatorius plant that is extremely toxic and has been shown to be 75 times more potent than its well studied sister toxin, ricin. The LD50 dose for abrin is only 2.8 µg/kg body weight of mice and its potential...
T lymphocytes are an essential component of the adaptive immune response and are highly versatile in function. Each T cell has a unique T cell receptor that can recognize an antigenic peptide in the context of the major his to compatibility complex (MHC) encoded molecules, thus offering a high degree of specificity to the immune response. T cells play a central role in the development of an effective host immune response and the quantitative and qualitative regulation of the T cell response is critical. T cells develop in the thymus, an important primary immune organ, where immature thymocytes undergo differentiation...
In the present thesis, two positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses have been used as models to understand the structure and function of viral-encoded proteins. One of them, Pepper Vein Banding Virus (PVBV; genus Potyvirus; family Potyviridae) is a flexuous, rod-shaped virus that encodes for a polyprotein of size ~340 kDa. The polyprotein undergoes proteolytic processing by viral-encoded proteases, of which Nuclear Inclusion-a Protease (NIa-Pro) is the major protease. It is a serine-like cysteine protease which cleaves between a Q/A or Q/S, present in the context of the heptapeptide recognition sequence. The temporal regulation of intermediates and mature proteins released by...
The ability of our immune system to mount a response against non-self-antigens legitimates the semi-allogenic fetus as a target for maternal immune attack. Yet, in a normal pregnancy the fetus stays well protected due to the concerted action of several diverse mechanisms which either suppress the fetal allogenicity or spatio-temporally inhibit maternal immune cells’ growth and functions.
One such factor which aids in the establishment, progression and maintenance of pregnancy is the 28 kDa dimeric sialylated glycoprotein Glycodelin-A (GdA). Synthesized by the endometrium and decidua, this protein has myriad functions, the most important being that of immunosuppression. GdA is inhibitory...
Enzyme DNA methylation is an important biochemical process that imprints DNA with additional information. DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltraferases (MTases). Prokaryotic DNA MTases are usually components of restriction-modification(R-M) systems that enable cells to resist propagation of foreign genomes that would otherwise kill them. Based on the position methyl group transfer on the bases in DNA, MTases are classified into two groups-exocyclic or amino MTases and endocyclic or ring MTases. The amino MTases methylate exocyclic amino nitrogen to form either N6-methyladenine or n4-methycytosine. N6-methyaladenine is mostly found in the genomes of bacteria, archaea protists and fungi.
Swayam Prabha, *
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a highly conserved pathway involved in repair of a wide variety of structurally unrelated DNA lesions. One of the well characterized NER systems is from E. coli which involves UvrABC nucleases. NER consists of two related sub-pathways: global genomic repair (GGR), which removes lesions from the overall genome, and transcription coupled repair (TCR), which removes lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. Bulky DNA lesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine photodimers (CPD) induced by UV irradiation block RNA polymerase (RNAP) during transcription. In bacteria, a gene product of mfd called transcription repair coupling factor...
The cytosolic protein degradation pathway, performed by ATP-dependent proteases and ATP-independent peptidases, plays important roles in several cellular activities, e.g. cell division, cell cycle progression, intracellular signaling, MHC class I antigen presentation, host-pathogen interactions, etc. The roles of ATP-dependent proteases during stress and infection have been studied in great detail but the functional roles of ATP-independent peptidases are not clearly understood. In this study, the functional roles of E. coli or S. typhimurium encoded Peptidase N (PepN), an ATP-independent enzyme belonging to theM1 family of metallopeptidases, were investigated. The thesis will address four different aspects.
(i) In the first part,...
Haematological cancers like leukemia and lymphoma are characterized by genetic abnormalities, specifically chromosomal translocations. Analyses of the translocation breakpoint regions in patients have shown that some loci in the genome are more susceptible to breakage than others. However, very little is known about the mechanism of generation of many such chromosomal translocations. In the present study, we have attempted to understand the mechanism of fragility of three regions, which are prone to breaks during translocations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and T-cell leukemia. The t(14;18) translocation in FL is one of the most common chromosomal translocations. Most breaks on chromosome 18...
Vaze, Moreshwar Bhanudas
Naik, Abani Kanta
Recombination Activating Genes (RAGs) orchestrate the process called V (D) J recombination, which enables the vertebrate adaptive immune system to specifically recognize millions of antigens. During this recombination process, V (variable), D (diversity) and J (joining) gene segments of antibody (B cell receptor) and TCR (T cell receptor) join by different possible combinations to generate antigen receptor diversity. This unique site specific recombination process is actuated by lymphoid specific proteins called RAG1 and RAG2 (RAGs or RAG complex). RAGs recognize a conserved sequence motif flanking the above subexons called Recombination Signal Sequence (RSS). There are two types of RSS known...
Chaudhary, Awanish Kumar
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most genetically diverse bacterial species that successfully colonizes at least 50% of the world population. It has been associated with humans for thousands of years and most probably evolved from ancestral gastric Helicobacter species in early mammals. One of the important characteristics of this pathogen is the degree of allelic diversity and genetic variability which helps it to adapt and colonize. Phase variation is one of the mechanisms used by H. pylori to generate variation. The presence of homopolymeric nucleotide or dinucleotide repeats in an ORF make it prone to frequent length changes as...
Bhate, Monali M
Adenosine 5’ triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule central to life for its role as the
cellular energy currency, and a purine nucleotide which serves as a building block of RNA. Thus, on the backdrop of an indispensible intracellular role of ATP, its identification as an extracellular signaling molecule in early 1970s came as a surprise. A novel doctrine, termed as ‘purinergic signaling’, was thus put forth. By definition, purinergic signaling consists of
the signaling events triggered by binding of extracellular ATP- a purine nucleotide, and its breakdown products (viz., ADP, AMP, and adenosine) to their cognate receptors, which in turn are termed...
Chakravarthi, B V S K
Taxol (generic name paclitaxel), a plant‐derived antineoplastic agent, was
originally isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia. Obtaining
taxol from this source requires destruction of trees. It has been used alone or in
combination with other chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of breast,
ovarian as well as many other types of cancer, including non‐small cell lung
carcinoma, prostate, head and neck cancer, and lymphoma, as well as AIDSrelated
Kaposi’s sarcoma. The mode of action of taxol against a number of human cancer cells is by preventing the depolymerization of tubulin during cell division. This molecule increases microtubule stability in the cell and induces...
Khanduja, Jasbeer Singh
Homologous recombination (HR) is a highly conserved cellular process involved in the
maintenance of chromosomal integrity and generation of genetic diversity. Biochemical and genetic studies have suggested that HR is crucial for repair of damaged DNA arising from various endogenous or exogenous assaults on the genome of any organism. Further, HR is vital to repair fatal DNA damage during DNA replication. An instructive example of cross-talk between the processes of DNA recombination and replication can be construed in the processing of replication/recombination/repair intermediates. The impediment(s) to the progression of DNA replication fork is one of the underlying causes for increased genome...