Research activities towards the self-assembly of small organic molecules building blocks which lead to form supramolecular gel has increased extensively during the past two decades. The fundamental investigations of the morphological properties and the mechanical properties of these supramolecular gels are crucial for understanding gelation processes. Most supramolecular gelators were discovered by serendipity, but nowadays ratiional design of new gelators has become somewh at feasible. As a consequence, an increasing number of multi stimuli-responsive and functional molecular gels are reported, offering great prospects with myriads of applications includ ing drug delivery and smart materials as shown in scheme 1.
The thesis entitled “Design and Development of Metal-Free Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reactions for the construction of C-S, C-O and C-C bonds” is divided into three Chapters. Chapter 1 is presented in five parts, which reveals the cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) strategies for the C–S bond forming reactions through C–H functionalization strategy using heterocyclic thiols and thiones. Chapter 2 presents tetrabutyl ammonium iodide (TBAI) catalyzed chemoselective α-aminoxylation of ketones with N-hydroxyimidates using TBHP as oxidant under cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) strategy. Chapter 3 describes a transition metal-free Minisci reaction for the acylation of isoquinolines, quinolines, and quinoxaline.
Manna, Madhu Sudan
The thesis entitled “Controlling Stereochemistry at the Quaternary Center Using Bifunctional (Thio)urea Catalysis” is divided into five chapters.
Chapter 1: Catalytic Enantioselective Construction of Quaternary Stereocenters through Direct Vinylogous Michael Addition of Deconjugated Butenolides to Nitroolefins
The direct use of deconjugated butenolides in asymmetric C–C bond forming reaction is a powerful but challenging task because of the additional problem of regioselectivity along with the issues of diastereo- and enantioselectivity. In this chapter, a direct asymmetric vinylogous Michael addition of deconjugated butenolides to nitroolefins has been demonstrated for the construction of quaternary stereocenter at the γ-position of butenolides. A novel thiourea-based...
Dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules with branches-upon-branches structures, nanoscale dimensions and a high density of surface groups. Presence of multiple cationic sites in dendrimers permits their efficient nucleic acid complexation and cellular internalization through endocytic pathways. PETIM dendrimers of are characterized by tertiary amine branch points, and ether linkages. A third generation PETIM dendrimer, G3(NH2)24, with nitrogen at the core and twenty four peripheral primary amines was synthesized through alternate Michael addition and reduction reactions. The ability of G3(NH2)24 to interact with DNA was ascertained by spectroscopic and bio-physical techniques. These studies established the formation of dendrimer-DNA, and complex formation was...
The thesis entitled “Evolution of New Lipids and Molecular Gelators: Syntheses,
Aggregation Properties and Applications” elucidates the design, synthesis, aggregation properties and application of new lipids based on α-tocopheryl backbone and also with triazacyclononane (TACN) moiety. This thesis also elucidates the synthesis and aggregation properties of molecular gelators based on pyrene-pentapeptide and naphthalene diimide (NDI) moiety. The work has been divided into five chapters.
Chapter 1: Introduction: Self-assembled Molecular Aggregates and their Potential
This chapter describes the importance of different self-assemble mainly lipids and molecular gelator. Lipids mediated gene delivery, drug delivery and metal ion induced interaction are discussed....
The thesis entitled “New DNA-Targeting Small Molecules as Potential Anticancer Agents and for in vivo Specificity toward Enhanced Silk Production” encompasses design, computational calculations, and syntheses of diverse small molecular scaffolds to explicitly target duplex and higher order DNA morphologies (G-quadruplex DNA). Some of these molecules have a potential as anticancer agents. Besides, an attempt has been made elucidate the importance of novel oligopyrrole carboxamides in the enhancement of silk yield, hence proving to a boon in the field of sericulture. The work has been divided into six chapters.
Chapter 1. DNA Binding Small Molecules as Anticancer Agents
Rokade, Balaji Vasantrao
The thesis entitled “Copper-Catalyzed Novel Oxidative Transformations: Construction of Carbon-Hetero Bonds” is divided into two main sections. Section A deals with the utility of azide as a nitrogen source for C-N bond formation, which is further divided into 4 chapters, and section B presents decarboxylative radical coupling reaction for C-heteroatom bond formation which is further divided in to two chapters.
Chapter 1 describes an approach for the direct synthesis of nitrile from the corresponding alcohols using azide as a nitrogen source. Nitrile functionality is a versatile and ubiquitous which occurs in a variety of natural products. Nitrile functionality can be easily transformed into...
Bisacetylenic cabamates/carbonates are most useful compounds in finger mark development, for the synthesis of polymeric gels and other material applications. Organochalogen derivatives are the organic compounds containing chalcogen (S, Se) atoms. They have been used as chiral ligands for enatioselective catalysis, glycosyl donors and in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds etc. This thesis describes our efforts towards synthesis of bisacetylenic cabamates/carbonates and development new synthetic strategies using rongalite (Na+HOCH2SO2-) and benzyltriethyl ammonium tetrathiomolybate [BnEt3N]2MoS4 as a reducing agents led to obtain various organochalcogen derivatives.
We developed a new reagent, hexa-2,4-diyne-1,6-bisoxycarbonyl chloride [Hbc Cl] for the synthesis of symmetrical diacetylenic biscarbamates/biscarbonates...
This thesis entitled “Organic Transformations in Water: Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies towards Green Methodologies” is in two parts. Part-I describes various synthetic studies aimed at developing improved methodologies; Part-II describes certain mechanistic studies directed towards an improved understanding of phase transfer catalysis and the hydrophobic effect.
Water is uniquely advantageous as a solvent. It is environmentally benign, non-flammable, liquid over a wide temperature range and possesses a high heat capacity that makes it inherently safe. Water also catalyses chemical transformations between insoluble organic reactants. Water thus serves as a reaction medium, a product partitioner and a reaction catalyst.1
Chapter 1: Functional and Responsive Supramolecular Gels
In this chapter ‘supramolecular gels’ derived from small organic molecules with molecular mass of typically less than 2000 daltons are discussed. Representative examples of various low molecular weight gelators based on their natural availability and also divergent functionalities are mentioned (Scheme 1).
Advances in the recent years have been very rapid in the field of supramolecular chemistry of gels giving rise to ‘Tunable responsive gels’. Control of the gel property in a reversible fashion has been the highlight of responsive gels. A few of the gels which are responsive towards various...
Section I of the thesis deals with the enantiospecific total synthesis of phomopsolide
B. Phomopsolide B was isolated from a strain of Phomopsis Oblonga. Enantiospecific total
synthesis of phomopsolide B was accomplished in 13 overall yield in 12 linear steps using (S)-lactic acid and L-tartaric acid as chiral pool precursors. Present approach involves the efficient use of -keto phosphonate derived from commercially available (S)-ethyl lactate.
Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction and Still-Gennari olefination were employed as key
reactions in the synthesis (scheme 1).
Scheme 1: Total synthesis of phomopsolide B.
[This work has been published: Prasad, K. R.; Gutala, P. Tetrahedron 2012, 68, 7489-7493.]
Section II of the thesis...
Chapter 1: Introduction to the luminescent properties of lanthanides Luminescence properties of trivalent lanthanides have been explored extensively over the past few decades owing to their unique properties. Lanthanides emission is known to be due to intra-configurational f-f transitions. Because the partially filled 4f shell is well shielded from its 26 environment by the closed 5sand 5pshells, the ligands in the first and second coordination sphere perturb the electronic configurations of the trivalent lanthanide ions only to a very limited extent. This leads to interesting properties such as long lifetimes, sharp line-like emissions etc. which in turn make lanthanides very...
The thesis entitled “Studies on the Ring-opening Reactions of Vinylcyclopropanes, Vinylcyclobutanes, and other Small-ring Systems” is divided into four chapters.
Chapter 1: Part A: Bromenium Catalyzed Tandem Ring-opening/Cyclization of Vinylcyclopropanes and Vinylcyclobutanes: A [3+2+1]/[4+2+1] Cascade for the Synthesis of Chiral Amidines.
In this part of the Chapter, we discuss our serendipitous results in the reaction of vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs), like Δ2-carene under Sharpless aziridination conditions using chloramine-T and phenyltrimethylammonium tribromide (PTAB) as catalyst in acetonitrile. The reaction follows a [3+2+1] cascade pathway involving acetonitrile (Ritter-type reaction) to give chiral bicyclic amidines in very good yield. The reaction was found to be...
Glycosidases are carbohydrate processing essential enzymes necessary for the growth and development of all organisms such as intestinal digestion, post-translational processing of glycoproteins and the lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates. The function of these glycosidases is limited and studies are still in progress to understand their function at cellular level. In recent years, biological role of carbohydrates has resulted in various carbohydrate-based therapeutics2. These carbohydrates serve as a tool to study the function of glycosidases by inhibiting their active site. The concept of inhibition is yet another approach for the discovery of drugs.
Glycosidase inhibitors studied are often sugar analogs and...
Janardhan, Ghodke Neetu
Employing a chiral pool strategy, enantiospecific syntheses of di- and triquinanes have been accomplished. α-Campholenaldehyde 95, readily available from the abundantly available monoterpene α-pinene 94, has been utilised as the chiral starting material.
To begin with, enantiospecific synthesis of the diquinane 134 has been developed employing Nazarov cyclisation of the cross-conjugated dienone 132 as the key reaction (Scheme 37).71 Synthesis of the dienone 132 was accomplished by selenium dioxide mediated oxidation of the olefinic methyl group in α-campholenyl methyl ether 130, followed by further elaboration of the resultant aldehyde 131.
OMe P2O5 MsOH
The Nazarov cyclisation strategy has been further extended,...
Pathogenesis originating from mycobacterial invasion on host cells is prevalent and is a major challenge in efforts towards overcoming the burden of mycobacterial diseases. Complex architecture of mycobacterium cell wall includes an assortment of glycolipids, phospholipids, glycopeptidolipids (GPLs), peptidoglycans, arabinogalactans, lipoarabinomannans and mycolic acid. Aided by thick cell wall envelope, mycobacteria are known to survive in hostile environment. As most antibiotics target the log phase of the bacteria, bacterial survival is also largely dependent on its stationary phase. Mycobacteria have evolved colonization by means of biofilm formation in the stationary phase, so as to survive under stress and hostile conditions....
Balaji, Pandur Venkatesan
The thesis entitled “Studies on the Stereoselective Geminal and Vicinal Heterodifunctionalization of Alkenes” consists of three chapters.
Chapter 1: Part A: Bromonium Ion Mediated Stereoselective Geminal Aminooxygenation of Vinylarenes
In this part (part-A) of Chapter 1, the development and mechanistic studies of the first method for the non-Wacker intermolecular geminal aminooxygenation of vinylarenes (styrenes) has been presented (Scheme 1). Sheme 1
The role of the substituent on controlling the competitive vicinal and geminal addition pathways has been studied. It was found that the unsubstituted amino alcohol takes both the vicinal addition pathways, whereas, the introduction of substituent on the aminoalcohols...
Murthy, Bandaru Narasimha
Carbohydrate-protein interactions are responsible for several biological functions. While these interactions maintain high levels of specificities, the binding strength of individual carbohydrate-protein recognitions are weak, with dissociation constants (Kd) ~10-3-10-6 M. In order to increase the binding strengths meaningful to physiological functions, multivalent, clustered patches of carbohydrate ligands are required. Synthetic glycoclusters contribute in a significant manner to understand the fine details of the weak carbohydrate-protein interactions. The extent of clustering of the ligands, spatial, topological orientations and the nature of the scaffolds are prominent issues to address the carbohydrate-protein interactions in general. Chapter 1 of the Thesis presents a...
The thesis entitled “Regioselective Functionalization of Indoles using Directing Group Strategy: An Efficient Transition Metal Catalysis” is divided into two sections. Section A, which is presented in three chapters, describes the regioselective alkenylation of indoles using directing group strategy. Whereas, Section B, which is divided in to two chapters, narrates the synthesis of 4-amino indoles using directing group strategy and site selective addition of maleimide to indole at C2-position.
Chapter 1. C2-Alkenylation of indoles
The indole ring system is one of the most abundant heterocycles present in nature. The synthesis and functionalization of indoles is one of the...