Fretting is a serious concern in many industrial components, specifically, in nuclear industry for the safe and reliable operation of the component/system. Till date, a lot of efforts has already been made to understand the basic mechanics and mechanism involved in fretting, but still limited understanding on the following domains exists,
(i) No standard experimental set up and procedures exists which could quantify the entire fretting domain.
(ii) Limited data available for the designer under controlled environment conditions.
(iii) Limited work in correlating fretting damage with the mechanical responses, specifically, for the materials with good adhesion properties.
(iv) Limited work...
Magnesium alloys, owing to their low density and high specific strength, are potential candidates for structural applications in automotive and aerospace industry. While considerable research effort has been devoted in recent years to understand deformation twinning in these alloys and Mg single crystals, only few studies have been conducted on their fracture behavior. This issue assumes importance since some investigations have shown that Mg alloys may possess low fracture toughness (less than Al alloys). Therefore, a combined experimental and numerical study of fracture in Mg single crystals under mode-I loading is performed in this work.
The fracture experiments are conducted...
Vilas, Chanekar Prasad
The well known synthesis problem of obtaining dimensions of a four-link mechanism such that a point on the coupler link traces a desired path has been extensively studied. There are two types of path generation–path specified by a finite number of precision points where the prescribed points must be exactly traced, and continuous path generation where the path is approximately traced by the coupler point. In various application, more than one or multiple paths are required to be traced by the coupler point and in such cases, adjustable four-link mechanisms where one of the dimension or parameters of the mechanism...
Droplets as precursor are extensively applied in diverse fields of science and engineering. Various contributions are provided previously towards analysis of single phase and multi-phase droplets of single and multiple components.
This thesis describes modelling of multi-phase (nano fluid) droplet vaporization. The
evaporation of liquid phase along with migration of dispersed particles in two-dimensional plane within droplet is detailed using the governing transport equations
along with the appropriate boundary and interface conditions.
The evaporation model is incorporated with aggregate kinetics to study agglomeration
among nano silica particles in base water. Agglomeration model based on population
balance approach is used to track down the aggregation kinetics of...
Kini, Anoop Raghunath
The mechanical properties achieved with high performance wrought aluminium alloys are
superior to cast aluminum alloys. To obtain an intricate shaped component, wrought alloys are commonly subjected to forging followed by subsequent machining operation in the automobile industry. As machining of such high strength wrought aluminium alloys adds to cost, productivity gets affected.
Shortening the process by near net shaped casting would tremendously enhance productivity. However, casting of such alloys frequently encounter hot tear defect. Therefore, circumventing hot tear to
successfully die cast near net shaped wrought alloy components is industrially relevant. A recent advanced casting process, namely ‘Semisolid Die casting’, is proposed...
A pragmatic method for designing compliant mechanisms is developed in this thesis, by selecting among existing mechanisms one that may be modified as required. This method complements existing techniques by answering questions of the existence and multiplicity of solutions for the given specifications of a practical problem. The premise for the method is a 2D map that juxta- poses the problem-specifications and the characteristics of compliant mechanisms in a database. The selection of the most suitable mechanisms is similar to Ashby's method of material selection. In our method, stuffiness, inertia, and the inherent kinematic characteristics of compliant mechanisms are analogous...
In a nuclear fuel cask, the heat generating spent fuel rods are packed in a housing and the resulting bundle is placed inside a cask of thick outer shell made of materials like lead or concrete. The cask presents a wide variation in geometrical dimensions ranging from the diameter of the rods to the diameter of the cask. To make the problem tractable, first the heat generating rod bundle alone is considered for analysis and the effective thermal conductance of the bundle is correlated in terms of the relevant parameters. In the second part, the bundle is represented as a...
This thesis addresses the problem of registering one point set with respect to
another. This problem arises in the context of the use of CMM/Scanners to inspect
objects especially with freeform surfaces. The tolerance verification process now
requires the comparison of measured points with the nominal geometry. This entails placement of the measured point set in the same reference frame as the nominal model. This problem is referred to as the registration or localization problem. In the most general form the tolerance verification task involves registering multiple point sets corresponding to multi-step scan of an object with respect to the nominal CAD model....
Vijay Kumar, V
A high resolution spectrally accurate three-dimensional flow solver is developed in order to simulate convection dominated fluid flows. The governing incompressible Navier Stokes equations along with the energy equation for temperature are discretized using a second-order accurate projection method which utilizes Adams Bashforth and Backward Differentiation formula for temporal discretization of the non-linear convective and linear viscous terms, respectively. Spatial discretization is performed using a Fourier/Chebyshev spectral method. Extensive tests on three-dimensional Taylor Couette flow are performed and it is shown that the method successfully captures the different states ranging from formation of Taylor vortices to wavy vortex regime. Next,...
Pathak, Harshavardhana Sunil
An adaptive mesh redistribution method for efficient and accurate simulation of multi dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws is developed. The algorithm consists of two coupled steps; evolution of the governing PDE followed by a redistribution of the computational nodes. The second step, i.e. mesh redistribution is carried out at each time step iteratively with the primary aim of adapting the grid to the computed solution in order to maximize accuracy while minimizing the computational overheads. The governing hyperbolic conservation laws, originally defined on the physical domain, are transformed on to a simplified computational domain where the position of the nodes remains...
Sangamesh Deepak, R
Static balance is the reduction or elimination of the actuating effort in quasi-static motion of a mechanical system by adding non-dissipative force interactions to the system. In recent years, there is increasing recognition that static balancing of elastic forces in compliant mechanisms leads to increased efficiency as well as good force feedback characteristics. The development of insightful and pragmatic design methods for statically balanced compliant mechanisms is the motivation for this work. In our approach, we focus on a class of compliant mechanisms that can be approximated as spring-loaded rigid-link mechanisms. Instead of developing static balancing techniques directly for the...
Varma, Indukuri Harish
Despite many advances in the design methods for compliant mechanisms, it is still not possible to know if a set of user-specifications has a solution. Furthermore, practical considerations such as failure limits and manufacturing limitations cannot be easily incorporated into existing methods. To address these issues, we have recently developed the concept of feasible stiffness and inertia maps. This thesis extends the concept of feasible maps and proposes another kind of maps that comprehensively depict the nonlinear kinetoelastostatic behaviour of compliant mechanisms.
Feasible maps drawn as per user-specifications, with compliant mechanisms of the database overlaid on it, instantly inform the...
Multiphase transport phenomena primarily encompass the fundamental principles and applications concerning the systems where overall dynamics are precept by phase change evolution. On the other hand, multiscale transport phenomena essentially corroborate to a domain where the transport characteristics often contain components at disparate scales. Relevant examples as appropriate to multiphase and multiscale thermofluidic transport phenomena comprise solid-liquid phase change during conventional solidification process and hydrodynamics through narrow confinements. The additional effect of superimposed magnetic field over such multiphase and multiscale systems may give rise to intriguing transport characteristics, significantly unique in nature as compared to flows without it.
With the advent of micro and nano electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), there has been rapid development in the design and fabrication of sensitive resonant sensors. Sensitivity of such devices depends on the resonant frequency and the quality factor (Q). The Q of these devices are dependent on process induced prestress in the structural geometry, interaction with the external environment, and the encapsulation method. For high frequency sensors operating in air and under encapsulation condition, the Q is dominated by structural and fluid-structure interaction losses. In this thesis, we set out to study the dominant energy dissipative mechanisms that are constituent of...
This thesis presents the design and analysis for development of a Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT), a novel sensor and actuator, aimed at replacing the conventional piezoelectric transducers for air-coupled ultrasonic imaging applications. These CMUTs are fabricated using the silicon micromachining technology wherein all fabrication is done on the surface of a silicon wafer by means of thin-film depositions, patterning with photolithography and etching. The main emphasis of this study is on developing analytical models that serve as effective design tools for the development of these devices. A desirable goal of such study is to create reasonable mathematical models, obtain...
Shinde, Sachin Yashavant
In nature, many of the flapping wings and fins in swimming and flying animals have various degrees of flexibility with strong and coupled solid-fluid interactions between the structure and the fluid. In most cases, the wing structure, the flow and their interactions are complex. This thesis experimentally investigates a ‘simple’ fluid-flexible foil interaction problem: flow generated by a pitching foil with chordwise flexibility.
To explore the effect of flexibility on the flow, we study the flow generated in quiescent water (the limiting case of infinite Strouhal number) by a sinusoidally pitching rigid symmetrical NACA0015 foil to which is attached a...
Water droplets tend to bead up on rough or textured hydrophobic surfaces by trapping air on the crevices underneath resulting in “Cassie” state of wetting. When a textured hydrophobic surface is immersed in water, the resulting underwater “Cassie” state can lead to significant drag reduction. The entrapped air pockets act as shear free regions and the composite interface consisting of alternate no slip and no shear regions thus formed can deliver substantial drag reduction during flow. The magnitude of drag reduction depends not only on the fractional coverage of air on the surface, but also on the size of the...
Singh, Jagdish Pratap
Compliant suspensions are often used in micromechanical devices and precision mechanisms as substitutes for kinematic joints. While their small-displacement behavior is easily captured in simple formulae, large-displacement behavior requires nonlinear finite element analysis. In this work, we present a method that helps capture the geometrically nonlinear behavior of compliant suspensions using parameterized non-dimensional maps. The maps are created by performing one nonlinear finite element analysis for any one loading condition for one instance of a suspension of a given topology and fixed proportions. These maps help retrieve behavioral information for any other instance of the same suspension with changed size,...
Malhi, Charanjeet Kaur
MEMS microphones have been a research topic for the last two and half decades. The state-of-the-art comprises surface mount MEMS microphones in laptops, mobile phones and tablets, etc. The popularity and the commercial success of MEMS microphones is largely due to the steep cost reduction in manufacturing afforded by the mass scale production with microfabrication technology. The current MEMS microphones are de-signed along the lines of traditional microphones that use capacitive transduction with or without permanent charge (electret type microphones use permanent charge of their sensor element). These microphones offer high sensitivity, stability and reasonably at frequency response while reducing...
The phenomenon of spray in crossflow is of relevance in gas turbine combustor development. The current work focuses on spray in crossflow rather than liquid jet in crossflow from the standpoint of enhancing fuel dispersion and mixing. Specifically, the first part of the work involves study of spray structure, droplet sizing, and velocimetry for sprays of water and ethanol in a crossflow under ambient conditions. Laser-based diagnostic techniques such as Particle/Droplet Image Analysis (PDIA) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) are utilized. Using spray structure images, trajectory equations are derived by multi-variable regression. It is found that the spray trajectory depends...