Nanoscience dominates almost all areas of science and technology in the 21st century. Nanoparticles are of fundamental interest since they possess unique size dependent properties (optical, electrical, mechanical, chemical, magnetic etc.), which are quite different from the bulk and the atomic state. The research work presented in the thesis is on the preparation, characterization and studies on Ir, Os and graphene oxide-based systems. Interconnected Ir and Os nanochains are prepared under environmentally friendly conditions in aqueous media and subsequently used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scaterring studies and also as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and formaldehyde oxidation. Ir and...
The last two decades have seen extensive growth in interest in metal-ion assemblies, especially for building new polynuclear exchange-coupled magnetic systems. However, the concept of designing polynuclear extended structures has still not matured to the level of retro-synthetic approach developed for the organic and pharmacological molecules. Although some progress has been made with secondary building units (SBUs) in metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs), the control seems to be just an illusion when it comes to bridging ligands such as the azide ion. When it is asserted that the azido ligand is versatile in its bridging capabilities, what is actually meant is that it...
Roy, Raj Kumar
In 1980’s a new class of material named as dendrimer became popular both in the field of polymer science and engineering. Dendrimer is an example of symmetric, highly branched three dimensional globular nano-object. It possess several interesting physical and chemical properties like low solution and melt-viscosity, lower intermolecular chain entanglement, large number of end groups placed at the molecular periphery, relatively high solubility with respect to their linear counterpart. In order to get this perfectly branched structure, one has to go through the tedious multistep synthetic approach, repetitive chromatographic purification and protection-deprotection strategies in every step; all of which limits...
Bar, Arun Kumar
Self–assembly has long been attracting chemists’ attention because it can yield fascinating supramolecular architectures in a single step. More precisely, metal–ligand coordination–driven self–assembly has stood out as an efficient methodology in this paradigm due to simple design principle and high predictability of the final molecular architectures. Moreover, one can envisage hierarchical nanoscopic molecular architectures with a vast range of size, shape and functionality via this methodology.
Two–component self–assembly (involving one type of donor and one type of acceptor) is relatively easy to monitor and a widely used protocol. Whereas, multicomponent self–assembly (involving more than one types of donors/or acceptors) is...
Hari Krishna Reddy, Kurre
This thesis entitled “Electronic Structure and Bonding in Metallaboranes and Main Group Compounds” consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 gives an exposition of concepts and techniques used in understanding the electronic structure and bonding in some chemically interesting molecules. Heuristics concepts like isolobal analogy and electron counting rules are used in analyzing and predicting some novel chemical systems. A brief description of computational techniques such as density functional theory (DFT) based methods are used to quantitatively examine the structures and energies of these systems. In chapter 2 we present a critical analysis of bonding in neutral and dianionic stannadiphospholes and...
Goswami, Tridib Kumar
The present thesis deals with different aspects of the chemistry and photo-biology of various ferrocene-conjugated metal complexes, their interaction with double helical DNA, DNA photocleavage and photo-enhanced cytotoxicity in visible light. Phenyl analogues of the active complexes have been synthesized and used for comparison in biological assays.
Chapter I provides an introduction to the potential of metal complexes as photochemotherapeutic agents with special reference to organometallic compounds. A brief overview of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) as a new modality of cancer treatment has been given. Various modes of non-covalent interactions of small molecules with duplex DNA are mentioned. Recent reports on...
Adithya Lakshmanna, Y
Raman spectroscopy involves change in the polarizability of the molecular system on excitation and is based on scattering process. Spontaneous Raman scattering is a two photon process, in which the input light initiates the excitation, which then leads to an emission of another photon due to scattering. It is extensively used to understand molecular properties. As spontaneous Raman scattering is a weak process, the detection of these weak Raman photons are rather difficult.
Alternatively, resonance Raman (RR) scattering is another technique where the excitation wavelength is chosen according to the material under study. The excitation wavelength is chosen to be...
Transition metal bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes have been of great interest in the last five decades. One of the most striking features of these complexes is that they possess a wide range of biological properties including antimalarial, antibacterial and anticancer activity. Zinc and copper bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes have recently attracted attention due to their intracellular fluorescence and anticancer activity, respectively. The present work “Targeting Cancer Cells and Live Cell Imaging Using Bis(thiosemicarbazone) Complexes of Copper and Zinc” is an effort to target cancer cells using folic acid or biotin linked anticancer active copper bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes. Interestingly, bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligands form zinc complexes that could...
Over the past few decades, supramolecular self-assembly has become an alternative synthetic tool for constructing targeted discrete molecular architectures. Among various interactions, metal-ligand coordination has attracted great attention owing to high bond enthalpy (15−50 Kcal/mol) and predictable directionality. The basic principle of metal-ligand directed self-assembly relies on the proper designing of information encoded rigid complementary building units (a transition metal based acceptor and a multidentate organic donor) that self-recognize themselves in a chemically reasonable way (depends on their bite angle and symmetry) during self-assembly process. As far as acceptor units are concerned, Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal-based cis-blocked 90° acceptors have...
Contemporary laser research involves the development of spectroscopic techniques to understand the microscopic structural aspects of a simple molecular system in chemical and materials to more complex biological systems such as cells. In particular, Raman spectroscopy, which provides bond specific information, has attracted considerable attention. Further with the advent of femtosecond (fs) laser, the recent trend in the field of fs chemistry is to develop nonlinear Raman techniques that allow one to acquire vibrational structural information with both fs temporal resolution as well as good spectral resolution. Among many advanced nonlinear Raman techniques, the development of fs Stimulated Raman scattering...
This thesis work deals with different aspects of the chemistry of La(III) and Gd(III) complexes, their interaction with DNA and proteins, photo-induced cleavage of double-stranded DNA, photocytotoxic effect on cancer cells, cell death mechanism and cellular localization behaviour.
Chapter I gives an introduction to the metal-based anticancer agents with special emphasis on clinically used drugs and the growing field of lanthanide therapeutics. An overview of the current strategies of cancer treatment, especially photodynamic therapy (PDT), is presented. Mode of small molecule-DNA interactions and the mechanistic aspects associated with DNA photodamage reactions and PDT effect are discussed with selected examples of...
Aiswarya Lakshmi, P
The nature of interactions within a molecule, i.e. chemical bonding, is well understood today. However, our understanding about intermolecular interactions, which has great relevance in nature, is still evolving. Historically there are two types of intermolecular interactions, van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding. However, there has been an upsurge of interest in the halogen bonding and lithium bonding during the last decade. The main emphasis of our research is to understand these interactions in detail, in particular non-conventional hydrogen bond acceptors. In this work, weakly bound complexes are studied using Pulsed Nozzle Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer, which has been...
Under the electric dipole approximation, second harmonic of the incident light is scattered by a collection of randomly oriented molecular dipoles in solution due to instantaneous orientational fluctuation which is directional. If two such dipoles are correlated in space through intermolecular or other interactions, the intensity of the second harmonic scattered light (SHSL) will be related to the extent of such interactions. If two dipoles are arranged in a particular geometry by design, the geometry will determine the intensity of the SHSL. If a molecule has no dipole moment, the intensity of the SHSL will be less and is only...
It has long been recognized that course and efficiency of a chemical reaction is largely mediated by the short-lived transient species (excited state or radicals) which are formed as reactive intermediates during a chemical reaction. Subtle changes not only in the bonding and electronic distributions but also in the conformations and geometries of these intermediates have a dramatic influence on the reactivity. A detailed understanding of the structural and dynamical aspects of electronic excited states is therefore essential towards unraveling photoinduced natural processes and for designing novel photonic materials. Time-resolved techniques have been widely used to study the transient species...
Samuel, Ashok Zachariah
The main focus of the research work presented in the thesis is the understanding of structural and conformational reorganizations in hyperbranched and linear polymers. The thesis includes three different investigations: a) the design, synthesis, conformational reorganizations and self-assembly of hyperbranched polymers (HBPs), b) the Raman spectroscopic studies of the melting of polyethylene glycol (PEG), and c) the preparation of functionalized porous polymer films.
HBPs are structurally imperfect analogues of the defect-free branched polymers called dendrimers. Dendrimers prepared using a stepwise polymerization methodology will carry all the unreacted B groups at the periphery and therefore modification of these peripheral units with...
Swathi, R S
Electronic Excitation Energy Transfer is an important intermolecular photophysical process that can affect the excited state lifetime of a chromophore. A molecule in an electronically excited state can return to the ground state by radiative as well as non-radiative processes. During the excited state lifetime, if the chromophore (energy donor) finds a suitable species (energy acceptor) nearby with resonant energy levels, it can transfer the excitation energy to that species and return to the ground state. This process is called Electronic Excitation Energy Transfer. When the energy donor is fluorescent, the process is called Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) ....
Musthafa, O T Muhammed
Synopsis of the thesis entitled “Titanium Nitride-Based Electrode Materials for Oxidation of Small Molecules: Applications in Electrochemical Energy Systems” submitted by Muhammed Musthafa O. T under the supervision of Prof. S. Sampath at the Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry of the Indian Institute of Science for the Ph.D degree in the faculty of science.
Fuel cells have been the focus of interest for many decades because of the ever increasing demands in energy. Towards this direction, there have been considerable efforts to find efficient electrocatalysts to oxidize small organic molecules (SOMs) such as methanol, ethanol, glycerol, hydrazine and borohydride...
This thesis consists of two parts. The first part deals with the visible emission of ZnO Nanocrystals and its possible application in Resonance Energy Transfer (RET) studies. The second part of the thesis is on the magnetic properties of the layered transition metal Thiophosphates MPS3 (M = Mn, Fe), their solid solutions and intercalation compounds.
Recent advances in semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) as inorganic fluorophores have pioneered a new direction in the fluorescent based techniques to investigate fundamental processes in lifesciences. Their broad absorption spectra with narrow, Size-tunable emissions with high quantum e±ciency and stability under relative harsh environments...
Rajan, T Sushil Kumar