ETD at Indian Institute of Science
Repository of Theses and Dissertations of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The repository has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve research theses of Indian Institute of Science.
Molecular Biophysics Unit (mbu)
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 123
Expanding The Horizon Of Mycobacterial Stress Response : Discovery Of A Second (P)PPGPP Synthetase In Mycobacterium Smegmatis - Murdeshwar, Maya S
The stringent response is a highly conserved physiological response mounted by bacteria under stress (Ojha and Chatterji, 2001; Magnusson et al., 2005; Srivatsan and Wang, 2007; Potrykus and Cashel, 2008). Until recently, the only known players in this pathway were the (p)ppGpp synthesizing and hydrolyzing long RSH enzymes (Mittenhuber, 2001; Atkinson et al., 2011) - RelA and SpoT in Gram negative bacteria and the bifunctional Rel in Gram positive bacteria including mycobacteria. The existence of Short Alarmone Synthetases (SAS) (Lemos et al., 2007, Nanamiya et al., 2008; Das et al., 2009; Atkinson et al., 2011) and Short Alarmone Hydrolases (SAH)...
Probing Macromolecular Reactions At Reduced Dimensionality : Mapping Of Sequence Specific And Non-Specific Protein-Ligand lnteractions - Ganguly, Abantika
During the past decade the effects of macromolecular crowding on reaction pathways is gaining in prominence. The stress is to move out of the realms of ideal solution studies and make conceptual modifications that consider non-ideality as a variable in our calculations. In recent years it has been shown that molecular crowding exerts significant effects on all in vivo processes, from DNA conformational changes, protein folding to DNA-protein interactions, enzyme pathways and signalling pathways. Both thermodynamic as well as kinetic parameters vary by orders of magnitude in uncrowded buffer system as compared to those in the crowded cellular milieu. Ignoring...
Structural Studies On Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate Dependent Enzymes Involved In D-Amino Acid Metabolism And Acid Tolerance Reponse - Bharath, S R
Metabolism of D-amino acids is of considerable interest due to their key importance in cellular functions. The enzymes D-serine dehydratase (DSD) and D-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCyD) are involved in the degradation of D-Ser and D-Cys, respectively. We determined the crystal structure of Salmonella typhimurium DSD (StDSD) by multiple anomalous dispersion method of phasing using selenomethione incorporated protein crystals. The structure revealed a fold typical of fold type II PLP-dependent enzymes. Although holoenzyme was used for crystallization of both wild type StDSD (WtDSD) and selenomethionine labeled StDSD (SeMetDSD), significant electron density was not observed for the co-factor, indicating that the enzyme has...
Designed Synthetic Peptides : Models For Studies Of Conformational Transitions And Aromatic Interactions - Rajagopal, A
This thesis set out to explore the conformational properties of short designed peptide sequences, in which transitions between structural states may be anticipated. The use of conformationally constrained residues like α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and D-proline (DPro) permits the design of model sequences for structural studies. The principle of imposing conformational constraints by multiple substitutions at backbone atoms in aminoacid residues may also be extended to the higher homologs of α-amino acids,
namely β and residues. The experimental results presented in this thesis also examine the potential of using cross-strand interactions between aromatic residues as a probe of structure in designed...
Computational Analyses Of Proteins Encoded In Genomes Of Pathogenic Organisms : Inferences On Structures, Functions And Interactions - Tyagi, Nidhi
The availability of completely sequenced genomes for a number of organisms provides an opportunity to understand the molecular basis of physiology, metabolism, regulation and evolution of these organisms. Significant understanding of the complexity of organisms can be obtained from the functional characterization of repertoire of proteins encoded in their genomes. Computational approaches for recognition of function of proteins of unknown function encoded in genomes often rely on ability to detect well characterized homologues. Homology searches based on pair-wise sequence comparisons can reliably detect homologues with sequence identity more than 30%. However, detecting homologues characterized by sequence identity below 30% is...
Computational And Experimental Studies On Protein Structure, Stability And Dynamics - Adkar, Bharat V
The work in this thesis focuses on the study of three main aspects of proteins, viz, Protein structure, stability, and dynamics. Chapter 1 is a general introduction to the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 deals with the first aspect, i.e., protein structure in which we describe an approach to use saturation mutagenesis phenotypes to guide protein structure prediction. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss how to increase protein stability using surface electrostatics, and Chapter 5 details a method to predict whether a proline substitution in a given protein would be stabilizing or destabilizing. Hence, Chapters 3-5 can be associated...
Exploring The Role Of The Highly Conserved Residues In Triosephosphate Isomerase - Samanta, Moumita
This thesis discusses the structure-function studies on triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), directed towards understanding the roles of highly conserved residues by site derected mutagenesis. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview to the relevant literature on triosephosphate isomerase. In addition, this Chapter provides an analysis of conserved residues in TIM, and amino acid diversity at specific positions in the structure using a dataset of 503 TIM sequences. Chapter 2 reports the work on the completely conserved residue, C126 in TIM, which is proximal to the active site. Five mutants, C126S, C126A, C126V, C126M and C126T have been characterized....
Molecular Characterization c-di-GMP Signalling In Mycobacterium Smegmatis - Bharati, Binod Kumar
Bacterial stationary phase is an interesting biological system to study, as the organism undergoes several metabolic changes during this period and new molecules are generated to support its survival. The stationary phase of mycobacteria has been extensively studied since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. The stationary phase of mycobacteria adds further complication as many antibacterial drugs become less effective. The M. tuberculosis infects the alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells or monocytes recruited from peripheral blood. Macrophages are supposed to provide an initial barrier against the bacterial infection, but fails. Mycobacteria have evolved several strategies to...
Probing Ligand Induced Perturbations In Protien Structure Networks : Physico-Chemical Insights From MD Simulations And Graph Theory - Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee
The fidelity of biological processes and reactions, inspite of the widespread diversity, is programmed by highly specific physico-chemical principles. This underlines our basic understanding of different interesting phenomena of biological relevance, ranging from enzyme specificity to allosteric communication, from selection of fold to structural organization / states of oligomerization, from half-sites-reactivity to reshuffling of the conformational free energy landscape, encompassing the dogma of sequence-structure dynamics-function of macromolecules. The role of striking an optimal balance between rigidity and flexibility in macromolecular 3D structural organisation is yet another concept that needs attention from the functional perspective. Needless to say that the variety...
Structural And Evolutionary Studies On Protein-Protein Interactions - Swapna, L S
The last few decades have witnessed an upsurge in the availability of large-scale data on genomes and genome-scale information. The development of methods to understand the trends and patterns from large scale data promised potentially to unravel the mechanisms responsible for the enormous diversity observed in biological systems. Of the many mechanisms adopted, protein-protein interactions represent one of the commonly adopted mechanisms to achieve functional diversity using a limited genetic repertoire. Protein-proteins interactions bring about several fundamental cellular processes and also modulate regulation at the cellular level. Different types of protein-protein interactions have evolved to carry out myriad functions in...
Structural Studies Of E. Coli Thioredoxin And P. Falciparum Triosephosphate Isomerase By NMR And Computational Methods - Shahul Hameed, M S
To unravel the mysteries of complex biological processes carried out by biomolecules it is necessary to adopt a multifaceted approach, which involves employing a wide variety of tools both computational and experimental. In order to gain a clear understanding of the function of biomolecules their three dimensional structure is required. X-ray crystallography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are the only two methods capable of providing high-resolution three-dimensional structure of biomolecules. NMR has the advantage of allowing the study of structure of biomolecules in solution and is better equipped to characterize the dynamics of the protein. Protein structure determination by...
Structure Analysis Of Plant Lectin Domains - Shetty, Kartika N
Lectins are multivalent carbohydrate binding proteins that specifically recognise diverse sugar structures and mediate a variety of biological processes, such as cell-cell and host-pathogen interactions, serum glycoprotein turnover and innate immune responses. Lectins have received considerable attention in recent years on account of their properties leading to wide use in research and biomedical applications. Seeds of leguminous plants are mainly rich sources of lectins, but lectins are also found in all classes and families of organisms. Legume lectins have similar tertiary structures, but exhibit a large variety of quaternary structures. The carbohydrate binding site in them is made up of...
Mechanistic And Regulatory Aspects Of The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Dephosphocoenzyme A Kinase - Walia, Guneet
The current, grim world-TB scenario, with TB being the single largest infectious disease
killer, warrants a more effective approach to tackle the deadly pathogen, Mycobacterium
tuberculosis. The deadly synergy of this pathogen with HIV and the emergence of drugresistant strains of the organism present a challenge for disease treatment (Russell et al., 2010). Thus, there is a pressing need for newer drugs with faster killing-kinetics which can claim both the actively-multiplying and latent forms of this pathogen causing the oldest known disease to man. This thesis entitled “Mechanistic and Regulatory Aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dephosphocoenzyme A Kinase” describes one such potential...
Conformational Analysis And Design Of Disulfides In Antiparallel β-Sheets And Helices - Indu, S
Disulfides are the primary covalent interactions within a protein molecule that connect residues which are sequentially distant. Naturally occurring disulfides enhance the stability of the protein by destabilization of the unfolded state. Previous attempts to introduce disulfide bridges as a means to enhance protein stability have met with mixed results. Tools have been developed to predict potential sites for disulfide introduction. However, it must be noted that engineering disulfides is not a trivial task. The effect of the engineered disulfide on protein stability is difficult to predict. There have been few systematic studies carried out to study disulfides in the...
Structure Analysis Of FabI And FabZ Enzymes Of The Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathway Of Plasmodium Falciparum - Maity, Koustav
The emergence of drug resistant strains of Plasmodium has given a new face to the old disease, malaria. One of the approaches is to block metabolic pathways of the pathogen. The current thesis describes the X-ray crystallographic analysis of two enzymes of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In order to understand the functional mechanism and mode of inhibitor binding, enzyme-inhibitor complexes were characterized, which could help in further improvement of the efficacy of the inhibitors and hence to fight against the disease.
The introductory chapter of the thesis presents a discussion on malaria and...
Metabolic Adaptation For Utilization Of Short-Chain Fatty Acids In Salmonella Typhimurium : Structural And Functional Studies On 2-methylcitrate Synthase, Acetate And Propionate Kinases - Chittori, Sagar
Three-dimensional structures of proteins provide insights into the mechanisms of macromolecular assembly, enzyme catalysis and mode of activation, substrate-specificity, ligand-binding properties, stability and dynamical features. X-ray crystallography has become the method of choice in structural biology due to the remarkable methodological advances made in the generation of intense X-ray beams with very low divergence, cryocooling methods to prolong useful life of irradiated crystals, sensitive methods of Xray diffraction data collection, automated and fast methods for data processing, advances and automation in methods of computational crystallography, comparative analysis of macromolecular structures along with parallel advances in biochemical and molecular biology methods...