Brito, Patrícia H; Chevreux, Bastien; Serra, Cláudia R; Schyns, Ghislain; Henriques, Adriano O; Pereira-Leal, José B
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Gjini, Erida; Brito, Patricia H.
Antimicrobial resistance of infectious agents is a growing problem worldwide. To prevent the continuing selection and spread of drug resistance, rational design of antibiotic treatment is needed, and the question of aggressive vs. moderate therapies is currently heatedly debated. Host immunity is an important, but often-overlooked factor in the clearance of drug-resistant infections. In this work, we compare aggressive and moderate antibiotic treatment, accounting for host immunity effects. We use mathematical modelling of within-host infection dynamics to study the interplay between pathogen-dependent host immune responses and antibiotic treatment. We compare classical (fixed dose and duration) and adaptive (coupled to pathogen...
Gjini, Erida; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.
The efficacy of vaccines is typically estimated prior to implementation, on the basis of randomized controlled trials. This does not preclude, however, subsequent assessment post-licensure, while mass-immunization and nonlinear transmission feedbacks are in place. In this paper we show how cross-sectional prevalence data post-vaccination can be interpreted in terms of pathogen transmission processes and vaccine parameters, using a dynamic epidemiological model. We advocate the use of such frameworks for model-based vaccine evaluation in the field, fitting trajectories of cross-sectional prevalence of pathogen strains before and after intervention. Using SI and SIS models, we illustrate how prevalence ratios in vaccinated and...