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ARCA - Access to Research and Communication Annals - IGC Repository (819 recursos)

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Plant Stress Signaling

Mostrando recursos 1 - 10 de 10

  1. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena
    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved...

  2. Laser Capture Microdissection Protocol for Xylem Tissues of Woody Plants

    Blokhina, Olga; Valerio, Concetta; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Zhao, Lei; Kärkönen, Anna; Niittylä, Totte; Fagerstedt, Kurt
    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables precise dissection and collection of individual cell types from complex tissues. When applied to plant cells, and especially to woody tissues, LCM requires extensive optimization to overcome such factors as rigid cell walls, large central vacuoles, intercellular spaces, and technical issues with thickness and flatness of the sections. Here we present an optimized protocol for the laser-assisted microdissection of developing xylem from mature trees: a gymnosperm (Norway spruce, Picea abies) and an angiosperm (aspen, Populus tremula) tree. Different cell types of spruce and aspen wood (i.e., ray cells, tracheary elements, and fibers) were successfully microdissected...

  3. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of the AMPK plant ortholog SnRK1 as a metabolic master regulator under energy deprivation

    Nukarinen, Ella; Nägele, Thomas; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mair, Andrea; Landgraf, Ramona; Börnke, Frederik; Hanson, Johannes; Teige, Markus; Baena-Gonzalez, Elena; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Weckwerth, Wolfram
    Since years, research on SnRK1, the major cellular energy sensor in plants, has tried to define its role in energy signalling. However, these attempts were notoriously hampered by the lethality of a complete knockout of SnRK1. Therefore, we generated an inducible amiRNA::SnRK1α2 in a snrk1α1 knock out background (snrk1α1/α2) to abolish SnRK1 activity to understand major systemic functions of SnRK1 signalling under energy deprivation triggered by extended night treatment. We analysed the in vivo phosphoproteome, proteome and metabolome and found that activation of SnRK1 is essential for repression of high energy demanding cell processes such as protein synthesis. The most...

  4. Dissection of miRNA Pathways Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts

    Martinho, Cláudia; Confraria, Ana; Elias, Carlos Alexandre; Crozet, Pierre; Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Weigel, Detlef; Baena-González, Elena
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression mostly post-transcriptionally by guiding transcript cleavage and/or translational repression of complementary mRNA targets, thereby regulating developmental processes and stress responses. Despite the remarkable expansion of the field, the mechanisms underlying miRNA activity are not fully understood. In this article, we describe a transient expression system in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, which is highly amenable for the dissection of miRNA pathways. We show that by transiently overexpressing primary miRNAs and target mimics, we can manipulate miRNA levels and consequently impact on their targets. Furthermore, we developed a set of luciferase-based sensors for quantifying miRNA activity that respond...

  5. SUMOylation represses SnRK1 signaling in Arabidopsis

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Butowt, Rafal; Fernandes, Noémia; Elias, Carlos A.; Orosa, Beatriz; Tomanov, Konstantin; Teige, Markus; Bachmair, Andreas; Sadanandom, Ari; Baena-González, Elena
    The SnRK1 protein kinase balances cellular energy levels in accordance with extracellular conditions and is thereby key for plant stress tolerance. In addition, SnRK1 has been implicated in numerous growth and developmental processes from seed filling and maturation to flowering and senescence. Despite its importance, the mechanisms that regulate SnRK1 activity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the SnRK1 complex is SUMOylated on multiple subunits and identify SIZ1 as the E3 Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) ligase responsible for this modification. We further show that SnRK1 is ubiquitinated in a SIZ1-dependent manner, causing its degradation through the proteasome. In consequence,...

  6. Temporal Control of Leaf Complexity by miRNA-Regulated Licensing of Protein Complexes

    Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Zhou, Chuan-Miao; Confraria, Ana; Martinho, Claudia; von Born, Patrick; Baena-Gonzalez, Elena; Wang, Jia-Wei; Weigel, Detlef
    The tremendous diversity of leaf shapes has caught the attention of naturalists for centuries. In addition to interspecific and intraspecific differences, leaf morphologies may differ in single plants according to age, a phenomenon known as heteroblasty. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the progression from the juvenile to the adult phase is characterized by increased leaf serration. A similar trend is seen in species with more complex leaves, such as the A. thaliana relative Cardamine hirsuta, in which the number of leaflets per leaf increases with age. Although the genetic changes that led to the overall simpler leaf architecture in A. thaliana are...

  7. ABI1 and PP2CA Phosphatases Are Negative Regulators of Snf1-Related Protein Kinase1 Signaling in Arabidopsis

    Rodrigues, A.; Adamo, M.; Crozet, P.; Margalha, L.; Confraria, A.; Martinho, C.; Elias, A.; Rabissi, A.; Lumbreras, V.; Gonzalez-Guzman, M.; Antoni, R.; Rodriguez, P. L.; Baena-Gonzalez, E.
    Plant survival under environmental stress requires the integration of multiple signaling pathways into a coordinated response, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this integration are poorly understood. Stress-derived energy deprivation activates the Snf1-related protein kinases1 (SnRK1s), triggering a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming that restores homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions. Here, we show that two clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), established repressors of the abscisic acid (ABA) hormonal pathway, interact with the SnRK1 catalytic subunit causing its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Accordingly, SnRK1 repression is abrogated in double and quadruple pp2c knockout mutants, provoking, similarly to SnRK1 overexpression,...

  8. Energy Signaling in the Regulation of Gene Expression during Stress

    Baena-González, Elena
    Maintenance of homeostasis is pivotal to all forms of life. In the case of plants, homeostasis is constantly threatened by the inability to escape environmental fluctuations, and therefore sensitive mechanisms must have evolved to allow rapid perception of environmental cues and concomitant modification of growth and developmental patterns for adaptation and survival. Re-establishment of homeostasis in response to environmental perturbations requires reprogramming of metabolism and gene expression to shunt energy sources from growth-related biosynthetic processes to defense, acclimation, and, ultimately, adaptation. Failure to mount an initial 'emergency' response may result in nutrient deprivation and irreversible senescence and cell death. Early...

  9. SnRK1-triggered switch of bZIP63 dimerization mediates the low-energy response in plants

    Mair, Andrea; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Anrather, Dorothea; Simeunovic, Andrea; Weiste, Christoph; Valerio, Concetta; Dietrich, Katrin; Kirchler, Tobias; Nägele, Thomas; Vicente Carbajosa, Jesús; Hanson, Johannes; Baena-González, Elena; Chaban, Christina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Teige, Markus
    Metabolic adjustment to changing environmental conditions, particularly balancing of growth and defense responses, is crucial for all organisms to survive. The evolutionary conserved AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1 kinases are well-known metabolic master regulators in the low-energy response in animals, yeast and plants. They act at two different levels: by modulating the activity of key metabolic enzymes, and by massive transcriptional reprogramming. While the first part is well established, the latter function is only partially understood in animals and not at all in plants. Here we identified the Arabidopsis transcription factor bZIP63 as key regulator of the starvation response and direct target of the...

  10. Energy Signaling in the Regulation of Gene

    Baena-Gonzalez, Elena
    Maintenance of homeostasis is pivotal to all forms of life. In the case of plants, homeostasis is constantly threatened by the inability to escape environmental fluctuations, and therefore sensitive mechanisms must have evolved to allow rapid perception of environmental cues and concomitant modification of growth and developmental patterns for adaptation and survival. Re-establishment of homeostasis in response to environmental perturbations requires reprogramming of metabolism and gene expression to shunt energy sources from growth-related biosynthetic processes to defense, acclimation, and, ultimately, adaptation. Failure to mount an initial 'emergency' response may result in nutrient deprivation and irreversible senescence and cell death. Early...

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