Recursos de colección

ARCA - Access to Research and Communication Annals - IGC Repository (608 recursos)

The Institutional Repository of Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, developed under the project RCAAP, is intended to collect, preserve and promote open access to the intellectual production of their researchers.

Epigenetic Mechanisms

Mostrando recursos 1 - 11 de 11

  1. CENP-C reshapes and stabilizes CENP-A nucleosomes at the centromere

    Falk, S. J.; Guo, L. Y.; Sekulic, N.; Smoak, E. M.; Mani, T.; Logsdon, G. A.; Gupta, K.; Jansen, L. E. T.; Van Duyne, G. D.; Vinogradov, S. A.; Lampson, M. A.; Black, B. E.
    Inheritance of each chromosome depends upon its centromere. A histone H3 variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A), is essential for epigenetically marking centromere location. We find that CENP-A is quantitatively retained at the centromere upon which it is initially assembled. CENP-C binds to CENP-A nucleosomes and is a prime candidate to stabilize centromeric chromatin. Using purified components, we find that CENP-C reshapes the octameric histone core of CENP-A nucleosomes, rigidifies both surface and internal nucleosome structure, and modulates terminal DNA to match the loose wrap that is found on native CENP-A nucleosomes at functional human centromeres. Thus, CENP-C affects nucleosome shape...

  2. Basic properties of epigenetic systems: lessons from the centromere

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Mariluz; Jansen, Lars ET
    Chromatin-based epigenetic inheritance cooperates with cis-acting DNA sequence information to propagate gene expression states and chromosome architecture across cell division cycles. Histone proteins and their modifications are central components of epigenetic systems but how, and to what extent, they are propagated is a matter of continued debate. Centromeric nucleosomes, marked by the histone H3 variant CENP-A, are stable across mitotic divisions and are assembled in a locus specific and cell cycle controlled manner. The mechanism of inheritance of this unique chromatin domain has important implications for how general nucleosome transmission is controlled in space and time.

  3. A two-step mechanism for epigenetic specification of centromere identity and function

    Fachinetti, Daniele; Diego Folco, H.; Nechemia-Arbely, Yael; Valente, Luis P.; Nguyen, Kristen; Wong, Alex J.; Zhu, Quan; Holland, Andrew J.; Desai, Arshad; Jansen, Lars E. T.; Cleveland, Don W.
    The basic determinant of chromosome inheritance, the centromere, is specified in many eukaryotes by an epigenetic mark. Using gene targeting in human cells and fission yeast, chromatin containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A is demonstrated to be the epigenetic mark that acts through a two-step mechanism to identify, maintain and propagate centromere function indefinitely. Initially, centromere position is replicated and maintained by chromatin assembled with the centromere-targeting domain (CATD) of CENP-A substituted into H3. Subsequently, nucleation of kinetochore assembly onto CATD-containing chromatin is shown to require either the amino- or carboxy-terminal tail of CENP-A for recruitment of inner kinetochore...

  4. Esperanto for histones: CENP-A, not CenH3, is the centromeric histone H3 variant

    Earnshaw, W. C.; Allshire, R. C.; Black, B. E.; Bloom, K.; Brinkley, B. R.; Brown, W.; Cheeseman, I. M.; Choo, K. H. A.; Copenhaver, G. P.; DeLuca, J. G.; Desai, A.; Diekmann, S.; Erhardt, S.; Fitzgerald-Hayes, M.; Foltz, D.; Fukagawa, T.; Gassmann, R.; Gerlich, D. W.; Glover, D. M.; Gorbsky, G. J.; Harrison, S. C.; Heun, P.; Hirota, T.; Jansen, L. E. T.; Karpen, G.; Kops, G. J. P. L.; Lampson, M. A.; Lens, S. M.; Losada, A.; Luger, K.; Maiato, H.; Maddox, P. S.; Margolis, R. L.; Masumoto, H.; McAinsh, A. D.; Mellone, B. G.; Meraldi, P.; Musacchio, A.; Oegema, K.; O’Neill, R. J.; Salmon, E. D.; Scott, K. C.; Straight, A. F.; Stukenberg, P. T.; Sullivan, B. A.; Sullivan, K. F.; Sunkel, C. E.; Swedlow, J. R.; Walczak, C. E.; Warburton, P. E.; Westermann, S.; Willard, H. F.; Wordeman, L.; Yanagida, M.; Yen, T. J.; Yoda, K.; Cleveland, D. W.
    The first centromeric protein identified in any species was CENP-A, a divergent member of the histone H3 family that was recognised by autoantibodies from patients with scleroderma-spectrum disease. It has recently been suggested to rename this protein CenH3. Here, we argue that the original name should be maintained both because it is the basis of a long established nomenclature for centromere proteins and because it avoids confusion due to the presence of canonical histone H3 at centromeres.

  5. How two become one: HJURP dimerization drives CENP-A assembly

    Bodor, Dani L; Jansen, Lars E T
    CENP‐A containing nucleosomes epigenetically specify centromere position on chromosomes. Deposition of CENP‐A into chromatin is mediated by HJURP, a specific CENP‐A chaperone. Paradoxically, HJURP binding sterically prevents dimerization of CENP‐A, which is critical to form functional centromeric nucleosomes. A recent publication in The EMBO Journal (Zasadzińska et al, 2013) demonstrates that HJURP itself dimerizes through a C‐terminal repeat region, which is essential for centromeric assembly of nascent CENP‐A.

  6. Temporal control of epigenetic centromere specification

    Valente, Luis P; Silva, Mariana C C; Jansen, Lars E T
    All living organisms require accurate mechanisms to faithfully inherit their genetic material during cell division. The centromere is a unique locus on each chromosome that supports a multiprotein structure called the kinetochore. During mitosis, the kinetochore is responsible for connecting chromosomes to spindle microtubules, allowing faithful segregation of the duplicated genome. In most organisms, centromere position and function is not defined by the local DNA sequence context but rather by an epigenetic chromatin-based mechanism. Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is central to this process, as chromatin assembled from this histone H3 variant is essential for assembly of the centromere complex, as...

  7. Cdk Activity Couples Epigenetic Centromere Inheritance to Cell Cycle Progression

    Silva, Mariana C.C.; Bodor, Dani L.; Stellfox, Madison E.; Martins, Nuno M.C.; Hochegger, Helfrid; Foltz, Daniel R.; Jansen, Lars E.T.
    Centromeres form the site of chromosome attachment to microtubules during mitosis. Identity of these loci is maintained epigenetically by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant CENP-A. Propagation of CENP-A chromatin is uncoupled from DNA replication initiating only during mitotic exit. We now demonstrate that inhibition of Cdk1 and Cdk2 activities is sufficient to trigger CENP-A assembly throughout the cell cycle in a manner dependent on the canonical CENP-A assembly machinery. We further show that the key CENP-A assembly factor Mis18BP1(HsKNL2) is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner that controls its centromere localization during mitotic exit. These results strongly support a...

  8. Sowing the Seeds of Centromeres

    Jansen, L. E. T.
    The centromere is a chromatin-based platform that accumulates microtubule-binding proteins that drive chromosome segregation during cell division. Despite their size (on the order of megabases of DNA in mammals) and conserved role, centromeres have the remarkable capacity to leave their usual comfort zone and to reform at a new chromosomal site (1). Although found rarely, these so-called neocentromeres are by most measures bona fide and segregate chromosomes with high fidelity. What accounts for this nomadic behavior?

  9. Analysis of Protein Turnover by Quantitative SNAP-Based Pulse-Chase Imaging

    Bodor, Dani L.; Rodríguez, Mariluz Gómez; Moreno, Nuno; Jansen, Lars E.T.
    Assessment of protein dynamics in living cells is crucial for understanding their biological properties and functions. The SNAP-tag, a self labeling suicide enzyme, presents a tool with unique features that can be adopted for determining protein dynamics in living cells. Here we present detailed protocols for the use of SNAP in fluorescent pulse-chase and quench-chase-pulse experiments. These time-slicing methods provide powerful tools to assay and quantify the fate and turnover rate of proteins of different ages. We cover advantages and pitfalls of SNAP-tagging in fixed- and live-cell studies and evaluate the recently developed fast-acting SNAPf variant. In addition, to facilitate...

  10. Epigenetic engineering shows H3K4me2 is required for HJURP targeting and CENP-A assembly on a synthetic human kinetochore

    Bergmann, Jan H; Rodríguez, Mariluz Gómez; Martins, Nuno M C; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kelly, David A; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Larionov, Vladimir; Jansen, Lars E T; Earnshaw, William C
    Kinetochores assemble on distinct 'centrochromatin' containing the histone H3 variant CENP-A and interspersed nucleosomes dimethylated on H3K4 (H3K4me2). Little is known about how the chromatin environment at active centromeres governs centromeric structure and function. Here, we report that centrochromatin resembles K4-K36 domains found in the body of some actively transcribed housekeeping genes. By tethering the lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), we specifically depleted H3K4me2, a modification thought to have a role in transcriptional memory, from the kinetochore of a synthetic human artificial chromosome (HAC). H3K4me2 depletion caused kinetochores to suffer a rapid loss of transcription of the underlying α-satellite DNA and...

  11. A Rapid FACS-Based Strategy to Isolate Human Gene Knockin and Knockout Clones

    Mata, João F.; Lopes, Telma; Gardner, Rui; Jansen, Lars E. T.
    Gene targeting protocols for mammalian cells remain inefficient and labor intensive. Here we describe FASTarget, a rapid, fluorescent cell sorting based strategy to isolate rare gene targeting events in human somatic cells. A fluorescent protein is used as a means for direct selection of targeted clones obviating the need for selection and outgrowth of drug resistant clones. Importantly, the use of a promoter-less, ATG-less construct greatly facilitates the recovery of correctly targeted cells. Using this method we report successful gene targeting in up to 94% of recovered human somatic cell clones. We create functional EYFP-tagged knockin clones in both transformed...

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.