Ashford, Nicholas A.
Shenker, Scott; Clark, David D.; Zhang, Lixia
This paper considers the support of real-time applications in an Integrated Services Packet Network (ISPN). We first review the characteristics of real-time applications. We observe that, contrary to the popular view that real-time applications necessarily require a fixed delay bound, some real-time applications are more
flexible and can adapt to current network conditions. We then propose an ISPN architecture that supports two distinct kinds of real-time service: guaranteed service, which is the traditional form of real-time service discussed in most of the literature and involves pre-computed worst-case delay bounds, and predicted service,
which uses the measured performance of the network in...
Clark, Dave; Braden, Bob; Shenker, Scott
This memo discusses an extension to the Internet architecture and protocols to provide
"integrated service", i.e., to support real-time as well as best-effort IP service. This
memo outlines a proposed technical framework and recommends steps towards engineering and deployment of Internet integrated service. This extension is necessary to meet the growing need for realtime service for multimedia applications.
Mutooni, Philip K.
Presentation version of MIT M.S. EECS/TP P Thesis, May 1997
Davidson, Jacob; McGarty, Terrence P.
The deregulation of telecommunications has taken a major step with the WTO agreements in February of
this year. Namely, each of the major Far Eastern countries has agreed to open their market in some form of
planned entry. These markets will allow for the introduction of competition of local and international
services now currently restricted to the local PTT as well as allowing the entry of new services in what are
generally closed markets. This paper analyzes the implications of changes in several key Far Eastern
countries and discusses how this will impact the U.S. economy and the overall policy implications that this
will focus on.
This paper utilizes the Internet Pricing Interface Taxonomy to examine
incentives of service providers at various stages in the service provider value chain to
vertically integrate. The focus is on residential, dial-up subscribers to simplify the
analysis. The goal of the paper is to address the following sorts of questions:
-- What are the incentives of firms at various stages in the value chain to
-- What does this imply for Internet industry structure today and in the future?
-- Is the market for a commodity IP bearer service sustainable?
The paper is organized into the following sections. Section I provides a review of
the Internet Pricing...
Kavassalis, Petros; Lee, Thomas Y.; Bailey, Joseph P.
Based upon the Internet perspective, this chapter will attempt to clarify and revise
several ideas about the separation between infrastructure facilities and service
offerings in digital communications networks. The key notions that we will focus on
in this paper are: i) the bearer service as a technology-independent interface which
exports blind network functionality to applications development; ii) the sustainability
of an independent market for bearer service and the organizational consequences
associated with such a market.
Presentation at ITC semiannual meeting, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Bristol, UK, June 12-13, 1997
Mobile communications and Internet based computer communications are the two fastest growing
areas of communications indicating an enormous business potential in the intersection of these
two domains. Since the introduction of cellular networks, wireless communications have focused
on speech only, while mobile data has played a minor role. This paradigm is likely to change
drastically in the near future. A new phenomenon, reflected by a nomadic lifestyle, is spreading all
over the industrialized countries. Clear evidence of this is discernible particularly in Japan and
Scandinavia. Nomadic lifestyle suggests that we are now at the advent of a new era of mobile
communications, which will be fueled by...
There are a broad range of objectives and opportunities that can be lumped under the heading of
Internet Telephony, or ITel. This paper identifies a number of criteria that can be used to
separate these different ITel applications into classes, including the degree of interoperation with
the existing telephone system, and the extent to which the existing Internet must be augmented to
support them. Using this framework, the paper concludes that different ITel applications have
very different motivations, and have very different implications for industry structure, economics
and regulation. The immediate opportunities for ITel involve cost reductions relative to current
telephone pricing. The long term trajectory for...
This paper analyzes inter-firm alliances for
providing the home computer user with an
innovative new telecommunications service: a
high-speed connection to the Internet. After
providing an overview of the Internet access
provider industry, it discusses the split of
competencies needed to deliver this new service,
between monopolistic infrastructure (cable and
local telephone) companies and entrepreneurial
Internet service providers. It finds that the
asymmetry in market power between the two
partners holds up the diffusion of this innovation,
and can best be remedied by more open access to
both the subscriber and provider sides of the
cable network, along with increased competition
in all forms of local communications
policy implications of the analysis. While policy
issues related to...
Bailey, Joseph P.; McKnight, Lee
This paper describes the emerging field of Internet
Economics and some of the constituencies which are
shaping it. It defines the motivating factors for
looking at this area, reviews some recent research
results, and explores areas of overlapping interest.
The paper concludes with six recommendations for
different academic disciplines which have done work
related to Internet economics: technology, economics,
and policy. Each of these areas has important
contributions to make to the field but there has been
little consensus across disciplines (or even within
disciplines) on which direction to take. Figure 1
shows a Venn diagram which tries to characterize the
constituencies' current motivation to look at Internet
Bailey, Joseph P.
As the cable television networks transition from a broadcast-only network, to a high-bandwidth
two-way network, the importance and functionality of the set-top box increases. However,
developments in the set-top box industry have been restrained by the control the cable companies
have over their equipment. Currently, a set-top box includes closed, proprietary technology
which prohibits its use on other cable systems' networks.
This paper explores the possibility of abandoning closed, proprietary set-top box standards in
favor of open standards. This "opening" of the set-top box is not a trivial matter since it
challenges cable companies' concerns about security, quality, etc. The paper includes a policy
analysis of the impact...
Bailey, Joseph P.
The Internet, a growing network of networks, is an often touted and often misunderstood
technology. It has its own infrastructure complete with service providers, private networks, user
communities, international links, etc. similar to telephone or telegraph industries. However, the
Internet is more decentralized and less application-specific than traditional telecommunication
industries. These differences extend beyond the technology of the Internet to the economics and
This paper explores Internet economics, a growing field which encompasses the technology,
economics, and policy surrounding the Internet. It identifies different communities who have
overlapping interests in this field and how their preconceived notions of how the Internet operates
create contradictory views on how this...
We are about to witness one of those revolutionary shifts in technology that pass through similar stages of pathologic
stress often chronicled for human behavior: first an imperceptible perturbation deemed a singularity or interesting curiosity;
then the change grows into a faddish amusement or distraction; soon the amusement starts generating enough money or
activity to become either, or both. a real business or a threat to other established enterprises or even to the social order;
and finally the technological change takes hold, completely revamps its corner of the universe, economy, or society, and
now enters the realm of permanent ?problem? or ?opportunity,? depending on your...
O'Donnell, Shawn; Neuman, W. Russell; Lanning, Steven
Demand forecasts are an essential tool for planning capacity and
formulating policy. Traffic estimates are becoming increasingly
unreliable, however, as accelerating rates of use and new
communications applications invalidate conventional forecasting
This paper presents an alternative approach to the study of
telecommunications demand: build aggregate estimates for demand
based on the elasticity of demand for bandwidth.
We argue that price elasticity models are necessary to grasp the
interaction between Moore-type technological progress and non-linear
Traditional marketing models are premised on existing or, at best,
foreseeable services. But in a period of sustained price declines,
applications-based forecasts will be unreliable. Dramatically lower
prices can cause fundamental changes in the mix of applications...
Kavassalis, Petros; Lee, Tom; Bailey, Joseph P.
Based upon the Internet perspective, this paper will attempt to clarify and revise
several ideas about the separation between infrastructure facilities and service
offerings in digital communications networks. The key notions that we will focus on in
this paper are: i) the bearer service as a technology-independent interface which
exports blind network functionality to applications development; ii) the organizational
consequences associated with the emergence of a sustainable market of bearer service:
a clear movement at the level of industrial structure from traditional hierarchies to
more market coordination.
The Internet is the latest in a long succession of communication technologies. The goal of this
work is to draw lessons from the evolution of all these services. Little attention is paid to technology
as such, since that has changed radically many times. Instead, the stress is on the steady growth in
volume of communication, the evolution in the type of traffic sent, the qualitative change this growth
produces in how people treat communication, and the evolution of pricing. The focus is on the user, and
in particular on how quality and price differentiation have been used by service providers to influence
consumer behavior, and how...