The energy policy of the European Commission has deepened integration of EU natural gas matters. Energy cooperation at EU level and policy mechanisms for cooperation with third countries are harmonized to a large extent. The author concludes that integration strategies of the EU Commission follow the spillover-logic as set out by the theory of Neofunctionalism - a concept first developed by Ernst Bernard Haas to explain the post-war creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) as peace-preserving institutions. According to this theory, integration in one sector creates further integration in related policy...
In spite of its limited competence in the matter2, the EU has engaged in an ambitious
struggle against lifestyle risks (tobacco, alcohol, diets, etc.)3 using its harmonisation
powers under Article 114 TFEU concerning the internal market. While this objective
may be laudable, it is also true that when the internal market objective completely
disappears behind the public health objective, the EU faces an eminent constitutional
problem. Indeed, the question of when the EU can, and cannot, use its broad
harmonisation power under Article 114 TFEU4 has long agitated the European legal
community, for it is a crucial element of the vertical repartition of competences
between the Union and...
The ETS will be much stronger after the Phase 4 revision. But further adjustments may be
inevitable in the future, given ongoing developments in the climate/energy world.
Rashish, Peter S.
A year ago the United States had just elected in Donald Trump a Republican president whose hostility to business-as-usual in trade policy helped propel him to victory over his Democratic rival, Hillary Clinton. In the new President’s view, the economic pillar of the liberal international order – the World Trade Organization (WTO) and trade agreements like the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) – was not a generator of US prosperity and a multiplier of its national interest. Rather, these institutions and agreements had sapped US manufacturing...
Heads of state and government will endorse the European Pillar of Social Rights – presented by the European Commission as “a guide towards efficient employment and social outcomes” and “a compass for the renewed convergence within the euro area” – at the upcoming social Summit in Gothenburg on 17 November. At the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council of 23 October, member states gave their green light to an interinstitutional proclamation of the Pillar. This is a step in the right direction and a clear victory for the Commission. Much uncertainty lingers, however, over the successful implementation of...
Kucharczyk, Jacek; Korniychuk, Andriy
From the executive summary. Following the 2015 elections, the Polish government has become increasingly disapproving of the current
state of the European Union (EU); while EU institutions, most notably the Commission, criticised the PiS
government for infringement of the rule of law and other values and principles enshrined in Article 2 of the
TEU. The deepening rift between Warsaw and Brussels is accompanied by a deep polarisation of Polish public
opinion and elites on many crucial issues regarding the future of Europe. These facts notwithstanding, Polish
society strongly supports Poland’s EU membership and the government’s ‘Brussels bashing’ has had limited
impact on the general support for...
Senocak, Naciye Selin
The principal purpose of this theoretical analysis is to identify the different assumptions between
Europe and Turkey regarding the axiological perspective which distinguishes the value
judgments used as an instrument of persuasion by each culture. For decades, Turkey’s accession
process within the EU is a highly controversial issue which has been an intensive process,
brimmed with ups and downs. Due to its geopolitical position and cultural identity, as a Muslim
secular state, Turkey is a cultural bridge between the West and Muslim countries, making it particularly
important in cultural diplomacy for EU foreign policy. Nevertheless, the cultural misunderstanding,
the misinterpreted perceptions, the axiological nihilism between Turkey and...
As cultural diplomacy is usually grounded in a
set of values that state or non-state actors are
expected to share, we opted for a preliminary
study of the cross perception of fundamental European
values as they are perceived on the Arab
side, with a limited scope and a selected theoretical
object that is the model of European political
models and especially the European liberal democracy
as perceived by the Arab intellectuals.
Senocak, Naciye Selin
In recent years, the European Union (EU) has
been promoting cultural diplomacy, framed in
terms of dialogue between civilisations/cultures,
and has aimed to exploit its role in the conduct
of foreign policy.
A recent declaration from the EU’s High Representative
for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy,
Federica Mogherini, has urged caution, emphasising
the importance of cultural diplomacy:
“Investing in cultural diplomacy could help
strengthening the economy of your region, but
especially creating bridges, letting others know
us and knowing others reciprocally, establishing
bonds among people especially during these
hard times, to prevent fears and radicalisation
both in Europe and abroad. This is why we have
worked so hard to the first European strategy for
cultural diplomacy.” 1
Nicolas Rüffin, Nicolas Rüffin; Schreiterer, Ulrich
From the Introduction. In the wake of increasing global competition
and challenges, science and technology (S&T)
issues gain more and more attention in international
relations and foreign policy. Eager for enhancing
their S&T capabilities and international
position, national governments, research organisations,
foundations and companies engage
Diplomacy for Science to stimulate and bolster
global research collaborations and internationalisation.
In addition, science has come to be
seen as means to foster diplomatic relations
between nations, following the idea of Science
for Diplomacy (Royal Society, 2010).
he European Union (EU) has adopted a very generous region-to-region approach towards Latin America in recent decades. However, although the EU adopted the same interregional strategy across different policy areas, the quality of interregional interaction (and success) vary significantly. A telling example is the EU’s interregional approach to sign a far-reaching region-to-region association agreement with Latin America: instead of having one overarching EU-LAC agreement, the EU had to negotiate agreements with sub-regions in Latin America, and eventually only successfully concluded an Association Agreement with the Central American region (SICA) as negotiations with MERCOSUR have only recently been re-launched after a...
Building on the analytical tools defined by Kingah, Amaya & Van Langenhove (2016) in the EL-CSID Working Paper 1, this paper assesses the willingness, capacity and acceptance of EU SD policies in the Black Sea Region (BSR). This qualitative mapping looks at science initiatives that aimed to enhance regional cooperation, both in the BSR itself and between those countries and the EU. There has been widespread commitment and willingness from the EU and the BSR to involve in science cooperation projects, and the projects under FP6, FP7 and H2020 did not face acceptance issues from national or regional leaders. However,...
Oberthür, Sebastian; Hermwille, Lukas; Khandekar, Gauri; Obergassel, Wolfgang
Significant potential exists to accelerate the climate transition by advancing sectoral approaches and institutions in international climate governance. To achieve the Paris Agreement objectives and quicken the urgently needed decarbonisation of our societies and economies, the simultaneous transformation of a wide range of interdependent sectoral systems is required. Each of these systems faces very specific transformation challenges and potentials for international governance. This calls for advancing tailor-made sectoral approaches to reinforce global climate governance, in the context of the further development of both the Paris Agreement and the system of intergovernmental institutions and transnational arrangements, including the increasing number of...
Orsini, Giacomo; Roos, Christof
Italy is the main gate of entry for undocumented migration to the EU which seriously stresses local reception capacity. Secondary movements of migrants to other member states have become a salient issue challenging the border free Schengen area. The EU has been responsive to this situation, introducing ‘hotspots’ and a relocation mechanism that are meant to support local authorities. The policy brief asks whether EU measures can effectively foster migration management in Italy and decrease migrant absconding. Our research on the implementation of EU hotspots in Sicily, the relocation mechanism, and the asylum system in Italy shows that the effectiveness...
Collins, Neil; Bekenova, Kristina
At the beginning of her term, Vice President of the Commission
Federica Mogherini decided to make Twitter and Facebook
fundamental tools for EU’s diplomacy and for promoting core
European values of democracy, human rights, rule of law, good
governance and international cooperation. In a short time,
various digital channels have become an important part of the
communication strategies of the European External Action
Leão, Augusto Veloso; Westerveen , Laura; Adam, Ilke
In June 2016, the European Commission launched the ‘EU Action Plan on Integration of third country nationals’. The Action Plan provides a common policy framework for integration policies in the Member States and aims to promote cooperation and policy coordination in the field of migrant integration. Due to the multilevel and cross-sectoral character of migrant integration, policy coordination is crucial to an effective policy strategy in this area of policymaking. In this policy brief, we take the one year anniversary of the Action Plan as an occasion to evaluate the role of the European Commission in European policy coordination on...
On the 23rd of May 2017, the Council of the European Union adopted conclusions on Culture in the European Union's external relations, by welcoming the Joint Communication Towards an EU strategy for international cultural relations presented by the European Commission in June 2016.
This EL-CSID Policy brief argues that, if the EU wants to define a real strategy for its external cultural action, it needs to provide a clearer definition of what ‘culture’ it is promoting (and how), and of what ‘complementarity’ with Member States means. First, EU Cultural Diplomacy should build upon EU’s experience in intercultural dialogue and capacity...
On 10 May 2017, Moon Jae-in, a liberal human rights lawyer, was
elected as the 12th President of the Republic of Korea (ROK).
Moon’s election puts an end to a period of instability in South
Korean politics, unleashed by the political scandal which broke
out in Autumn 2016 and led to the impeachment of conservative
President Park Geun-hye. Moon has promised dialogue with North
Korea and a warmer relationship with China1
. He has also raised
questions about the ‘comfort women’ agreement reached between
South Korea and Japan in 2015, painstakingly negotiated by
the Park administration and widely hailed as a stepping stone for
greater cooperation between Seoul and Tokyo2
The present work seeks to analyse the reasons behind the creation of a new instrument by the European Commission in order to improve the implementation of the European Union (EU) environmental law: the Environmental Implementation Review (EIR). To do so, it builds upon existing theoretical frameworks developed in the analysis of policy implementation, public policy instruments and public policy change. The analysis of the empirical evidence leads to conclude the significance of organisational factors-the Better Regulation reform program and the new Commission's executive. The design of the EIR itself seems to have been influenced by both the instrument mix already...
This study explores the EU’s role in reaching the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with
Iran on 14 July 2015. More specifically, the paper examines the validity of a statement made by High
Representative Federica Mogherini, which suggests that it “mainly” was due to the EU that it was
possible to settle the historic nuclear deal. This topic is particularly interesting because most recent
studies have focused on the provisions of the JCPOA and its geostrategic impact rather than the political
process behind the deal. In particular, the last stage of negotiations from November 2013 – July
2015 is under-investigated. The paper hypothesizes that the...