Oehmen, Josef; Oppenheim, Bohdan W.; Secor, Deborah; Norman, Eric; Rebentisch, Eric; Sopko, Joseph A.; Steuber, Marc; Dove, Rick; Moghaddam, Kambiz; McNeal, Steve; Bowie, Mark; Ben-Daya, Mohamed; Altman, Wolf; Driessnack, John
This document provides the findings of the Joint MIT‐PMI‐INCOSE Lean in Program Management Community of Practice that are based on a 1‐year project executed during 2011 and 2012. The community was made up of selected subject matter experts from industry, government, and academia. The findings reported in this guide are based on known best practices from the literature, program experience of the subject matter experts, and input from an extensive community of professionals.
The findings of the Joint Community of Practice were extensively validated through community and practitioner feedback, multiple workshops at INCOSE and PMI conferences, LAI‐hosted web‐based meetings, and...
This white paper reports emerging findings at the end of Phase I of the Lean Aircraft
Initiative in the Policy focus group area. Specifically, it provides details about research on
program instability. Its objective is to discuss high-level findings detailing: 1) the relative
contribution of different factors to a program’s overall instability; 2) the cost impact of program
instability on acquisition programs; and 3) some strategies recommended by program managers for
overcoming and/or mitigating the negative effects of program instability on their programs.
Because this report comes as this research is underway, this is not meant to be a definitive
document on the subject. Rather, is it...
“What is value in product development?” is the key question of this paper. The answer is
critical to the creation of lean in product development. By knowing how much value is added by
product development (PD) activities, decisions can be more rationally made about how to
allocate resources, such as time and money.
In order to apply the principles of Lean Thinking and remove waste from the product
development system, value must be precisely defined. Unfortunately, value is a complex entity
that is composed of many dimensions and has thus far eluded definition on a local level. For this
reason, research has been initiated on “Measuring Value...
Lean Transition of Emerging Industrial Capability (LeanTEC) program was a cooperative agreement between the Boeing Company
and AFRL conducted from January 1998 to January 2002. The results of this program are documented in the Manual for Effective
Technology Transition Processes included as an attachment to this report. This manual provides processes, procedures, and tools for
greatly improving technology transition in the aerospace industry. Methodology for the implementation of these improvements is
given along with methods for customizing the various processes, procedures, and tools for a given company or business unit. The
indicated methodology was tested by the LeanTEC team and results are documented in the...
Klein, Jan; Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Joel; Barrett, Betty
Since the rise of the industrial revolution, there are few challenges that compare in scale and scope
with the challenge of implementing lean principles in order to achieve high performance work
systems. This report summarize key insights and learning by representatives from a cross
section of organizations who are on this journey. Specifically, we report on findings from the
first Lean Aircraft Initiative (LAI) Implementation Workshop, which was held on February 5-6, 1997.
The report is not a “cookbook” or a “how to” manual. Rather, it is a summary of the first phase
in a learning process. It is designed to codify lessons learning, facilitate diffusion...
Jobo, Major Ronald S.
Lean is common sense and good business sense. As organizations grow and become more
successful, they begin to lose insight into the basic truths of what made them successful.
Organizations have to deal with more and more issues that may not have anything to do with
directly providing products or services to their customers. Lean is a holistic management
approach that brings the focus of the organization back to providing value to the customer.
In August 2002, Mrs. Darleen Druyun, the Principal Deputy to the Assistant Secretary of the Air
Force for Acquisition and government co-chairperson of the Lean Aerospace Initiative (LAI),
decided it was time for...
Vaughn, Amanda; Shields, J. Thomas
Manufacturing has evolved to become a critical
element of the competitive skill set of defense
aerospace firms. Given the changes in the
acquisition environment and culture; traditional
“thrown over the wall” means of developing
and manufacturing products are insufficient.
Also, manufacturing systems are complex
systems that need to be carefully designed in a
holistic manner and there are shortcomings
with available tools and methods to assist in the
design of these systems. This paper outlines the
generation and validation of a framework to
guide this manufacturing system design process.
McManus, Hugh; Millard, Richard
This paper explores the concept of Value
Stream Analysis and Mapping (VSA/M) as
applied to Product Development (PD) efforts.
Value Stream Analysis and Mapping is a
method of business process improvement. The
application of VSA/M began in the
manufacturing community. PD efforts provide
a different setting for the use of VSA/M. Site
visits were made to nine major U.S. aerospace
organizations. Interviews, discussions, and
participatory events were used to gather data
on (1) the sophistication of the tools used in PD
process improvement efforts, (2) the lean
context of the use of the tools, and (3) success
of the efforts.
It was found that all three factors were
strongly correlated, suggesting success depends
on both good tools...
Current Value Stream Map
Future Value Stream Map
Key Research Questions
McManus, Hugh; Millard, Richard
This paper explores the concept of Value Stream Analysis and Mapping (VSA/M) as applied to Product Development (PD) efforts. Value Stream Analysis and Mapping is a method of business process improvement. The application of VSA/M began in the manufacturing community. PD efforts provide a different setting for the use of VSA/M. Site visits were made to nine major U.S. aerospace organizations. Interviews, discussions, and participatory events were used to gather data on (1) the sophistication of the tools used in PD process improvement efforts, (2) the lean context of the use of the tools, and (3) success of the efforts....
-Value creation framework
-Value creation and product development
Lucas, William; Shroyer, Edward; Noel, Gerald; Schwartz, Brian
This paper reports on results from five companies in the aerospace and automotive industries to show that over-commitment of technical professionals and under-representation of key skills on technology development and transition teams seriously impairs team performance. The research finds that 40 percent of the projects studied were inadequately staffed, resulting in weaker team communications and alignment. Most importantly, the weak staffing on these teams is found to be associated with a doubling of project failure rate to reach full production. Those weakly staffed teams that did successfully insert technology into production systems were also much more likely than other teams...
This report represents research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the Lean Aerospace Initiative (LAI) program. The research focused on identifying Acquisition Intrapreneurs, viewed and defined for the purpose of this research as, individuals within the acquisition profession who take direct responsibility for turning ideas into products through assertive risk taking. The basis for this research stems from the agile acquisition push for “breeding innovators” to achieve a leaner and more responsive approach to the design, build, test and fielding of warfighting systems.
Vaughn, Mandy; Shields, Thomas; Gutowski, Timothy
The Manufacturing Systems team was one of the research teams within the Lean Aerospace Initiative (LAI) whose goal was to document, analyze and communicate the design attributes and relationships that lead to significant performance improvements in manufacturing systems in the defense aerospace industry. This report will provide an integrated record of this research using the Production Operations Transition to Lean Roadmap as its organizing framework.
Ling, James; Houlahan, Christina; Pomponi, Renata; Shields, Thomas; Stout, Todd; Cowap, Stacey
The Lean Aircraft Initiative began in the summer of 1992 as a “quick look” into the feasibility of applying manufacturing principles that had been pioneered in the automobile industry, most notably the Toyota Production System, to the U.S. defense aircraft industry. Once it was established that “lean principles” (the term coined to describe the new paradigm in automobile manufacturing) were indeed applicable to aircraft manufacturing as well, the Initiative was broadened to include other segments of the defense aerospace industry. These consisted of electronics/avionics, engines, electro-mechanical systems, missiles, and space systems manufacturers. In early 1993, a formal framework was established...
The essence of lean is very simple, but from a research and implementation point of view overwhelming. Lean is the search for perfection through the elimination of waste and the insertion of practices that contribute to reduction in cost and schedule while improving performance of products. This concept of lean has wide applicability to a large range of processes, people and organizations, from concept design to the factory floor, from the laborer to the upper management, from the customer to the developer. Progress has been made in implementing and raising the awareness of lean practices at the factory floor. However,...
Hastings, Daniel; McManus, Hugh
The Space Systems, Policy and Architecture Research Consortium (SSPARC) was formed to make substantial progress on problems of national importance. The goals of SSPARC were to:
• Provide technologies and methods that will allow the creation of flexible, upgradable space systems,
• Create a “clean sheet” approach to space systems architecture determination and design, including the incorporation of risk, uncertainty, and flexibility issues, and
• Consider the impact of national space policy on the above.
This report covers the last two goals, and demonstrates that the effort was largely successful.
This white paper reports emerging findings at the end of Phase I of the Lean Aircraft Initiative in the Policy focus group area. Specifically, it provides details about research on program instability. Its objective is to discuss high-level findings detailing: 1) the relative contribution of different factors to a program’s overall instability; 2) the cost impact of program instability on acquisition programs; and 3) some strategies recommended by program managers for overcoming and/or mitigating the negative effects of program instability on their programs. Because this report comes as this research is underway, this is not meant to be a definitive...
McManus, Hugh; Warmkessel, Joyce
The descriptions below and the attached diagrams are outputs of the 1998 LAI Product Development Focus Team workshop on the Value Chain in Product Development. A working group at that workshop was asked to model the product development process: in terms of the phases of product development and their interfaces, boundaries and outputs. Their work has proven to be generally useful to LAI researchers and industry members, and so is formalized here.