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Repositório do ISPA Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (10.261 recursos)

No Repositório do ISPA pode encontrar diversos tipos de documentos, em formato digital, resultantes da produção científica do ISPA designadamente: teses de doutoramento, teses de mestrado, artigos em publicações periódicas nacionais e internacionais, relatórios técnicos, artigos em actas de conferências nacionais e internacionais e capítulos de livros.

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 24

  1. Painted Goby Larvae under high-CO2 fail to recognize reef sounds

    Castro, Joana M.; Amorim, Maria Clara Pessoa; Oliveira, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Emanuel João; Munday, Philip L.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Faria, Ana Margarida
    Atmospheric CO2 levels have been increasing at an unprecedented rate due to anthropogenic activity. Consequently, ocean pCO2 is increasing and pH decreasing, affecting marine life, including fish. For many coastal marine fishes, selection of the adult habitat occurs at the end of the pelagic larval phase. Fish larvae use a range of sensory cues, including sound, for locating settlement habitat. This study tested the effect of elevated CO2 on the ability of settlement-stage temperate fish to use auditory cues from adult coastal reef habitats. Wild late larval stages of painted goby (Pomatoschistus pictus) were exposed to control pCO2 (532 μatm,...

  2. Novel insights into the dynamics of green turtle fibropapillomatosis

    Patrício, Ana R.; Diez, Carlos E.; Dam, Robert P. van; Godley, Brendan J.
    Outbreaks of fibropapillomatosis (FP), a neoplastic infectious disease of marine turtles, have occurred worldwide since the 1980s. Its most likely aetiological agent is a virus, but disease expression depends on external factors, typically associated with altered environments. The scarcity of robust long-term data on disease prevalence has limited interpretations on the impacts of FP on turtle populations. Here we model the dynamics of FP at 2 green turtle foraging aggregations in Puerto Rico, through 18 yr of capture-mark-recapture data (1997−2014). We observed spatiotemporal variation in FP prevalence, potentially modulated via individual site-fidelity. FP ex pression was residency dependent, and FP-free individuals developed tumours after 1.8 ± 0.8...

  3. High interannual variability in connectivity and genetic pool of a temperate clingfish matches oceanographic transport predictions

    Klein, Maria; Teixeira, Sara; Assis, Jorge; Serrão, Ester A.; Gonçalves, Emanuel João; Borges, Rita Alexandra
    Adults of most marine benthic and demersal fish are site-attached, with the dispersal of their larval stages ensuring connectivity among populations. In this study we aimed to infer spatial and temporal variation in population connectivity and dispersal of a marine fish species, using genetic tools and comparing these with oceanographic transport. We focused on an intertidal rocky reef fish species, the shore clingfish Lepadogaster lepadogaster, along the southwest Iberian Peninsula, in 2011 and 2012. We predicted high levels of self-recruitment and distinct populations, due to short pelagic larval duration and because all its developmental stages have previously been found near...

  4. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical northeast atlantic

    Furtado, Ricardo Miranda; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo
    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating in the digestive tract of WFSP. Pellets with no bird prey did not contain plastics. Most debris were fragments (83.6%) with fewer plastic pellets (8.2%). Light-coloured plastics predominated...

  5. At odds with the group: Changes in lateralization and escape performance reveal conformity and conflict in fish schools

    Chivers, Douglas P.; McCormick, Mark I.; Allan, Bridie J. M.; Mitchell, Matthew D.; Gonçalves, Emanuel João; Bryshun, Reid; Ferrari, Maud C. O.
    Many vertebrates are known to show behavioural lateralization, whereby they differentially use one side of their body or either of their bilateral organs or limbs. Behavioural lateralization often manifests in a turning bias in fishes, with some individuals showing a left bias and others a right bias. Such biases could be the source of considerable conflict in fish schools given that there may be considerable social pressure to conform to the group to maintain effective group evasion. Here, we show that predation pressure is a major determinant of the degree of lateralization, both in a relative and absolute sense, in...

  6. Feeding ecology and life-history strategy of nesting males in a fish with long parental care, Lusitanian toadfish (Halobatrachus didactylus, Batrachoididae)

    Félix, Pedro M.; Amorim, Maria Clara Pessoa; Pereira, Tadeu José; Fonseca, Paulo Jorge; Santos, Carla Sousa; Costa, José Lino
    The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, like other batrachoidids, is a benthic fish species with nesting behaviour during the breeding season. During this prolonged period it engages in mating activities and remains in the nest providing parental care. It is not known whether males feed while providing parental care but it is likely that their limited mobility may restrict their diet and influence their fitness. As a consequence, egg cannibalism could occur as a life-history strategy. The aim of the present study is to ascertain the feeding behaviour of nesting males, in comparison to mature non-nesting males, and to identify potential life-history traits related to egg...

  7. Call recognition and individual identification of fish vocalizations based on automatic speech recognition: An example with the Lusitanian toadfish

    Vieira, Manuel; Fonseca, Paulo Jorge; Amorim, Maria Clara Pessoa; Teixeira, Carlos J. C.
    The study of acoustic communication in animals often requires not only the recognition of species specific acoustic signals but also the identification of individual subjects, all in a complex acoustic background. Moreover, when very long recordings are to be analyzed, automatic recognition and identification processes are invaluable tools to extract the relevant biological information. A pattern recognition methodology based on hidden Markov models is presented inspired by successful results obtained in the most widely known and complex acoustical communication signal: human speech. This methodology was applied here for the first time to the detection and recognition of fish acoustic signals,...

  8. Niche segregation between immature and adult seabirds: Does progressive maturation play a role?

    Campioni, Letizia; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Catry, Paulo
    In long-lived species with slow maturation, prebreeders often represent a large percentage of the individuals alive at any moment, but their ecology is still understudied. Recent studies have found prebreeding seabirds to differ in their isotopic (and trophic) niche from adult breeders attending the same nesting colonies. These differences have been hypothesized to be linked to the less-developed foraging performance of younger and less-experienced immatures or perhaps to their inferior competitive abilities. Such differences from adults would wane as individuals mature (“the progressive ontogenetic shift hypothesis”) and could underpin the prolonged breeding deferral until adulthood displayed by those species. This study documents a marked difference...

  9. Asexual origin of brooding in the sea anemones Actinia equina and A. schmidti: Molecular evidence from the portuguese shore

    Pereira, Ana Martins; Cadeireiro, Emília Margarida; Robalo, Joana Isabel
    Reproduction by sexual or asexual viviparity is a common phenomenon in some anemone species. In this short communication, the origin of the brooded young of Actinia equina and A. schmidti from the Portuguese shore was investigated. DNA was extracted from 56 brooding adult Actinia sp. and the nuclear gene that codes for the 28S ribosomal subunit was sequenced. Species identity was then assessed using GenBank. In total, 50 individuals were A. schmidti, five were A. equina and one had a hybrid origin. Three adult anemones (the hybrid, one A. equina and one A. schmidti) possessed two different 28S sequences and so their offspring was selected for further analysis using the...

  10. A regulation-based classification system for marine protected areas (MPAs)

    Costa, Bárbara Horta e; Claudet, Joachim; Franco, Gustavo; Erzini, Karim; Caro, Anthony; Gonçalves, Emanuel João
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  11. Home sweet home: evidence for nest-fidelity in the rocky intertidal fish, the shanny Lipophrys pholis

    Martins, Joana; Almada, Frederico; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Coelho, Pedro Duarte; Jorge, Paulo
    The ability to be faithful to a particular area or site was analysed in the shanny Lipophrys pholis. Using passive integrated transponders, adults from a population of L. pholis at Cabo Raso, Portugal, were followed over a period of 3 years. The findings showed that site fidelity is a consistent behaviour during the breeding season with specific breeding males being found only in particular sectors within the area, and in specific nests throughout the years. The fact that, in general, L. pholis individuals were absent from the study area during the non-breeding season and breeding males were recorded returning to the...

  12. Early life history of larvae and early juvenile atlantic horse mackerel trachurus trachurus off the portuguese west coast

    Beveren, Elisabeth Van; Klein, Maria; Serrão, Ester A.; Gonçalves, Emanuel João; Borges, Rita Alexandra
    Early life history traits (ELHTs) are key to understand recruitment patterns in marine animals. However, for reef fishes, studies on ELHTs are mainly focused on tropical systems and little is known for temperate reefs. In this study we used SMURFs (Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Reef Fishes) to collect fish in a temperate rocky reef system (Arrábida Marine Park, Portugal) on a weekly basis for three months during the recruitment period. Six sub-surface SMURFs sampled 2490 Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) postlarvae and juveniles. Sagittal and lapilli otoliths were extracted from a subsample of 296 fish and ELHTs, such as size and age at...

  13. Provenance does matter: Links between winter trophic segregation and the migratory origins of European robins

    Catry, Paulo; Campos, Ana R.; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Neto, Júlio M.; Ramos, Jaime; Newton, Jason; Bearhop, Stuart
    Amongst migratory species, it is common to find individuals from different populations or geographical origins sharing staging or wintering areas. Given their differing life histories, ecological theory would predict that the different groups of individuals should exhibit some level of niche segregation. This has rarely been investigated because of the difficulty in assigning migrating individuals to breeding areas. Here, we start by documenting a broad geographical gradient of hydrogen isotopes (δ (2)H) in robin Erithacus rubecula feathers across Europe. We then use δ (2)H, as well as wing-tip shape, as surrogates for broad migratory origin of birds wintering in Iberia,...

  14. Vocal differentiation parallels development of auditory saccular sensitivity in a highly soniferous fish

    Vasconcelos, Raquel Ornelas; Alderks, Peter W.; Ramos, Andreia; Fonseca, Paulo Jorge; Amorim, Maria Clara Pessoa; Sisneros, Joseph A.
    Vocal differentiation is widely documented in birds and mammals but has been poorly investigated in other vertebrates, including fish, which represent the oldest extant vertebrate group. Neural circuitry controlling vocal behaviour is thought to have evolved from conserved brain areas that originated in fish, making this taxon key to understanding the evolution and development of the vertebrate vocal-auditory systems. This study examines ontogenetic changes in the vocal repertoire and whether vocal differentiation parallels auditory development in the Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Batrachoididae). This species exhibits a complex acoustic repertoire and is vocally active during early development. Vocalisations were recorded during...

  15. Migration, prospecting, dispersal? What host movement matters for infectious agent circulation?

    Boulinier, Thierry; Kada, Sarah; Ponchon, Aurore; Dupraz, Marlène; Dietrich, Muriel; Gamble, Amandine; Bourret, Vincent; Duriez, Olivier; Bazire, Romain; Tornos, Jérémy; Tveraa, Torkild; Chambert, Thierry; Garnier, Romain; McCoy, Karen D.
    Spatial disease ecology is emerging as a new field that requires the integration of complementary approaches to address how the distribution and movements of hosts and parasites may condition the dynamics of their interactions. In this context, migration, the seasonal movement of animals to different zones of their distribution, is assumed to play a key role in the broad scale circulation of parasites and pathogens. Nevertheless, migration is not the only type of host movement that can influence the spatial ecology, evolution, and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Dispersal, the movement of individuals between the location where they were born or...

  16. Foraging behaviour, swimming performance and malformations of early stages of commercially important fishes under ocean acidification and warming

    Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Marques, Tiago A.; Bispo, Regina; Dionísio, Gisela João Ribeiro Lemos; Faria, Ana Margarida; Machado, Jorge; Peck, Myron A.; Pörtner, Hans; Ferreira, Pedro Marques Pousão; Gonçalves, Emanuel João; Rosa, Rui
    Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by climate change, but little is known about their capacity to tolerate future ocean conditions. Here we investigated a comprehensive set of biological responses of larvae of two commercially important teleost fishes, Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream) and Argyrosomus regius (meagre), after exposure to future predictions of ocean warming (+4 °C) and acidification (ΔpH= 0.5). The combined effect of warming and hypercapnia elicited a decrease in the hatching success (by 26.4 and 14.3 % for S. aurata and A. regius, respectively) and larval survival (by half) in both species. The length for newly-hatched larvae was not significantly...

  17. Asymmetrical processing of olfactory input in the piriform cortex mediates "activation" of the avian navigation circuitry

    Jorge, Paulo; Marques, Paulo A. M.; Pinto, Belmiro V.; Phillips, John B. Phillips
    The role of odors in the long-distance navigation of birds has elicited intense debate for more than half a century. Failure to resolve many of the issues fueling this debate is due at least in part to the absence of controls for a variety of non-specific effects that odors have on the navigational process. The present experiments were carried out to investigate whether the olfactory inputs are involved only in “activation” of neuronal circuitry involved in navigation or are also playing a role in providing directional information. Experienced adult pigeons were exposed to controlled olfactory stimuli during different segments of the journey (release site vs. displacement...

  18. Absence of consistent genetic differentiation among several morphs of Actinia (Actiniaria: Actiniidae) occurring in the portuguese coast

    Pereira, Ana Martins; Brito, Cristiana; Sanches, Joana; Sousa-Santos, Carla; Robalo, Joana Isabel
    Actinia equina, the beadlet sea anemone, is a very labile species, displaying variable colour patterns, broad habitat choice and diverse modes of reproduction. Historically, studies using genetic markers such as allozymes and differences in habitat choice lead several authors to propose that different colour morphs could represent different species. One of the species defined was A. fragacea. In this paper, the relationships between brown, red and green colour morphs of A. equina and A. fragacea were studied, using two DNA fragments (one mitochondrial and one nuclear). Individuals were sampled from three different areas in Portugal separated by a maximum distance of 500 km. This is...

  19. Distribution and at-sea activity of a nocturnal seabird, the Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii, during the incubation period

    Dias, Maria P.; Romero, Joana; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Catry, Teresa; Pollet, Ingrid L.; Catry, Paulo
    Bulwer'spetrelsarenocturnalseabirdsthatmostlypreyonmesopelagicfauna.Asaerialforagersand shallowdivers,theirfeedingopportunitiesarelimitedbynear-surfaceavailabilityoftheirprey,whichis highlyvariablebothtemporally(reflectingdiurnalandlunarcycles)andspatially.Herewestudiedhow Bulwer'spetrelscopewiththeseconstraintsbyanalysingtheirat-seadistributionandactivityduringthe incubationperiod.Wetrackedthemovementsof20birdsfromSelvagemGrande(NEAtlantic)duringa completelunarcycle,andrecorded30foragingtripsthatlasted11daysonaverage.Birdswereboth distributedaroundthecolonyandinwatersclosetotheAzoreanarchipelago(mid-Atlantic)located 1700kmaway,andweresignificantlymoreactiveatnight(especiallyjustaftersunsetandbeforesunrise), whenmesopelagicfaunaisalsoclosertotheseasurfaceduetotheirdielverticalmigrations.Bulwer's petrelsspentsignificantlymoretime flyingduringmoonlight,althoughtheeffectofthemoonwasrela- tivelyweak(ca.10–15%differencebetweenmoonlitanddarkperiodsofthenight),andnotobviouswhen birdswereforaginginmid-Atlanticwaters,whichwerealsotargetedmoreoftenduringfull-moon.These resultsrevealkeyadaptationsoftheBulwer'spetreltothehighlydynamicecologyofitsmesopelagicprey.

  20. A Quantitative analysis of pulsed signals emitted by wild bottlenose dolphins

    Luís, Ana Rita; Couchinho, Miguel Nogueira; Santos, Manuel Eduardo dos
    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), produce a wide variety of vocal emissions for communication and echolocation, of which the pulsed repertoire has been the most difficult to categorize. Packets of high repetition, broadband pulses are still largely reported under a general designation of burst-pulses, and traditional attempts to classify these emissions rely mainly in their aural characteristics and in graphical aspects of spectrograms. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of pulsed signals emitted by wild bottlenose dolphins, in the Sado estuary, Portugal (2011-2014), and test the reliability of a traditional classification approach. Acoustic parameters (minimum frequency, maximum frequency, peak frequency,...

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