Why has the completion of the single market in financial services proved so difficult and time consuming? This paper addresses this question by applying a revised version
of the ‘advocacy coalition framework’, modified so as to incorporate the role of material interests as well as ideas, to the empirical record of the policy-making
processes of key pieces of legislation dealing with securities trading in the EU. It is argued that in almost all the Lamfalussy directives, the main (but, by no means,
the only) line of division was between a ‘Northern European’ coalition and a ‘Southern European’ one. This was due to differences...
Portela, Clara; Raube, Kolja
How does the EU deal with incoherence and coherence? In this paper we try to answer this research
question in order to draw conclusions on the specific nature of the EU as a foreign policy actor. We
define coherence and incoherence in EU foreign policy as our dependent variable in a first step.
Coherence is understood as a principle guiding foreign policies in the EU as well as other
international actors. Effectiveness is crucially linked to the principle of coherence, not only in the EU.
However, the way in which the principle of coherence is implemented differs in ideal type polities in
foreign policy. By analysing...
The Social policy discourse of the EU is characterized by its continuous evolution. True, there are shifts in emphasis and change in the buzzwords; Social Model, Flexicurity, and Employability are examples. Still, beneath stylistic fluctuations, a common thread through policy development can be discerned since the Delors era. This paper is an attempt to figure out such continuity and seek its foundation in the existence of a rather stable policy community. Specifically, the paper highlights the role of academics and policy experts. The paper proceeds in three steps. First, it traces the development of the social policy discourse since the...
McNamara, Kathleen; Newman, Abraham.
In this paper, we offer an alternative explanation for international organizational change, one that couples insights from organizational sociology with historical institutionalism. The core argument rests on two assumptions. First, we note that international institutions sit in a broader organizational ecosystem. This ecosystem develops over time and can provide the building blocks of change and evolution in particular organizational sites. As this ecosystem is a fundamentally social environment, understanding IO change requires attention to the cultural materials that make up that environment and provide the building block for institutional change, as highlighted in sociological approaches. Second, the capacity to engage...
This article will first develop the concept of financial motivations, presenting first the relevant variables and then the logic suggesting why they should be linked. Then it will look at monetary policy behaviour in four international monetary systems; the gold standard at the beginning of this century, the gold exchange standard of the interwar period, the Bretton Woods system in the 1960s, and the European Exchange Rate Mechanism of the past decade. In each case, the behaviour of the core state in the monetary system will be examined, except in the interwar system, for which both British and American policy...
The principal-agent (PA) approach has recently become the dominant approach to the study of delegation in both comparative and international politics. Despite its purported benefits, a growing number of critics have taken exception to both the theoretical assumptions and the empirical claims of PA analysis. Such critiques, it is argued, fall into three groups. The first are the red herrings, the critiques that arise from a misunderstanding or misrepresentation of what PA approaches and their practitioners actually argue. The second and more interesting set of critiques raise the distinction between agents and trustees, questioning applicability of PA analysis to the...
Brown, M. Leann.
Before the promulgation of the 1987 Single European Act (SEA), the European Communities (EC) had undertaken three multi-year Environmental Action Programmes and generated more than 100 measures to coordinate and harmonize environmental protection. However, the 1957 Treaty of Rome, the legal basis for the organization, did not authorize joint action in the area of environmental protection. Pre-1987 environmental legislation was justified on the grounds that divergent environmental regulations in the Member States distorted trade competition and constituted a non-tariff barrier to free trade, and that the Treaty specified as objectives the promotion of "an accelerated raising of the standard of...
Scientific development cannot be conceived other than as an open debate between diverse theories and approaches. In the context of the study of the European Union there can be no doubt that such debate indeed does take place. Yet, the debate between the political economy of liberalism, socialism and nationalism is, surprisingly, absent from the study of the European Union. The present paper strives to show that this negligence leads to the subtle adaptation of economic liberal assertions regarding the nature of interdependence, of nationalism and of the economic role of the state. The main purpose of this paper is,...
[From the introduction]. The field of international relations is built on a conception of autonomous and self-interested states which, in the anarchic setting of international politics, rely on self-help. And yet, we frequently do see cooperation among states as numerous security and economic arrangements throughout history bear witness to. To understand world politics, I argue, one must recognize the importance of emerging hierarchies--with nation-states as their constituent elements and institutional structures that take substantial autonomy from the state. Some such hierarchical arrangements are economic (free trade areas, customs unions, common markets), others are military (ententes, formal alliances, confederations). In this...
Hedley Bull's searing 1982 critique of the European Community's 'civilian power' in international affairs serves as the point of departure for my discussion of the European Union's 'normative power' in contemporary international and world society. The idea of using Bull's examination of civilian power Europe as an entry point to a discussion on the value of using English School terms to study the EU may strike many as problematic. I will attempt to use this paper to argue that the methodological pluralism of the English School provokes us into thinking beyond traditional conceptions of the EU's international role and towards...
[From the Introduction]. As an abstract proposition, we are likely to accept the close connection between domestic and international politics. Arguments about the direction of causal flow center on competing views of how best to understand the connections--from the "inside-out" or the "outside in." The former stresses domestic politics as the starting point; the latter international politics. What is not questioned is the close relationship. The European Community accents the importance of the domestic-international connection. While the member states are identifiably important to the process of integration, there is a close mingling of states and non-state actors in an environment...
Breckinridge, Robert E.
[From the Introduction]. The theoretical study of the European Community has traditionally been undertaken according to theories of international integration. After all, the EC is the result of the economic integration or unification of sovereign nationstates, and integration theory has been developed to explain the process and end-state of such unification. More recently, however, scholars have written that integration theory is no longer useful for studying the creature into which the EC has evolved, and into which the Community is still evolving (see, for example, Pinder, 1981; Hoffman, 1982; Wallace, 1982, 1983). This development has led to an increasing amount...
[From the Introduction]. This may initially strike one as a strange question. After all, the environment has become a virtually universal concern of politics and policy-making. Nevertheless, the question deserves to be posed because what is and is not included in the term, environment, cannot be taken for granted. For the sake of simplicity, one can imagine two ways of considering "the environmental." One way draws lines around anthropogenically traceable degradations of the biosphere, taking as the baseline extant social institutions and cultural orientations. This approach is, broadly speaking, not only anthropocentric, but in a way, ethnocentric as well. Interest...
Zito, Anthony R.
Robert Putnam's "two level game" approach has had a particular impact on recent international relations theory. Putnam's article presents a provocative and persuasive understanding of the relationship between the international behavior of states and the domestic institutional and political situation. This renewed focus on the domestic political impact is an extremely praiseworthy development, which complements rather than contradicts the orientation found in this paper. This paper contends that international relations should make a parallel effort to "bring back" institutional analysis of how the formal structures of international organizations shape and constrain state behavior. In order to advance this institutional perspective,...
Jachtenfuchs, Markus; Kohler-Koch, Beate.
The transfer of political competencies to the European level proceeds in small steps in the daily practice of governance and of adjudication. In large intervals, the results of these processes are codified in treaty form by intergovernmental conferences. It therefore seems fruitful to have a closer look at "governance in a dynamic multi-level system". The first part of this paper recalls the political and legal controversy about the nature of the political order of the Union with the aim of justifying the use of the term "governance" with reference to the EU. More or less isolated from the discussion on...
Begg, Iann; Green, David.
Although the Treaty on European Union is, in many respects, an ambitious blueprint for European integration, it has little to say about a number of areas of public policy. In some of these areas, no clear guidance is given about whether responsibility for policy should remain with Member States or be re-assigned to the supranational tier. By contrast, the assignment of competences is entirely explicit in other fields. Thus, monetary union will see the transfer of responsibility for monetary policy from Member States to the European Central Bank (ECB), while fiscal policy will remain with Member States. The ECB, acting...
This paper is organized in two main sections. Section 2 examines theoretical conceptions of the European Union and international institutions. It finds both the external and the internal perspective on institutions present in integration theory, while the latter is virtually missing in international relations theory. Section 3 outlines an interaction-oriented conception of international institutions that transfers the internal perspective of modern neo-functionalism to these institutions.
Elgstrom, Ole; Stromvik, Maria.
In this paper we want to problematize this conventional view of the EU as a reactive, conservative international negotiator. We argue that the EU's structural features need not always result in a disadvantage for the Union in international negotiations. We also content that EU negotiation behavior to a large extent depends on contextual factors. Are negotiations symmetrical or asymmetrical? Are the intentions of the EU shams quo-oriented or change¬-oriented? All these negotiation-specific factors determine what bargaining pattern we expect to find. In addition to the EU's structural features (actor level characteristics) and the negotiation situation (interaction level characteristics), we also...
Sbragia, Alberta M.
The European Union is now an important actor in the arena of global environmental politics. It is a signatory to important global treaties and a significant participant in global negotiations. Surprisingly, however, its role has been given very little scholarly attention. This paper explores how the Community constructed over time an international presence in the environmental field. It argues that the Community, while not a ‘state’ in the international arena, has undergone an institution-building process since 1973 which has garnered international recognition. CITES, the Vienna Convention, and UNCED are briefly discussed.