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Technology and Law Program

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 64

  1. MAJOR CHALLENGES TO EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: CAN THE CURRENT NATURE OF INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION HOPE TO EDUCATE THE CHANGE AGENTS NEEDED FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ?

    Ashford, Nicholas A.
    Scholars and professionals committed to fostering sustainable development have urged a re-examination of the curriculum and restructuring of research and teaching in institutions of higher learning. This paper begins by discussing an expansive definition of sustainable development that includes economic, environmental, and employment concerns important to both developed and developing nations; then distinguishes inter-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary, and trans-disciplinary problem solving; and finally argues that the policy sciences are different from policy engineering. The paper then addresses the following themes and questions: (1) How can multi- and trans-disciplinary research and teaching coexist in a meaningful way in today’s university structures? (2) Does...

  2. SCIENCE, SOCIETY, AND SUSTAINABILITY: Challenges for Research and Policy in the 21st Century

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

  3. Government Regulation of Environmental and Occupational Health in the Environment in the United States and the European Union

    Caldart, Charles; Ashford, Nicholas A.
    The manufacturing, processing, and use of chemicals, materials, tools, machinery, and equipment in industrial, construction, mining, and agricultural workplaces often cause environmental, health, and safety hazards and risks. Occupational and environmental factors cause or exacerbate a wide variety of adverse health effects, placing heavy economic and social burdens on workers, employers, community residents, and taxpayers. In addition, consumer products, pharmaceuticals, and contaminated food present health risks to consumers. Because voluntary efforts in the unregulated market have not succeeded in reducing the incidence of many of these health effects, the public has demanded government intervention into the activities of the private...

  4. Environmental Regulation, Globalization and Innovation

    Ashford, Nicholas A.
    This chapter explores the complex relationship between environmental regulation, innovation and sustainable development within the context of an increasingly globalizing economy. It will be argued that industrial policy, environmental policy and trade initiatives must be integrated, with a deliberate focus on stimulating technological innovation if trade and globalization are not to undercut progress in sustainable development.

  5. Reflections on Environmental Liability Schemes in the United States and European Union: Limitations and Prospects for Improvement

    Ashford, Nicholas A.
    We are constantly confronted with cases of severe damage to the environment resulting from human acts. High profile cases capture the international community’s attention briefly such as the infamous 1989 Exxon Valdez oil release in Alaska’s Prince William Sound and more recently, the accident with the Erika oil tanker in the South of Spain, two examples of cases where human activities have resulted in substantial damage to the environment. In addition to these catastrophic events, mankind also releases countless harmful substances to land, water, and air on a daily basis. Both the United States and the European Union responded to...

  6. Rethinking the Role of Information in Chemicals Policy: Implications for TSCA and REACH

    Ashford, Nicholas A.; Koch, Lars

  7. Epilogue - Beyond Pollution Control and Prevention: Sustainable Development

    Ashford, Nicholas A.
    Currently several environmental problems face both industrialized and developing nations. These include (1) chemical pollution, (2) climate change, (3) resource and energy depletion, and (4) the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. While often addressed separately, all four of these environmental problems are related to advancing industrialization, population growth, and the globalization of production and commerce. Societies that produce and consume more also tend to deplete more natural resources, create more pollution, produce more greenhouse gases, and have a relatively greater adverse impact on the ecosystem. In addition, the interconnectedness of nations through globalization has produced ‘‘lock-in’’ of, and dependence on, a particular development model. We believe that this...

  8. The Economic and Social Context of Special Populations

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

  9. Epilogue—Beyond Pollution Control and Prevention:

    Ashford, Nicholas A.; Caldart, Charles
    Environmental Law, Policy and Economics: Reclaiming the Environmental Agenda

  10. Sustainable Development and Globalization: New Challenges and Opportunities for Work Organization

    Ashford, Nicholas A.
    The relationship between industrialization and its effects on the environment has captured the serious attention of national governments and international organizations, especially in light of increasing globalization. Sustainability in products, processes, and services has been increasingly emphasized by placing environment at the center of some industrial transformations -- or at least on a par with competitiveness. The key to environmental sustainability was recognized early as involving the design and implementation of environmentally sound products, processes and services, rather than addressing environmental concerns as an afterthought in industrial systems. At the same time as the environment has become more important in...

  11. Sustainable Development and Globalization: New Challenges and Opportunities for Work Organization

    Ashford, Nicholas A.
    The relationship between industrialization and its effects on the environment has captured the serious attention of national governments and international organizations, especially in light of increasing globalization. Sustainability in products, processes, and services has been increasingly emphasized by placing environment at the center of some industrial transformations -- or at least on a par with competitiveness. The key to environmental sustainability was recognized early as involving the design and implementation of environmentally sound products, processes and services, rather than addressing environmental concerns as an afterthought in industrial systems. At the same time as the environment has become more important in...

  12. Government and Environmental Innovation in Europe and North America

    Ashford, Nicholas A.
    This article challenges certain tenets of the theories of reflexive law and ecological modernization. While far-sighted prevention-oriented and structural changes are needed, some proponents of these theories argue that the very industries and firms that create environmental problems can, through continuous institutional learning; the application of life cycle analysis; dialogue and networks with stakeholders; and implementation of "environmental management systems," be transformed into sustainable industries and firms. While useful, these reforms are insufficient. It is not marginal or incremental changes that are needed for sustainability, but rather major product, process, and system transformations – often beyond the capacity of the...

  13. Environmental Regulation, Globalization, and Innovation

    Ashford, Nicholas A.
    This essay explores the complex relationship between environmental regulation, innovation, and sustainable development within the context of an increasingly globalizing economy. It will be argued that industrial policy, environmental policy, and trade initiatives must be integrated, with a deliberate focus on stimulating technological innovation, if trade and globalization are not to undercut progress in sustainable development.

  14. Negotiated Regulation, Implementation and Compliance in the United States

    Ashford, Nicholas A.; Caldart, Charles
    Interest in the use of so-called voluntary approaches to supplement or replace formal environmental regulation is on the rise, both in Europe and in the United States. These approaches fall into two general categories: (1) industry-initiated codes of good practice focusing on environmental management systems or performance goals, and (2) negotiation between government and individual firms (or industry sector trade associations) focusing on regulation or compliance. This paper addresses the latter. In the United States, the motivations for engaging in such negotiation are manifold and sometimes contradictory. They include desires (1) to facilitate the achievement of legislated environmental goals by...

  15. Environmental and Occupational Health Protection Laws

    Ashford, Nicholas A.; Caldart, Charles
    The manufacturing, processing, and use of chemicals and materials in industrial workplaces are often accompanied by environmental, health, and safety hazards and risks. Occupational and environmental factors cause or exacerbate major diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive, and nervous systems and cause systemic poisoning and some cancers and birth defects. Occupational and environmental disease and injury place heavy economic and social burdens on workers, employers, citizens, and taxpayers. Government intervention to address those issues largely takes the form of regulatory standards promulgated under the authority of federal legislation. This article addresses the major regulatory systems (or regimes) designed to protect public and worker health from chemicals...

  16. The Role of Risk Assessment and Cost/Benefit Analysis in Decisions Concerning Safety and the Environment

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

  17. Law and Science Policy in Federal Regulation of Formaldehyde

    Ashford, Nicholas A.; Ryan, William C.; Caldart, Charles

  18. Pathways to Sustainable Industrial Transformations: Cooptimising Competitiveness, Employment, and Environment

    Ashford, Nicholas A.; Hafkamp, Wim; Prakke, Frits; Vergragt, Philip
    The relationship between industrialisation and the effects on the environment has captured the serious attention of national governments and international organisations. In the Netherlands, a successive series of the National Environmental Policy Plans (NEPPs) have been conceived and implemented to guide environmentally sound development. Sustainability in products, processes, and services has been increasingly emphasised by placing environment at the center of some industrial transformations -- or at least on a par with competitiveness. The key to environmental sustainability was recognized early as involving the design and implementation of environmentally sound products, processes and services, rather than addressing environmental concerns as...

  19. Environmental Occupational Health Protection Laws

    Ashford, Nicholas A.; Caldart, Charles
    The manufacturing, processing, and use of chemicals and materials in industrial, workplaces are often accompanied by environmental, health, and safety hazards and risks. Occupational and environmental factors cause or exacerbate major diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive, and nervous system and cause systemic poisoning and some cancers and birth defects. Occupational and environmental disease and injury place heavy economic and social burdens on workers, employers, citizens, and taxpayers. Government intervention to address those issues largely takes the form of regulatory standards promulgated under the authority of federal legislation. This chapter addresses the major regulatory systems (or “regimes”) designed to protect...

  20. The Crisis in the U.S. and International Cancer Policy

    Epstein, Samuel; Ashford, Nicholas A.
    The incidence of cancer in the United States and other major industrialized nations has escalated to epidemic proportions over recent decades, and greater increases are expected. While smoking is the single largest cause of cancer, the incidence of childhood cancers and a wide range of predominantly nonsmoking- related cancers in men and women has increased greatly. This modern epidemic does not reflect lack of resources of the U.S. cancer establishment, the National Cancer Institute and American Cancer Society; the NCI budget has increased 20-fold since passage of the 1971 National Cancer Act, while funding for research and public information on primary prevention remains minimal. The cancer establishment bears major...

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