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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (80.208 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

2015-16 Mershon Center Speakers

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 47

  1. The Evolution of Transboundary Water Politics in Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria

    Kibaroglu, Aysegul
    The program will begin with a public address and keynote lecture by Aysegul Kibaroglu, world expert on Turkish water policy issues and the history of cooperation across political boundaries in the Euphrates-Tigris region. The purpose of this two-day workshop is to uncover the intersections between technical and traditional knowledge bases, and address the misunderstanding that arise due to conflicting epistemic perspectives. The objective of the workshop is to uncover cases in which local wisdom has the potential to aid proper implementation of technical solutions, as well as the pitfalls that should be avoided. Current issues, such as the impending evacuation...

  2. The Political Economy of Financial Reform: de Jure Liberalization vs. de Facto Implementation

    Mansfield, Edward
    Over the past 20 years, social scientists have displayed growing interest in the political economy of financial reform. Virtually all of these studies have focused on explaining policy changes resulting in the liberalization of the financial sector without addressing the extent to which the adopted financial reforms have actually been implemented. In this presentation, I will assess the factors contributing to both de jure financial reform and the implementation of such liberalization. We find that de jure reform tends to be conducted by poorer countries and participants in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Standby Arrangement and its Poverty Reduction and...

  3. Reactors, Russia-Centrism, and U.S. Relations with Eastern Europe

    Brooks, Robin
    This lecture will discuss how, by prioritizing competition with Russia over bilateral relations with Eastern European countries, the United States damaged both its own national interests and those of its Eastern European partners. It engages the academic and policy debates over the desirability of resurrecting (or maintaining) the Cold War system of "spheres of interest" to preserve stability and contain potential expansion by one or the other side. It argues that reliance on "spheres of interest" may undermine, rather than support, U.S. national interests.The main case study for the discussion is U.S. support for European energy security and independence. Specifically,...

  4. A Conversation on Academic Freedom in Turkey

    Demirer, Yucel
    This event will provide the occasion to share information on the Turkish situation and explore both the local roots and the international context of the assault on academic freedom (with comparisons to the recent crackdown on academics in Egypt, India, and elsewhere). Ohio State alumnus Yücel Demirer, one of the professors affected, will share his experience, and students and faculty at Ohio State will discuss the implications of the situation for their own careers and research. We will also consider the practical challenges of international solidarity in such situations.

  5. Strategies of Nuclear Proliferation: How States Learned to Love Getting the Bomb

    Narang, Vipin
    How do states pursue nuclear weapons? The literature on nuclear proliferation has focused on the question of why states might pursue nuclear weapons, while more recent work examines how efficiently states achieve their nuclear ambitions. Yet the question of how states think about pursuing nuclear weapons, or their strategies of proliferation, has been ignored. This paper explores the strategies of proliferation available to states — hedging, sprinting, sheltered pursuit, and hiding — and develops a theory for which strategies are likely to be chosen at a given time by a given state. I present evidence and codings on the universe...

  6. Hearts, Minds, Voices: Cold War Public Diplomacy and the Formation of the 'Third World’

    Parker, Jason
    During the first half of the Cold War, the superpowers endeavored mightily to “win hearts and minds” abroad through what came to be called public diplomacy. Many of the target audiences were on the Cold War front-lines in Europe. However, other, larger ones resided in areas outside Europe then in the throes of decolonization. Among the latter, for all the blood and drama of war, intervention, crisis, and revolution, the vast majority experienced the Cold War as public diplomacy; as, essentially, a media war for their allegiance rather than as a violent war for their lives. In these areas, superpower...

  7. Better than the Truth: Extra-factual Sources of Threat Conception and Proliferation

    Greenhill, Kelly
    When uncertainty is high, and verifiable facts are inconvenient or few, how do people learn about what to fear and how to respond the threats they have identified? Ironically, verifiable, fact-based data is often particularly difficult to acquire when actors need it most: in periods of significant ambiguity and heightened threat, such as in the midst of wars, economic crises, and periods of domestic unrest. Under such circumstances, people are often left to glean what knowledge they can from an array of information sources of woollier provenance — such as rumors, conspiracy theories, myths, propaganda, and entertainment media. Drawing upon...

  8. Migrant Waves: Pre-Analysis Plan for a Survey of Syrian Refugees

    Peters, Margaret
    What explains surges in migration? Dominant theories emphasize conditions of violence or poverty in sending countries. However, these factors alone are unable to explain sudden migration waves. Sharp spikes in migration, like the current refugee crisis in Europe or last summer’s flow of Central American children across the U.S. border, contrast with often long-standing problems of violence and poverty. Moreover, migrants from nonviolent regions are attracted to join these flows when violence spikes elsewhere. This project seeks to advance our understanding of migration by explaining the onset of waves, as well as the informational or social dynamics that magnify and...

  9. Trendsetters and Social Change

    Bicchieri, Cristina
    Trendsetters are the "first movers" in social change. To study the dynamics of change, we need to study the interplay between trendsetters' actions and individual thresholds. It is this interplay that explains why change may or may not occur.

  10. The Challenges of Armed Group Organization in Socially Fragmented Environments

    Reno, William
    This research explains variations in how armed groups organize their relations with surrounding communities in the context of conflict in collapsed states. The collapse of central state authority tends to generate multiple armed groups that reflect and further promote social fragmentation. The norm is a situation of multisided competition, of symmetrical irregular warfare akin to violent competition among gangs. This environment creates obstacles to the formation of socially encompassing and mobilizing armed groups. Yet a few armed groups that appear in this context are able to assert their own guiding narratives and organizational codes. The argument is that variations in...

  11. Blood Oil: Tyrants, Violence and the Rules that Run the World

    Wenar, Leif
    Natural resources empower the world's most coercive men. Autocrats like Putin and the Saudis spend oil money on weapons and repression. ISIS and Congo's militias spend resource money on atrocities and ammunition. For decades resource-fueled authoritarians and extremists have forced endless crises on the West -- and the ultimate source of their resource money is us, paying at the gas station and the mall. By our own deepest principles, more than half of the world's traded oil is stolen. But now the West can lead a peaceful global revolution by finally ending its dependence on authoritarian oil, conflict minerals and...

  12. A Little More Dictatorship: Balancing Anti-communism and Human Rights in South Korea

    Snyder, Sarah
    Sarah Snyder will explore the extent to which American concerns about human rights violations in South Korea influenced U.S. policy toward that country. Not unusually for the era and the region, the U.S. relied on authoritarian leaders to preserve stability in South Korea. Despite congressional pressure that increased steadily into the 1970s, successive administrations did not press their ally to improve its human rights practices.U.S. officials intervened only in extreme instances, such as in March 1963 when Park Chung Hee announced an extension of military rule for two more years and in August 1973 when they believed Kim Dae Jung,...

  13. Everywhere, Everyday: Democratizing Information about our Changing Planet

    Mascaro, Joe
    Planet Labs operates the largest fleet of earth-imaging satellites. As of June 2015, it had launched 87 satellites successfully and is operating in excess of two dozen spacecraft. By the end of 2015, the company will have the capacity to collect high-resolution imagery (3-5m per pixel) of the entire planet, captured on a very frequent basis, with global daily revisits possible near the middle of 2016.The company will provide access to its data set via web-based platforms, to ensure that the data is accessible and actionable to those who need it. Following the release of an API, Planet Labs will...

  14. The Water and Sanitation Crisis in Healthcare Facilities in Low-Income Countries: Status, Consequences and Challenges

    Moe, Christine
    This presentation will include an overview of the status of WASH conditions in HCF globally, results from our recent assessments of WASH in HCFs in Honduras, Ghana, Rwanda, Uganda and Cambodia; evidence on the consequences of poor WASH in HCFs, and a discussion about the unique challenges to providing and maintaining WASH infrastructure in HCF settings.

  15. Why China Established the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank

    Chow, Daniel
    On January 16, 2016, China officially opened the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) for business, representing what might be a seismic shift in economic power from the United States to China and the culmination of what had been a diplomatic disaster for the United States. The AIIB creates a challenge to the U.S. dominated World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), two venerable international financial institutions created at the end of the Second World War. The battle over the AIIB represents a challenge by China to the leading role of the United States in writing the rules for international trade....

  16. The Politics of Uncertainty: What Theory and History Teach Us about the Rise of China

    Edelstein, David
    While scholars and policy makers alike have paid much attention to the implications of the rise of China, less attention has been paid to what past cases of rising great powers might lead us to expect in the case of China. Drawing from past cases of rising powers, including the rise of Bismarck's Germany and the United States, Edelstein presents an argument that explains both how Sino-American relations have gotten where they are today and how they are likely to evolve in the future. In particular, the argument emphasizes the role that uncertainty about long-term Chinese intentions has played in...

  17. Meeting in the Middle: Civil Discourse in the 2016 Presidential Election

    Celeste, Ted
    In contemporary American politics, it seems that name calling, personal attacks, and party polarization has led to a nearly unprecedented level of incivility in both state and federal government. With the approach of the 2016 presidential election, we can expect a barrage of political advertisements on social media, the internet and television, most of which will be negative. As political opinion grows ever more polarized and extreme rhetoric becomes commonplace, this event attempts to identify effective avenues in which all political parties, regardless of ideology, can build compromise, work together, and listen to each other's ideas. Former State Rep. Ted...

  18. Patronage Explanations for the Survival of International Organizations

    Gray, Julia
    This paper argues that even ineffective international organizations can serve valuable patronage functions for their member states. Even if IOs fail in their goals, the bureaucracies surrounding them can still be used for patronage, defined here as the use of public office for political and personal gain. The bureaucracies surrounding international organizations can offer substantial private rents for member state governments. The perqs that an IO can offer can lead to ineffective organizations hanging on, even if they do not fulfill their original mandate. Patronage can thus be an unintended consequence of IOs, leading to a misuse of the structure...

  19. The Rise of Security Studies and the Globalization of American Foreign Policy, 1937 to the Present

    Suri, Jeremi
    Although the United States had global trading interests before World War II, American foreign policy was largely provincial before 1937 – driven by protectionist and particularist impulses. President Franklin Roosevelt's "Quarantine speech" in response to fascist threats marked the beginning of sea change in American thinking about global engagement and international security. The change emerged most immediately in the rise of security studies as an academic discipline and an influence on strategic planning. This presentation will trace that transformation and assess its implications for the next 70 years of American global engagement in the Cold War and post-Cold War worlds....

  20. Gandhi, Yogic Self-Control, and Food Justice

    Godrej, Farah
    M. K. Gandhi is not traditionally thought of as a theorist of food politics or food justice. Yet, Gandhi had much to say about the relationship between food and power. In this essay, I will explore productive intersections between Gandhi’s thought and contemporary discourses of food politics. I will highlight the manner in which Gandhi’s writings on food anticipate contemporary biopolitical concerns, pointing to the body as a site for exertion of power by modern civilization and its attendant components: the state, capital, science, biomedicine, technology and so forth. also demonstrate how Gandhi enlists the notions of self-discipline, self-mastery and...

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