This paper explores a surprising phenomenon: the emergence of trade associations as agents of environmental performance improvement. Trade associations in the United States have historically fought environmental regulation, not embraced it. Trade associations are generally organized to service the needs of their members, not control their behavior. Yet, since the late 1980s, seven trade associations representing manufacturing sectors have enacted codes of practice with the stated goal of enhancing member companies' environmental performance.
Four of these codes have been developed by trade associations in the chemicals sector. The other trade associations represent oil, forestry, and textile industries. This paper explores...
(208384 bytes; application/msword) - 23-jun-2010
MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey; Thorens, Pascal; Ehrenfeld, John; Nash, Jennifer
The goals of the EPA Office of Reinvention are the following:
1) use incentives and promote environmental management systems (EMSs)
2) provide timely and accessible compliance-assistance
3) create flexible and streamlined permitting
4) help communities make sound environmental decisions
This research explores two recent initiatives related to those goals: ISO 14001 and the EPA Region I's StarTrack program. We studied ISO 14001 through two approaches: a statistical analysis of the characteristics of early adopters, and case studies at six chemical facilities, five of which had adopted the standard. To study StarTrack, we interviewed managers at four of the six facilities that have participated in...
(738304 bytes; application/msword) - 23-jun-2010
This paper is divided into three parts. The first part explores the question of why certain trade associations have developed environmental codes for their members. The second part considers the effectiveness of trade association codes in improving environmental performance. The third section offers conclusions about where trade association codes may be achieving results.
(113152 bytes; application/msword) - 23-jun-2010