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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (74.956 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

10th Fall Undergraduate Research Student Poster Forum (2016)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 27

  1. The role of the microRNA mir-125a-5p in mouse skeletal development

    Friesen, Sophia
    In all vertebrates, the ribs and vertebrae develop from repeating tissue blocks called somites that form early in development. The regularity of somite formation depends on several genes with oscillatory expression; each oscillation corresponds to the formation of one somite. These "clock genes" include Lunatic fringe ( Lfng ), which must oscillate for normal somitogenesis. In chick, the microRNA mir-125a-5p destabilizes Lfng mRNA, allowing for its rapid clearing during the "off" phase of each oscillation. Loss of mir-125a-5p in chick results in disorganized somitogenesis; whether it plays a similar role in mammals is unknown. The purpose of this study is...

  2. Role of Construal Level in Attentional Bias Toward Temptation

    Engle, John
    Previous work (Fujita & Han, 2009; Fujita & Roberts, 2010; Fujita, Trope, Liberman, & Levin-Sagi, 2006) has demonstrated that inducing a mindset of abstraction, i.e. high-level construal, increases people’s performance in various measures of self-control. This has been found with differing levels of automaticity, from explicit attitudes towards tempting stimuli to implicit associations with tempting stimuli. The current research sought to further investigate the level of automaticity that construal level may affect. Work in the realm of addiction has linked temptation strength with attentional bias towards temptation stimuli in a visual scene. For example, in a change blindness paradigm, drug...

  3. Effect of Spin Coating Conditions on the Inter-molecular Ordering and Performance of Organic Photovoltaic Materials

    Zhu, Menglin
    We proposed to use fluctuation electron microscope to determine the molecular ordering of organic materials, and establish connections between the ordering and important properties of organic materials, which can significantly improve the performance of organic electronics. In the past, understanding the exact nature of molecular ordering has been challenging due to the lack of experimental technique that are sensitive to the molecular ordering. While FEM is a great technique that can measure the nanoscale atomic ordering, including type, size, volume fraction etc. P3HT is material of interest and it is spin-coated onto Si substrate and then observed under FEM. Consequently,...

  4. Anterior Tongue Shows Greater Fine Roughness Acuity than Finger

    Van Simaeys, Karli; Miles, Brittany
    While the system for texture perception on the dermis has been well researched, there is not much information about texture perception on oral surfaces. This study seeks to understand how these two systems may compare. We chose to focus on lingual roughness sensitivity. In order to compare fine scale roughness perception on the anterior tongue versus on the fingertip, we used a simple discrimination task. We hypothesized that the tongue would be better at detecting roughness since this ability plays a vital role in chewing, swallowing and speech. We had different metal coupons mechanically roughened to different levels from 0.10...

  5. Maternal Strategies During Parent-Child Free Play: Effect of Child's Hearing Status

    Adazzio, Hannah
    Early face-to-face interactions between infants and their caregivers sets the stage for later language development. As social, cognitive, and motor skills emerge with age, parent-child dyads begin to engage in object play. When children are born with sensorineural hearing loss, they do not have access to sound during these exchanges. Some families decide to pursue cochlear implantation (CI), giving children access to sound for the first time. Previous research has found that parent-child interactions become more synchronous following CI, but no work has yet looked at the nature of how mothers manage free-play sessions with their children. Do they engage...

  6. Expanding lattice theory driven mathematical models to define fullerene-like viral capsid structures

    Das, Praachi
    Many viral protein shells, called capsids, have an icosahedral structure which can be geometrically modeled by the Caspar and Klug theory. The arrangement of the capsid protein subunits are also described through this theory by the concepts of triangulation (T) number and quasi-equivalence. Lattice theory models build on these ideas to represent fullerene-like capsids using generating vectors, which are characterized by the T-number and constructed on a hexagonal lattice. This research project expands upon the model by establishing determinants and requirements to account for complexities which have been oversimplified, such as left/right handedness occurring in many viral capsids. It also...

  7. Using C++ programming to implement a deterministic algorithm for integer factorization

    Zeng, Xinyi
    This research is an implementation of a deterministic algorithm for integer factorization (derived by Ghaith A. Hiary) using C++ programming. The most basic way for integer factorization is trial division. Though this algorithm provides a new deterministic approach for integer factorization, and can be used for the problem of factoring with high bits known. This implementation used the GNU MP Bignum Library to do arithmetic on very large numbers. Numbers from 15 digits to 27 digits were tested, and the new algorithm gradually beats trial division in speed competition. It successfully reduced the running time by about 67%.

  8. Promoter Mutation in Ccna2 Reveals Novel Functions of the Protein in Spermatogenesis

    Torres, Manuel
    Cyclin A2 (Ccna2/CCNA2), is a regulatory protein that plays a key role in proliferating cells, particularly in the stage of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated (S-phase). Its expression is under the influence of E2Fs, a set of transcription factors that control the oscillating expression of cell cycle-related genes by binding to DNA sequences in their promoter region. The importance of the precise timing and level of E2F-driven Ccna2 expression has not been studied in vivo. To evaluate this interaction, we have generated a knock-in mouse line with a Ccna2 gene that has its putative E2F site disabled....

  9. Determining binding specificities of cell adhesion molecules from Drosophila

    Anderson, Leah
    Neurons of both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit a complex set of cell-to-cell interactions during successful development of the nervous system. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play an important role in mediating many of these specific and stereotyped cell-cell interactions. I am investigating the binding specificities of two CAMs from Dipteran insects: Lachesin (Lac) and Amalgam (Ama). Ama arose as a duplication of Lac in early Dipteran evolution, and both proteins still share extensive amino acid similarity. Lac, which is membrane-linked, homophilically binds itself. Ama, secreted into the extracellular matrix, has both a homophilic binding property as well as the ability to...

  10. A Study of the Hippocampal Network via Persistent Homology

    Dai, Bowen; Chowdhury, Samir
    In the neuroscience community, it is believed that place cells (PC) in an animal’s hippocampus play a central role in forming mental maps, which are used by the animal for spatial navigation. Place cells are sensitive to location, in the sense that each place cell becomes active when the animal enter a specific area, called the cell’s place field (PF), in an environment. We study the following question: Given time series data showing the activation record of a sufficiently large number of place cells as an animal explores an arena, can we infer some topological properties of the arena? By...

  11. To Sting or Not to Sting: When Social Parasites use their Venomous Weaponry

    Davis, Mazie; DeMilto, Alexandria; Adams, Rachelle M. M.
    Socially parasitic Megalomyrmex symmetochus ants exploit their fungus-gardening host ants, Sericomyrmex amabilis, for critical resources using their alkaloid venom. This venomous weapon is often utilized during aggressive interactions between the two species. S. amabilis workers respond to parasite stings with either aggressive biting behaviors or submissive fleeing behaviors. Although it is harmful to the fitness of the colony to have parasitic guest ants, it is not as detrimental as colony death. A third raiding ant, Gnamptogenys hartmani, attempts to usurp nests of S. amabilis ants which can result in the annihilation of the colony. Non-host colonies are more vulnerable to...

  12. Finding Aid for the ECC

    Hess, Sierra
    The Education Curriculum Center (ECC) at OSU-Newark is a specialized library for education majors that includes books and services normally found in children’s libraries, but also kits, manipulatives, and pedagogy books. It faces difficulties that many others do not because of the separation from the main library, making it hard to know about the collection because of the lack of advertising through social media pages and the separate catalog. The purpose of this study is to research current trends in other ECCs and to tailor those findings to fit this ECC’s needs by creating a website to make finding materials...

  13. The Role of Endoglin in Insulin-Mediated Angiogenesis

    Elmasry, Fatema; Wheeler, Sarah; Pan, Chris; Kumar, Sanjay; Zaman, Naveed; Shah, Nirav; Tran, Alex
    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature, an essential process during development and tumor growth. Endoglin is a TGF-β co-receptor expressed predominantly in proliferating endothelial cells required for angiogenesis. Recently, our lab discovered an unexpected novel cross-talk between insulin and TGF-β signaling pathways. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of endoglin in insulin-mediated Smad signaling. Immunofluorescence and biochemical methods were used to assess cellular changes in Smad1/5/8 activation (pro-angiogenic). Preliminary data indicates that endoglin expression is required for insulin induced Smad1/5/8 activation. Given that type 2 diabetic patients are susceptible to a...

  14. How Sir Thomas Malory Created Le Morte Darthur

    MacDonald, Megan
    ​My project explores how Sir Thomas Malory (d. 1471) used real life events to shape his retelling of the popular tale of King Arthur. Malory wrote in England during a civil war known as 'The Wars of the Roses' (1455-1485). This conflict, sometimes called the 'Cousins' War', involved members of the royal family fighting to put different people on the throne of England. Malory's involvement in this dynastic dispute landed him jail, which was where he penned his famous Morte Darthur. I am not claiming that Le Morte Darthur is a roman a clef, but that Malory intentionally added details...

  15. Synthesis and Application of Imogolite Nanotubes

    Olson, Nathaniel
    Catalysis provides a means to control the yield and increase the rates of reactions, thereby allowing for the creation of environmentally sustainable processes for manufacturing of fuels, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. Nanotubes present a new and exciting shape-selective catalytic platform with the potential to be utilized in green chemical processes. Carbon nanotubes have thus far attracted the most attention, but are expensive, difficult to synthesize, and a potential health hazard. Imogolite nanotubes provide a potential solution to these issues presented by carbon nanotubes. The synthetic material is based upon naturally occurring aluminosilicate nanotubes found in volcanic soils and is obtained through...

  16. Attention and Sociability in Preschoolers With and Without Developmental Disabilities

    DiBlasio, Christina A.
    Children with developmental disabilities (DD) often have sociability and/or attention deficits that may negatively impact their ability to learn and develop at the same pace as their typically developing (TD) peers. The early childhood years are a key time for learning important pre-academic and social skills. Socialization and attention are essential for learning in a preschool classroom. The structure of classroom activities should promote opportunities for social interactions and on-task behavior for children with and without attention and sociability deficits in order to foster growth and learning. However, no previous research explores the influence of classroom structure on the attention...

  17. Model-Based Design Approach to Predict Performance of BAS/Electric Motor for OSU EcoCAR 3 Vehicle

    Engelman, Michael
    In today’s society, there is growing concern over the state of the global climate and the impact that we have on it. Scientists and engineers are seeking ways to meet energy demands and emissions regulations around the world by creating more sustainable and energy efficient technologies. In the automotive industry, this can be evidenced by the advent of hybrid electric vehicles. The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team based at the Center for Automotive Research is converting a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with the end goal of improving fuel consumption and emissions whilst maintaining the...

  18. After the Spill: A Study of Vernacular Landscape in West Virginia’s Chemical Valley

    Turley, Bethani
    Initially this project sought to research the long term impacts of the 2014 Elk River chemical spill near Charleston, West Virginia – an event in which 7500 gallons of the coal washing fluid 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) leaked into the Elk River, upstream of the city water intake, contaminating the drinking water for nine counties and 300,000 residents. However, after starting fieldwork, I realized that the 2014 chemical spill is only one of many chemical, infrastructural, and natural disasters to occur in the region in the last few years. In 2015 the Yeager Airport in Charleston suffered a landslide that covered the...

  19. Variability in Hawaiian Coral across a Natural Range of Temperature, pH, and Flow Gradients

    Moore, Alec; McLachlan, Rowan; Grottoli, Andréa; Jury, Christopher; Dobson, Kerri; Toonen, Rob
    Coral reefs are among the most ecologically diverse and economically important habitats on earth, yet the combined effects of ocean acidification and warming threaten the integrity of these ecosystems globally. The reefs surrounding Oahu, Hawaii provide an exceptional opportunity to survey physiological variation among coral species that are found across a naturally occurring range of pCO2 and temperature conditions representative of the current average values for tropical reefs globally, through those expected by midcentury under climate-change. We hypothesize that populations of coral can adapt to high temperature and pCO2 conditions by adjusting aspects of their physiology that confer resilience. By...

  20. A revisionary study of Trachymyrmex zeteki (Formicidae: Attini) and description of a new species, Trachymyrmex fovater sp. n.

    Cardenas, Cody R.; DeMilto, Alexandria; Schultz, Ted R.; Adams, Rachelle M. M.
    ​Fungus-growing ants are ubiquitous Neotropical insects with impressive diversity and fascinating evolutionary history. For 65 million years, ca. 250 species of fungus-growing ants have been refining their agricultural practices for their fungal symbiont. Trachymyrmex zeteki has been confused with a sister species due to confounding species descriptions and nearly identical morphological characteristics. This research resolves this taxonomic conundrum by describing Trachymyrmex fovater sp. n. We examined 40 different colonies (n=12 T. zeteki and n=28 T. fovater sp. n.) using nine measurements, five extrapolated indices, 13 external morphological characters, and molecular data. We found compelling morphological differences between the castes of...

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