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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.784 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

10th Fall Undergraduate Research Student Poster Forum (2016)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 56

  1. Positive and Negative Regulatory Elements in the HIV-1 5'UTR Control Specific Recognition by Gag

    Reyes, Joshua-Paolo C.; Olson, Erik D.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin
    The highly conserved 5ʹ untranslated region (5ʹUTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA (gRNA) regulates numerous aspects of the viral lifecycle. The 5'UTR contains a structured RNA element (termed the Psi packaging signal) that is specifically recognized by the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, ensuring that two strands of gRNA are packaged into newly assembled virions. However, the mechanism by which Gag specifically recognizes the gRNA over the myriad of other cellular RNAs and spliced viral RNAs is not well understood. A recent study suggested that a negative regulatory element exists upstream of Psi that blocks high-affinity Gag...

  2. Positive and Negative Regulatory Elements in the HIV-1 5'UTR Control Specific Recognition by Gag

    Reyes, Joshua-Paolo C.; Olson, Erik D.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin
    The highly conserved 5ʹ untranslated region (5ʹUTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA (gRNA) regulates numerous aspects of the viral lifecycle. The 5'UTR contains a structured RNA element (termed the Psi packaging signal) that is specifically recognized by the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, ensuring that two strands of gRNA are packaged into newly assembled virions. However, the mechanism by which Gag specifically recognizes the gRNA over the myriad of other cellular RNAs and spliced viral RNAs is not well understood. A recent study suggested that a negative regulatory element exists upstream of Psi that blocks high-affinity Gag...

  3. The role of the microRNA mir-125a-5p in mouse skeletal development

    Friesen, Sophia
    In all vertebrates, the ribs and vertebrae develop from repeating tissue blocks called somites that form early in development. The regularity of somite formation depends on several genes with oscillatory expression; each oscillation corresponds to the formation of one somite. These "clock genes" include Lunatic fringe ( Lfng ), which must oscillate for normal somitogenesis. In chick, the microRNA mir-125a-5p destabilizes Lfng mRNA, allowing for its rapid clearing during the "off" phase of each oscillation. Loss of mir-125a-5p in chick results in disorganized somitogenesis; whether it plays a similar role in mammals is unknown. The purpose of this study is...

  4. The role of the microRNA mir-125a-5p in mouse skeletal development

    Friesen, Sophia
    In all vertebrates, the ribs and vertebrae develop from repeating tissue blocks called somites that form early in development. The regularity of somite formation depends on several genes with oscillatory expression; each oscillation corresponds to the formation of one somite. These "clock genes" include Lunatic fringe ( Lfng ), which must oscillate for normal somitogenesis. In chick, the microRNA mir-125a-5p destabilizes Lfng mRNA, allowing for its rapid clearing during the "off" phase of each oscillation. Loss of mir-125a-5p in chick results in disorganized somitogenesis; whether it plays a similar role in mammals is unknown. The purpose of this study is...

  5. Role of Construal Level in Attentional Bias Toward Temptation

    Engle, John
    Previous work (Fujita & Han, 2009; Fujita & Roberts, 2010; Fujita, Trope, Liberman, & Levin-Sagi, 2006) has demonstrated that inducing a mindset of abstraction, i.e. high-level construal, increases people’s performance in various measures of self-control. This has been found with differing levels of automaticity, from explicit attitudes towards tempting stimuli to implicit associations with tempting stimuli. The current research sought to further investigate the level of automaticity that construal level may affect. Work in the realm of addiction has linked temptation strength with attentional bias towards temptation stimuli in a visual scene. For example, in a change blindness paradigm, drug...

  6. Role of Construal Level in Attentional Bias Toward Temptation

    Engle, John
    Previous work (Fujita & Han, 2009; Fujita & Roberts, 2010; Fujita, Trope, Liberman, & Levin-Sagi, 2006) has demonstrated that inducing a mindset of abstraction, i.e. high-level construal, increases people’s performance in various measures of self-control. This has been found with differing levels of automaticity, from explicit attitudes towards tempting stimuli to implicit associations with tempting stimuli. The current research sought to further investigate the level of automaticity that construal level may affect. Work in the realm of addiction has linked temptation strength with attentional bias towards temptation stimuli in a visual scene. For example, in a change blindness paradigm, drug...

  7. Effect of Spin Coating Conditions on the Inter-molecular Ordering and Performance of Organic Photovoltaic Materials

    Zhu, Menglin
    We proposed to use fluctuation electron microscope to determine the molecular ordering of organic materials, and establish connections between the ordering and important properties of organic materials, which can significantly improve the performance of organic electronics. In the past, understanding the exact nature of molecular ordering has been challenging due to the lack of experimental technique that are sensitive to the molecular ordering. While FEM is a great technique that can measure the nanoscale atomic ordering, including type, size, volume fraction etc. P3HT is material of interest and it is spin-coated onto Si substrate and then observed under FEM. Consequently,...

  8. Effect of Spin Coating Conditions on the Inter-molecular Ordering and Performance of Organic Photovoltaic Materials

    Zhu, Menglin
    We proposed to use fluctuation electron microscope to determine the molecular ordering of organic materials, and establish connections between the ordering and important properties of organic materials, which can significantly improve the performance of organic electronics. In the past, understanding the exact nature of molecular ordering has been challenging due to the lack of experimental technique that are sensitive to the molecular ordering. While FEM is a great technique that can measure the nanoscale atomic ordering, including type, size, volume fraction etc. P3HT is material of interest and it is spin-coated onto Si substrate and then observed under FEM. Consequently,...

  9. Anterior Tongue Shows Greater Fine Roughness Acuity than Finger

    Van Simaeys, Karli; Miles, Brittany
    While the system for texture perception on the dermis has been well researched, there is not much information about texture perception on oral surfaces. This study seeks to understand how these two systems may compare. We chose to focus on lingual roughness sensitivity. In order to compare fine scale roughness perception on the anterior tongue versus on the fingertip, we used a simple discrimination task. We hypothesized that the tongue would be better at detecting roughness since this ability plays a vital role in chewing, swallowing and speech. We had different metal coupons mechanically roughened to different levels from 0.10...

  10. Anterior Tongue Shows Greater Fine Roughness Acuity than Finger

    Van Simaeys, Karli; Miles, Brittany
    While the system for texture perception on the dermis has been well researched, there is not much information about texture perception on oral surfaces. This study seeks to understand how these two systems may compare. We chose to focus on lingual roughness sensitivity. In order to compare fine scale roughness perception on the anterior tongue versus on the fingertip, we used a simple discrimination task. We hypothesized that the tongue would be better at detecting roughness since this ability plays a vital role in chewing, swallowing and speech. We had different metal coupons mechanically roughened to different levels from 0.10...

  11. Maternal Strategies During Parent-Child Free Play: Effect of Child's Hearing Status

    Adazzio, Hannah
    Early face-to-face interactions between infants and their caregivers sets the stage for later language development. As social, cognitive, and motor skills emerge with age, parent-child dyads begin to engage in object play. When children are born with sensorineural hearing loss, they do not have access to sound during these exchanges. Some families decide to pursue cochlear implantation (CI), giving children access to sound for the first time. Previous research has found that parent-child interactions become more synchronous following CI, but no work has yet looked at the nature of how mothers manage free-play sessions with their children. Do they engage...

  12. Maternal Strategies During Parent-Child Free Play: Effect of Child's Hearing Status

    Adazzio, Hannah
    Early face-to-face interactions between infants and their caregivers sets the stage for later language development. As social, cognitive, and motor skills emerge with age, parent-child dyads begin to engage in object play. When children are born with sensorineural hearing loss, they do not have access to sound during these exchanges. Some families decide to pursue cochlear implantation (CI), giving children access to sound for the first time. Previous research has found that parent-child interactions become more synchronous following CI, but no work has yet looked at the nature of how mothers manage free-play sessions with their children. Do they engage...

  13. Expanding lattice theory driven mathematical models to define fullerene-like viral capsid structures

    Das, Praachi
    Many viral protein shells, called capsids, have an icosahedral structure which can be geometrically modeled by the Caspar and Klug theory. The arrangement of the capsid protein subunits are also described through this theory by the concepts of triangulation (T) number and quasi-equivalence. Lattice theory models build on these ideas to represent fullerene-like capsids using generating vectors, which are characterized by the T-number and constructed on a hexagonal lattice. This research project expands upon the model by establishing determinants and requirements to account for complexities which have been oversimplified, such as left/right handedness occurring in many viral capsids. It also...

  14. Expanding lattice theory driven mathematical models to define fullerene-like viral capsid structures

    Das, Praachi
    Many viral protein shells, called capsids, have an icosahedral structure which can be geometrically modeled by the Caspar and Klug theory. The arrangement of the capsid protein subunits are also described through this theory by the concepts of triangulation (T) number and quasi-equivalence. Lattice theory models build on these ideas to represent fullerene-like capsids using generating vectors, which are characterized by the T-number and constructed on a hexagonal lattice. This research project expands upon the model by establishing determinants and requirements to account for complexities which have been oversimplified, such as left/right handedness occurring in many viral capsids. It also...

  15. Using C++ programming to implement a deterministic algorithm for integer factorization

    Zeng, Xinyi
    This research is an implementation of a deterministic algorithm for integer factorization (derived by Ghaith A. Hiary) using C++ programming. The most basic way for integer factorization is trial division. Though this algorithm provides a new deterministic approach for integer factorization, and can be used for the problem of factoring with high bits known. This implementation used the GNU MP Bignum Library to do arithmetic on very large numbers. Numbers from 15 digits to 27 digits were tested, and the new algorithm gradually beats trial division in speed competition. It successfully reduced the running time by about 67%.

  16. Using C++ programming to implement a deterministic algorithm for integer factorization

    Zeng, Xinyi
    This research is an implementation of a deterministic algorithm for integer factorization (derived by Ghaith A. Hiary) using C++ programming. The most basic way for integer factorization is trial division. Though this algorithm provides a new deterministic approach for integer factorization, and can be used for the problem of factoring with high bits known. This implementation used the GNU MP Bignum Library to do arithmetic on very large numbers. Numbers from 15 digits to 27 digits were tested, and the new algorithm gradually beats trial division in speed competition. It successfully reduced the running time by about 67%.

  17. Promoter Mutation in Ccna2 Reveals Novel Functions of the Protein in Spermatogenesis

    Torres, Manuel
    Cyclin A2 (Ccna2/CCNA2), is a regulatory protein that plays a key role in proliferating cells, particularly in the stage of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated (S-phase). Its expression is under the influence of E2Fs, a set of transcription factors that control the oscillating expression of cell cycle-related genes by binding to DNA sequences in their promoter region. The importance of the precise timing and level of E2F-driven Ccna2 expression has not been studied in vivo. To evaluate this interaction, we have generated a knock-in mouse line with a Ccna2 gene that has its putative E2F site disabled....

  18. Promoter Mutation in Ccna2 Reveals Novel Functions of the Protein in Spermatogenesis

    Torres, Manuel
    Cyclin A2 (Ccna2/CCNA2), is a regulatory protein that plays a key role in proliferating cells, particularly in the stage of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated (S-phase). Its expression is under the influence of E2Fs, a set of transcription factors that control the oscillating expression of cell cycle-related genes by binding to DNA sequences in their promoter region. The importance of the precise timing and level of E2F-driven Ccna2 expression has not been studied in vivo. To evaluate this interaction, we have generated a knock-in mouse line with a Ccna2 gene that has its putative E2F site disabled....

  19. Determining binding specificities of cell adhesion molecules from Drosophila

    Anderson, Leah
    Neurons of both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit a complex set of cell-to-cell interactions during successful development of the nervous system. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play an important role in mediating many of these specific and stereotyped cell-cell interactions. I am investigating the binding specificities of two CAMs from Dipteran insects: Lachesin (Lac) and Amalgam (Ama). Ama arose as a duplication of Lac in early Dipteran evolution, and both proteins still share extensive amino acid similarity. Lac, which is membrane-linked, homophilically binds itself. Ama, secreted into the extracellular matrix, has both a homophilic binding property as well as the ability to...

  20. Determining binding specificities of cell adhesion molecules from Drosophila

    Anderson, Leah
    Neurons of both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit a complex set of cell-to-cell interactions during successful development of the nervous system. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play an important role in mediating many of these specific and stereotyped cell-cell interactions. I am investigating the binding specificities of two CAMs from Dipteran insects: Lachesin (Lac) and Amalgam (Ama). Ama arose as a duplication of Lac in early Dipteran evolution, and both proteins still share extensive amino acid similarity. Lac, which is membrane-linked, homophilically binds itself. Ama, secreted into the extracellular matrix, has both a homophilic binding property as well as the ability to...

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