Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 88

  1. Neural networks. A general framework for non-linear function approximation

    Fischer, Manfred M.
    The focus of this paper is on the neural network modelling approach that has gained increasing recognition in GIScience in recent years. The novelty about neural networks lies in their ability to model non-linear processes with few, if any, a priori assumptions about the nature of the data-generating process. The paper discusses some important issues that are central for successful application development. The scope is limited to feedforward neural networks, the leading example of neural networks. It is argued that failures in applications can usually be attributed to inadequate learning and/or inadequate complexity of the network model. Parameter estimation and...

  2. The geography of knowledge spillovers between high-technology firms in Europe. Evidence from a spatial interaction modelling perspective

    Fischer, Manfred M.; Scherngell, Thomas; Jansenberger, Eva
    The focus in this paper is on knowledge spillovers between high-technology firms in Europe, as captured by patent citations. High-technology is defined to include the ISIC-sectors aerospace (ISIC 3845), electronics-telecommunication (ISIC 3832), computers and office equipment (ISIC 3825), and pharmaceuticals (ISIC 3522). The European coverage is given by patent applications at the European Patent Office that are assigned to high-technology firms located in the EU-25 member states (except Cyprus and Malta), the two accession countries Bulgaria and Romania, and Norway and Switzerland. By following the paper trail left by citations between these high-technology patents we adopt a Poisson spatial interaction...

  3. Zur Effizienz von Schieneninfrastrukturbau-vorhaben am Beispiel des Brenner-Basistunnels.Die Zukunft der Schiene mit Milliardeninvestitionen verbaut?

    Kummer, Sebastian; Nagl, Philipp; Schlaak, Jan-Philipp
    Cost overrun has become a major issue regarding infrastructure projects. Especially in regard to railway infrastructure and the construction of tunnels, building costs are regularly exceeding the original estimates. This article discusses the reasons for this apparently common fact. In addition, reasons for and consequences of misassigned infrastructure investments are pointed out and a concept called "lifetime-based infrastructure controlling" to improve the efficiency of infrastructure projects is outlined. To highlight the importance of this field of research the serious consequences of wrong investments in infrastructure are shown by discussing the current "Brenner-Basistunnel"-project in Austria. (author's abstract)

  4. Preparing business students for cooperation in multidisciplinary new venture teams: empirical insights from a business planning course

    Lüthje, Christian; Prügl, Reinhard Wilhelm
    Interdisciplinary cooperation among people trained in technical and economic fields has been identified as an important success factor in new venture teams. However, empirical findings also indicate that individuals often refuse to engage in close and trustful relationships with representatives of other disciplines. Thus the question arises whether education programs on interdisciplinary cooperation may be suitable to prepare students for future activities in multifunctional business start-up teams. In this study, we investigate the psychological effects of an interdisciplinary business planning course held at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration with the intention of promoting cooperation between technology-oriented professionals and business management students. The findings show that this...

  5. Finding commercially attractive user innovations: A test of lead user theory

    Franke, Nikolaus; von Hippel, Eric; Schreier, Martin
    Firms and governments are increasingly interested in learning to exploit the value of lead user innovations for commercial advantage. Improvements to lead user theory are needed to inform and guide these efforts. In this paper we empirically test and confirm the basic tenants of lead user theory. We also discover some new refinements and related practical applications. Using a sample of users and user-innovators drawn from the extreme sport of kite surfing, we analyze the relationship between the commercial attractiveness of innovations developed by users and the intensity of the lead user characteristics those users display. We provide a first empirical analysis of the independent effects of...

  6. Prädikatoren der Qualität von Geschäftsideen: Eine empirische Analyse eines Online-Ideen-Forums

    Franke, Nikolaus; Hienerth, Christoph
    Online-Ideen-Foren sind eine Möglichkeit, den "Match" zwischen Ideenträger und Ideenumsetzer effizienter zu gestalten. Sie schaffen allerdings ein neues Problem, denn meist werden in den Foren sehr schnell sehr viele Ideen online gestellt - gute genauso wie schlechte. Ihre einzelne Bewertung ist aufwändig. Es stellt sich daher die Frage, wie ein interessierter Umsetzer die guten Ideen in effizienter Weise identifizieren kann. Die vorliegende empirische Untersuchung zeigt, dass v.a. objektive "technische" Merkmale der Ideen eine signifikante Prognoseverbesserung erlauben. (Autorenref.)

  7. What you are is what you like - similarity biases in venture capitalists - evaluations of start-up teams

    Franke, Nikolaus; Gruber, Marc; Harhoff, Dietmar; Henkel, Joachim
    This paper extends recent research studying biases in venture capitalist's decision-making. We contribute to this literature by analyzing biases arising due to similarity between a venture capitalist and members of a venture team. We summarize the psychological foundations of such similarity effects and derive a set of hypotheses regarding the impact of similarity on the assessement of team quality. Using data from a conjoint experiment with 51 respondents, we find that venture capitalists tend to favor teams that are similar to themselves w.r.t. the type of training and professional experience. Our results have important implications for academics and practitioners alike. (authors' abstract)

  8. Measuring Success in Family Businesses: The Concept of Configurational Fit

    Hienerth, Christoph; Keßler, Alexander
    The problems associated with measuring success in small businesses are primarily caused by a lack of comparable data due to the ambiguity of success and by subjective biases. Success evaluation is dominated by the estimates of business owners, who tend to overestimate overall success and internal strengths. However, reliable success measurement instruments would be useful for small business owners/managers as well as small business policymakers. The main purposes of this article are to compare various measures of success, to explore the differences in their outcomes, and to analyze whether a model of success measurement using configurational fit can be used to overcome...

  9. The Six Identities of Marketing: A Vector Quantization of Research Approaches

    Franke, Nikolaus; Mazanec, Josef
    Purpose: This article provides an empirical identification of groups of marketing scholars who share common beliefs about the role of science and the logic of scientific discovery. Design: We use Topology Representing Network quantization to empirically identify classes of marketing researchers within a representative sample of marketing professors. Findings: We find six distinct classes of marketing scholars. They differ with regard to popularity (size) and productivity (levels of publication output). Comparing the sub-samples of German-speaking and US respondents shows cross-cultural differences. Value: The study enhances our understanding of the current scientific orientation(s) of marketing. It may help to motivate marketing scholars to ponder on their own positions and assist...

  10. Das Logistiksystem des ÖBH und seine Ausrichtung auf die Erfüllung internationaler Aufgaben am Fallbeispiel der Verlegung der FIA-Truppe auf den TÜPI Ustka/Polen im September 2003

    Harrer, Oliver
    In our today's economic life, logistics plays a major role. But strictly speaking, logistics was a typical military term for hundreds of years. Since the 50ies of the last century it has become a more and more economic term. Nowadays only a few are beware of that fact. Therefore it is rather interesting, how currently implemented military logistic systems are organized and working, especially after the ending of the cold war and under the new threatening scenarios since 9/11. In this paper the emphasis lies upon the logistic system of the Austrian Army, whereas comparisons with the Swiss Army and...

  11. Theoretische Implikationen und Gestaltungsempfehlungen zur Verminderung von Informationsasymmetrien in der Auftragsabwicklung

    Kovacic, Robert
    The diploma thesis deals with theoretical implications and design recommendations for a reduction of asymmetric information in order processing. In reference to a logistical aspect the order processing process is detailed analysed, in order to detect theoretical implications for an application to the order processing process within the principalagent- theory. In context with the functional organisation, argumentations for an existence of asymmetric information have been shown. On closer examination of specific areas such as, mental designs, routines of organisational members, the relevancy of the dimension time and the importance of IT, asymmetric information has been identified, which can cause different...

  12. Entwicklung von Speditionen und KEP-Dienstleistern in Österreich

    Mencler, Madleen
    The development of the Austrian Courier, Express and Parcel (CEP) market, as well as the Austrian parceled goods market has been affected by the various economical, technical and legal developments during the last 25 years. Globalization and consolidation process within the European CEP and parceled goods market have affected the Austrian market. In the past, the major part of the European CEP and parceled goods market was covered by small and medium sized companies. Nowadays, both markets are dominated by major enterprises. For example, in the last 5 to 10 years, five global players (La Poste/DPD, The Post Office/GLS, Deutsche...

  13. The Potential Effects of Market-based Slot Allocation Schemes on Airline Networks in the European Union

    Pöschl, Felix
    (kein Abstract vorhanden)

  14. Auswirkungen einer EU-weiten Besteuerung von Kerosin auf Luftverkehrsgesellschaften aus betriebswirtschaftlicher Sicht

    Badura, Felix
    Passenger air traffic in Europe has seen considerable growth in the past decades. The market-entry of Low-Cost-Carriers (LCC) has extended the traditional markets of Network Carriers (NC) and Charter-Airlines (CA) by offering low fares to a broad public, which otherwise would not fly. Given the fact that air traffic now accounts for about 3% of total CO2-emissions, this strong traffic increase gave uplift to supporters of a kerosene tax. An environmental tax on kerosene would internalize external effects of air travel and therefore give an incentive to airlines to use the most modern aircrafts and engines as well as to...

  15. Die Rolle formalisierter Bewertungsverfahren für die Trassenentscheidung im U-Bahn Planungsprozess am Beispiel der U2- Verlängerung Stadlau/Aspern

    Eder, Sandra
    The extension of the U2 to Stadlau/Aspern is defined by the third phase of construction of Vienna's underground railway network. It was planned in regard to the urban development in the 22nd district of Vienna. The whole planning process is examined and facts, decisions, strategies and acting persons are explained. The planning steps and build-up decisions have been based on the programme of measures, forming part of Vienna's Traffic Concept. This was integrated in the Urban Development Plan which was adopted by Vienna's Municipal Council in 1994. The Municipal Department 18 is engaged in making the plans for the underground....

  16. Kapazitätsanalyse von Hinterlandverbindungen ausgewählter europäischer Seehäfen

    Frass, Johannes
    This work analyzes and systematizes the effects that the increasing amount of cargo import and export of the European ports of Hamburg, Bremen, Bremerhaven and Koper have on the traffic in the hinterland infrastructure. Growing transactions at the ports, as well as the increase of cargo transport distribution has had a profound effect on the cargo traffic and infrastructure of Germany, Slovenia, Czech Republik, Slovak Republik, Hungary and Austria as well as other countries whose highways and rail tracks are being employed daily by transactions originating at these sea ports.(...) (author's abstract)

  17. Der europäische Markt für Nachtreisezugverkehre. Eine empirische Analyse der Nachfragedeterminanten.

    Hödl, Sonja
    Night train traffic can be found all over Europe, although its intensity varies between countries. There are many different types of night trains offering a diverse range of services, from high-quality trains with in-cabin catering and spacious private accommodation, to low-quality trains with only the most basic facilities. Night train traffic struggles with low profitability as a result of high personnel costs, low carriage capacity and low intensity of use as they can only be used at night. Moreover, railways in general and the night trains in particular have an image problem. There are many advantages of using night trains,...

  18. Leistungen der NROs in der Armutsbekämpfung. Studie zur Bestandsaufnahme der Leistungen sozialer Dienste in der Vermeidung und Bekämpfung von Armut in Österreich.

    Dawid, Evelyn; Heitzmann, Karin
    (kein Abstract vorhanden)

  19. Volkswirtschaftliche Effekte außerhäußlicher Kinderbetreuung

    Schneider, Ulrike; Luptácik, Mikulás; Schmidl, Barbara
    Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen fördern die sozialen Fähigkeiten in der kindlichen Entwicklung in vielerlei Hinsicht, leisten einen wertvollen Beitrag zur vorschulischen Bildung und verbessern die Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Familie. Die vorliegende Studie fokussierte jedoch nicht auf die viel diskutierte Bedeutung von Kindertageseinrichtungen im gesellschaftspolitischen Bereich, sondern befasste sich mit den Produktions-, Wertschöpfungs- und Beschäftigungseffekten der Kinderbetreuung für die österreichische Volkswirtschaft. Positive Effekte auf die Gesamtwirtschaft resultieren dabei zum einen aus den Investitionen sowie aus dem Verbrauch von Gütern und Dienstleistungen der Kindertagesstätten selbst. Zum anderen fließen die Lohn- und Gehaltsaufwendungen der Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen zu einem großen Teil dem privaten Konsum zu, was ebenfalls...

  20. Die Kosten der Pflege in Österreich. Ausgabenstrukturen und Finanzierung.

    Schneider, Ulrike; Österle, August; Schober, Doris; Schober, Christian
    (kein Abstract vorhanden)

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