Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.796

  1. A More Decentralized Vision for Linked Data

    Polleres, Axel; Kamdar, Maulik R.; Fernandez Garcia, Javier David; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A.
    In this deliberately provocative position paper, we claim that ten years into Linked Data there are still (too?) many unresolved challenges towards arriving at a truly machine-readable and decentralized Web of data. We take a deeper look at the biomedical domain - currently, one of the most promising "adopters" of Linked Data - if we believe the ever-present "LOD cloud" diagram. Herein, we try to highlight and exemplify key technical and non-technical challenges to the success of LOD, and we outline potential solution strategies. We hope that this paper will serve as a discussion basis for a fresh start towards...

  2. The transmission of uncertainty shocks on income inequality: State-level evidence from the United States

    Fischer, Manfred M.; Huber, Florian; Pfarrhofer, Michael
    In this paper, we explore the relationship between state-level household income inequality and macroeconomic uncertainty in the United States. Using a novel large-scale macroeconometric model, we shed light on regional disparities of inequality responses to a national uncertainty shock. The results suggest that income inequality decreases in most states, with a pronounced degree of heterogeneity in terms of shapes and magnitudes of the dynamic responses. By contrast, some few states, mostly located in the West and South census region, display increasing levels of income inequality over time. We find that this directional pattern in responses is mainly driven by the income composition and labor market fundamentals. In...

  3. The Nexus of Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

    Fischer, Manfred M.; Nijkamp, Peter
    This chapter offers a review on modern entrepreneurship analysis, against the background of regional development. Regions with an entrepreneurial culture tend to be forerunners in a competitive economic process. After a conceptual discussion on the importance and the measurement of entrepreneurship, the contribution discusses critical success factors and key determinants of entrepreneurship. Next, much focus is laid on the geography of entrepreneurship as well as on industrial agglomeration, while also due attention is paid to the relevance of networks for modern entrepreneurship. The chapter concludes with some retrospective and prospective remarks.

  4. The role of socio-cultural factors in static trade panel models

    Fischer, Manfred M.; LeSage, James P.
    The focus is on cross-sectional dependence in panel trade flow models. We propose alternative specifications for modeling time invariant factors such as socio-cultural indicator variables, e.g., common language and currency. These are typically treated as a source of heterogeneity eliminated using fixed effects transformations, but we find evidence of cross-sectional dependence after eliminating country-specific effects. These findings suggest use of alternative simultaneous dependence model specifications that accommodate cross-sectional dependence, which we set forth along with Bayesian estimation methods. Ignoring cross-sectional dependence implies biased estimates from panel trade flow models that rely on fixed effects.

  5. The Decomposition of Income Inequality in the EU-28

    Kranzinger, Stefan
    Series: INEQ Working Paper Series

  6. Enabling Spatio-Temporal Search in Open Data

    Neumaier, Sebastian; Polleres, Axel
    Intuitively, most datasets found in Open Data are organised by spatio-temporal scope, that is, single datasets provide data for a certain region, valid for a certain time period. For many use cases (such as for instance data journalism and fact checking) a pre-dominant need is to scope down the relevant datasets to a particular period or region. Therefore, we argue that spatio-temporal search is a crucial need for Open Data portals and across Open Data portals, yet - to the best of our knowledge - no working solution exists. We argue that - just like for for regular Web search...

  7. Understanding Engineers' Drivers and Impediments for Ethical System Development: The Case of Privacy and Security Engineering

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Korunovska, Jana; Langheinrich, Marc
    Machine ethics is a key challenge in times when digital systems play an increasing role in people's life. At the core of machine ethics is the handling of personal data and the security of machine operations. Yet, privacy and security engineering are a challenge in today's business world where personal data markets, corporate deadlines and a lag of perfectionism frame the context in which engineers need to work. Besides these organizational and market challenges, each engineer has his or her specific view on the importance of these values that can foster or inhibit taking them into consideration. We present the results of an empirical study of...

  8. Engineering Privacy by Design: Are engineers ready to live up to the challenge?

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Bednar, Kathrin; Langheinrich, Marc
    Organizations struggle to comply with legal requirements as well as customers' calls for better data protection. Yet, information privacy depends on system engineers putting effort into the matter. We interviewed six seniors in system engineering, who work for globally leading IT corporations and research institutions in order to investigate their motivation and ability to comply with privacy expectations. The results of our in-depth interview study point to a lack of perceived responsibility, control and autonomy and to a struggle with the legal world. The information society may be facing the dilemma of asking engineers to live up to a challenge they are currently not ready to...

  9. Arithmetische Politik und ökonomische Moral. Zur Genealogie der Sozialwissenschaften in England

    Hamberger, Klaus; Katzmair, Harald
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  10. Pigou's Macroeconomics of Unemployment (1933): A Simple Model

    Klausinger, Hansjörg
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  11. Measuring the Importance of International Production: The Re-estimation of Foreign Direct Investment at Current Values

    Bellak, Christian; Cantwell, John
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  12. Data Envelopment Analysis in a Stochastic Setting: The right answer from the wrong model?

    Gstach, Dieter
    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is compared to stochastic production function estimation (SPFE) in a noisy setting. The statistic of interest is the average efficiency estimator. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the mean squared error of the DEA-estimator even for considerable noise remains below the MSE of the SPFE analogue. A bootstrapping approach is designed to get some first-step statistical underpinning of this DEA average efficiency estimator. The coverage of the bootstrapping approximation to the distribution of this estimator is shown to be fairly good.

  13. Tax and Spend or Spend and Tax? An International Study

    Stiassny, Alfred; Koren, Stefan
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  14. A Note on Frequency Domain Properties of Estimated VARs

    Stiassny, Alfred
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  15. Gerwerkschaften in einem Cournot-Duopol. Sequentielle vs. simultane Lohnverhandlungen

    Grandner, Thomas
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  16. Die Klassische Ökonomie und die Keynessche Alternative. Revision eines Mythos?

    Klausinger, Hansjörg
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  17. Scale Efficiency: Where Data Envelopment Analysis Outperforms Stochastic Production Function Estimation

    Gstach, Dieter
    Robustness of DEA scale efficiency scores is investigared in the context of non-radial efficency measures. Most efficient scales are identified with DEA's refernce firms instead of traditional clustering techniques.The systematic difference between single- and multi-output technologies as concerns most efficient scales is then examined by comparing applied DEA results. These provide evidence in favor of my proposition, that single-output techniques, like stochastic production function estimation, yield upwardly biased most efficient scales.

  18. TVP - Ein Programm zur Schätzung von Modellen mit zeitvariierenden Parametern

    Stiassny, Alfred
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  19. Ost-West-Migration ohne Steuerungsmöglichkeiten?

    Wilfried , Altzinger
    Series: Department of Economics Working Paper Series

  20. Employment, productivity, output and minimum wage in Austria: a time series analysis

    Ragacs, Christian
    This paper evaluates stylised facts for the Austrian industry. I execute a time series analysis for minimum wage, productivity, output and employment. Tests for cointegration and Granger-causality are done. The results are in contrast to most empirical studies that analyse the empirical effects of minimum wages on employment. Especially no negative impact of minimum wage on employment was found.

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