Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.503

  1. Open City Data Pipeline

    Bischof, Stefan; Benedikt, Kämpgen; Andreas, Harth; Axel, Polleres; Patrik, Schneider
    Statistical data about cities, regions and at country level is collected for various purposes and from various institutions. Yet, while access to high quality and recent such data is crucial both for decision makers as well as for the public, all to often such collections of data remain isolated and not re-usable, let alone properly integrated. In this paper we present the Open City Data Pipeline, a focused attempt to collect, integrate, and enrich statistical data collected at city level worldwide, and republish this data in a reusable manner as Linked Data. The main feature of the Open City Data Pipeline are: (i) we...

  2. Poverty in Times of Crisis

    Ahammer, Alexander; Kranzinger, Stefan
    This paper evaluates the impact of a large macroeconomic shock on poverty. In particular, we use longitudinal data from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) comprising almost two million individuals from 29 European countries in order to quantify changes in poverty transition patterns caused by the 2007 global financial crisis. Because the crisis was largely unforeseeable, it provides an appealing natural experiment allowing us to isolate the causal effect of a substantial macroeconomic shock on poverty. Employing semiparametric mixed discrete time survival analysis, we find that conditional poverty entry hazards increased temporarily by 13.4% during the crisis,...

  3. The direct and indirect costs of tax treaty policy - Evidence from Ukraine

    Balabushko, Oleksii; Beer, Sebastian; Loeprick, Jan; Vallada, Felipe
    We combine macro and micro data to quantify the revenue effects of Double Tax Treaties (DTT). First, drawing on administrative information, we estimate the tax sensitivity of income flows (dividend, interest and royalty payments) at an aggregate level. We find important direct revenue costs linked to treaty restrictions on taxing rights, in particular with respect to flows into a small number of major investment hubs. Importantly, however, high elasticities of income flows also suggest that increases of withholding rates at the individual treaty partner level would not necessarily result in more revenue collection. Second, we use firm-level information to estimate the sensitivity of reported profitability to...

  4. The direct and indirect costs of tax treaty policy - Evidence from Ukraine

    Balabushko, Oleksii; Beer, Sebastian; Loeprick, Jan; Vallada, Felipe
    This study combines macro and micro data to quantify the revenue effects of double tax treaties. First, drawing on administrative information, the study estimates the tax sensitivity of income flows (dividend, interest, and royalty payments) at an aggregate level. The analysis finds important direct revenue costs linked to treaty restrictions on taxing rights, especially for flows into a few major investment hubs. However, high elasticities of income flows also suggest that increases in withholding rates at the individual treaty partner level would not necessarily result in more revenue collection. Second, the study uses firm- level information to estimate the sensitivity...

  5. Borrower heterogeneity within a risky mortgage-lending market

    Rabitsch, Katrin; Punzi, Maria Teresa
    We propose a model of a risky mortgage-lending market in which we take explicit account of heterogeneity in household borrowing conditions, by introducing two borrower types: one with a low loan-to-value (LTV) ratio, one with a high LTV ratio, calibrated to U.S. data. We use such framework to study a deleveraging shock, modeled as an increase in housing investment risk, that falls more strongly on, and produces a larger contraction in credit for high-LTV type borrowers, as in the data. We find that this deleveraging experience produces significant aggregate effects on output and consumption, and that the contractionary effects are...

  6. Bilateral Trade Agreements and Trade Distortions in Agricultural Markets

    Hirsch, Cornelius; Oberhofer, Harald
    Agricultural support levels are at a crossroad with reduced distortions in OECD countries and increasing support for agricultural producers in emerging economies over the last decades. This paper studies the determinants of distortions in the agricultural markets by putting a specific focus on the role of trade policy. Applying various different dynamic panel data estimators and explicitly accounting for potential endogeneity of trade policy agreements, we find that an increase in the number of bilateral free trade agreements exhibits significant short- and long-run distortion reducing effects. By contrast, WTO's Uruguay Agreement on Agriculture has not been able to systematically contribute...

  7. The role of US based FDI flows for global output dynamics

    Huber, Florian; Fischer, Manfred M.; Piribauer, Philipp
    This paper uses a global vector autoregressive (GVAR) model to analyze the relationship between FDI inflows and output dynamics in a multi-country context. The GVAR model enables us to make two important contributions: First, to model international linkages among a large number of countries, which is a key asset given the diversity of countries involved, and second, to model foreign direct investment and output dynamics jointly. The country-specific small-dimensional vector autoregressive submodels are estimated utilizing a Bayesian version of the model coupled with stochastic search variable selection priors to account for model uncertainty. Using a sample of 15 emerging and...

  8. Indifference pricing of natural gas storage contracts.

    Löhndorf, Nils; Wozabal, David
    Natural gas markets are incomplete due to physical limitations and low liquidity, but most valuation approaches for natural gas storage contracts assume a complete market. We propose an alternative approach based on indifference pricing which does not require this assumption but entails the solution of a high- dimensional stochastic-dynamic optimization problem under a risk measure. To solve this problem, we develop a method combining stochastic dual dynamic programming with a novel quantization method that approximates the continuous process of natural gas prices by a discrete scenario lattice. In a computational experiment, we demonstrate that our solution method can handle the...

  9. Can't Keep Up with the Joneses: How Relative Deprivation Pushes Internal Migration in Austria

    Jestl, Stefan; Moser, Mathias; Raggl, Anna K.
    We estimate the effect of regional income inequality on emigration rates of Austrian municipalities using a unique data set that is constructed We estimate the effect of regional income inequality on emigration rates of Austrian municipalities using a unique data set that is constructed based on individual level data from Austrian administrative registers. The register-based data contains information on the municipality of residence of all individuals aged 16 and over that have their main residency in Austria, as well as their income and socio-demographic characteristics. Aggregating this information to the municipality level allows us to assess the role of relative deprivation - a measure of relative income...

  10. Appendix to "A Sectoral Net Lending Perspective on Europe"

    Glötzl, Florentin; Rezai, Armon
    This appendix contains supplementary material to the paper "A sectoral net lending perspective on Europe". It includes information on the data provenance and processing, the statistical and algebraic framework applied in the study as well as supplementary figures for all countries in the sample. Moreover, it provides robustness checks for the cyclicality analysis of sectoral net lending flows.

  11. Energy intensity and manufacturing firm characteristics in Sub-Saharan African countries

    Kaulich, Florian; Luken, Ralph; Mhlanga, Alois; Polzerova, Ingrid
    We draw on a unique dataset for energy use by manufacturing firms in 18 Sub-Saharan African countries to estimate the relationship between energy intensity of production and firms' characteristics. Our results show that lower levels of energy intensity are associated with export activity, foreign ownership, size and capital-labor ratio, while higher levels of energy intensity are associated with a higher share of fuels in total energy consumption. We do not find a statistically significant relationship between energy intensity and the age of capital equipment or ownership of a generator, while our results on quality management certification are inconclusive.

  12. Diversification vs. specialization as alternative strategies for economic development: Can we settle a debate by looking at the empirical evidence?, ISID Working Paper 03/2012

    Kaulich, Florian
    Few ideas have been more vocally debated in the economic literature than that of diversification versus specialization as drivers of economic growth and development. Scores of scholars have written numerous articles debating the issue and, more importantly, policymakers across the globe have pioneered profoundly different policy approaches on the basis of such disagreements. As usual in the history of economic ideas, the most promising way to address a discussion with such strong ideological connotations is to assess the empirical evidence. Motivated by the seminal work of Imbs and Wacziarg (2003), this paper attempts to synthesize the vast literature on the...

  13. Measuring the Stability of Results from Supervised Statistical Learning

    Philipp, Michel; Rusch, Thomas; Hornik, Kurt; Strobl, Carolin
    Stability is a major requirement to draw reliable conclusions when interpreting results from supervised statistical learning. In this paper, we present a general framework for assessing and comparing the stability of results, that can be used in real-world statistical learning applications or in benchmark studies. We use the framework to show that stability is a property of both the algorithm and the data-generating process. In particular, we demonstrate that unstable algorithms (such as recursive partitioning) can produce stable results when the functional form of the relationship between the predictors and the response matches the algorithm. Typical uses of the framework in practice would be to compare the stability of results...

  14. Multivariate Ordinal Regression Models: An Analysis of Corporate Credit Ratings

    Hirk, Rainer; Hornik, Kurt; Vana, Laura
    Correlated ordinal data typically arise from multiple measurements on a collection of subjects. Motivated by an application in credit risk, where multiple credit rating agencies assess the creditworthiness of a firm on an ordinal scale, we consider multivariate ordinal models with a latent variable specification and correlated error terms. Two different link functions are employed, by assuming a multivariate normal and a multivariate logistic distribution for the latent variables underlying the ordinal outcomes. Composite likelihood methods, more specifically the pairwise and tripletwise likelihood approach, are applied for estimating the model parameters. We investigate how sensitive the pairwise likelihood estimates are...

  15. Konzertveranstalter für klassische Musik in Wien im Vergleich. Eine explorative, qualitative Studie zu Distinktionsmechanismen, Umgang mit Veränderungen im Publikum, Strategien und kulturpolitischer Ausrichtung.

    Fischer, Manuela; Riegler, Maria; Tuma, Andreas; Windecker, Stephanie
    In dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, ob und wie Konzertveranstalter für klassische Musik in Wien Veränderungen in ihrem Publikum wahrnehmen und wie sie damit umgehen. Die explorative, qualitative Studie vergleicht Musikverein, Konzerthaus und Jeunesse miteinander, wobei auch der Wandel zwischen zwei Zeitpunkten - 2000 und 2015 - untersucht wird. In Anlehnung an Bourdieu gingen wir davon aus, dass sich Unterschiede zwischen den drei Institutionen hinsichtlich der Wahrnehmung ihres Publikums und des Umgangs mit Änderungen finden würden, auch wenn alle untersuchten Institutionen in erster Linie Konzerte im Hochkultursegment veranstalten. Zunächst wurden die Programmhefte der Konzertveranstalter aus den beiden Saisonen analysiert, die Erkenntnisse...

  16. Demographic Profile of the Arab Region: Realizing the Demographic Dividend

    Goujon, Anne; Weber, Daniela; Loichinger, Elke
    The paper provides a detailed overview of population dynamics and trends in the Arab region. Furthermore, it explains the concept of demographic dividend and timing of the window of opportunity. With a view to enable countries in the region to reap the benefits of the changing population structure, the window is calculated for each country. The last part of the paper presents four case studies of countries that benefitted from their demographic dividend.

  17. What Drives Destruction? On the Malleability of Anti-Social Behavior

    Müller, Julia; Schwieren, Christiane; Spitzer, Florian
    Many recent experimental studies have shown that some subjects destroy other subjects' incomes without receiving any material benefit, and that they even incur costs to do so. In this paper, we study the boundary conditions of this phenomenon, which is referred to as anti-social behavior. We introduce a four-player destruction game, in which we vary the framing and the presence of another activity, running in parallel to the destruction game. We observe a substantial amount of destruction in the baseline condition without the parallel activity, and with a framing in the spirit of previous destruction experiments. Our results indicate that...

  18. Carbon footprint decomposition in MRIO models: identifying EU supply-chain hot spots and their structural changes over time

    Wieland, Hanspeter; Giljum, Stefan
    Politics' demand for informative consumption-based emission assessments based on multi-regional input output (MRIO) databases is steadily increasing. Based on the MRIO database EXIOBASE 3, we exemplify the utility of a range of analytical tools and discus their potential insights for consumption-based policies. The analysis decomposes the overall EU carbon footprint into product groups as well as into emitting regions. Subsequently, we illustrate the potential of applying production layer decomposition (PLD) and structural path analysis (SPA) for the assessment of global supply-chains related to the EU carbon footprint and their structural changes over time. We close with some policy ecommendations on reducing carbon footprint...

  19. Spillover from the Haven: Cross-border Externalities of Patent Box Regimes within Multinational Firms

    Schwab, Thomas; Todtenhaupt, Maximilian
    This paper analyzes externalities of patent box regimes in Europe. Tax reductions inforeign affliates of a firm that also provide a protit shifting opportunity reduce the user cost of capital and thereby increase domestic investment. We test this mechanism for the case of research activity. By combining in formation on patents, firm ownership data and specific characteristics of patent box regimes, we show that patent box regimes without nexus requirements for tax-efficient reallocation of patent profits induce positive spillovers within multinational groups. The implementation of a patent box in a country one of the foreign affiliates of a firm resides, increases...

  20. New Dynamics for Europe: Reaping the Benefits of Socio-ecological Transition. Part II: Model and Area Chapters, Synthesis Report, Final Version

    Badinger, Harald; Bailey, David; De Properis, Lisa; Huber, Peter; Janger, Jürgen; Kratena, Kurt; Pitlik, Hans; Sauer, Thomas; Thillaye, Renaud; van den Bergh, Jeroen
    The WWWforEurope research project proposes a comprehensive strategy to set Europe on a dynamic path to a socio-ecological transition. This part reports on the results of different models and presents research findings in the five areas which were inputs for part one "Synthesis". It is based on more than 160 new research papers, produced by 34 research groups cooperating in the project, but also on existing literature. (authors' abstract)

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